World by half the number of people

World leaders gatheredat the united nation to shape a broad vision to fight poverty in its manydimensions. They broke them in sustainable development goals which was laterchanged and called the millennium development goals MDGs. The MDGs have savedmillions and improved the conditions of many more.

The goals includeeradicating extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education,promote gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality, improvematernal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensure environmentalstability and finally develop global partnership for development.Despite many successes,the poorest and most vulnerable people are being left behind because of theirsex, age, disability, ethnicity or geographical locationMDG 2015.But withglobal action. Things will be turned around. This is the only path to ensurethat the development agenda leaves no one behind. A bold new agenda is emergingto transform the world to better meet human needs and the requirements ofeconomic transformation, while protecting the environment ensuring peace andrealizing human rights.MDG  2015Global poverty hasdeclined significantly over the past 20 years.

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The target of the MDGs is toreduce poverty by half the number of people living in extreme poverty. Thepoverty rate in the developing regions has decreased from 47% in 1992 to 14% in2015. All developing regions except sub-Saharan Africa had met the target ofreducing the number of people who live in extreme poverty by 2011. The world’smost populous countries china and India have played a central role in theglobal in the global reduction of povertyMDG 2015. Sub-Saharan Africa povertyrate started to reduce in 2002 but it remains to tag along far behind because ithas a number of countries such as Nigeria and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)with the highest number of people living in poverty.In Africa women sufferthe greater risk of living in poverty because of unequal access to paid work,lower earnings, lack of social protection and limited access to assetsincluding land and property hence living the vulnerable to povertyMDG 2015. Asthe global economy enters a new period slower growth widening inequalities andemployment is not expanding fast enough to keep up with the growing need of laborforce.

  According to the international labororganization ILO, Africa still has the largest number of unemployed people.Employment opportunities remain to be a challenge to both developing and developcountries. The employment situation in sub-Saharan Africa has slightly improvedbut progress in livelihood has been offset by persistently high underemploymentas well as lo labor productivityYouth especially youngwomen, continue to be affected limited employment and unemployment. The youth unemploymentis three times higher than the rate of adults this situation is evident in thenorthern Africa. MDG2015Although the MDGstargets to eliminate extreme poverty and hunger will be challenging. Many ofthe people suffering the most are the people living in fragile and remoteareas. Access to good schools, health care, electricity, safe water and othercritical services remains elusive for many people and it frequently determinesthe socioeconomic status, gender, ethnicity or geography.

MDG 2015Eradicatingpoverty and hunger remains at the core of the development agenda. The number of Africans livingbelow poverty increased even thou globally the poverty rate has dropped. In 1990the number of people living in poverty was 376 million but in 2010 the numberincreased to 414 million. Nigeria has a total of 25%, DRC 13%, Tanzania 6% and Ethiopia5%.

This is an indication that economic growth has failed to improve the livingcondition of people in Africa. This shows that the growth structure matters becauseit is vital for reducing povertyEffortsto combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, TB and other diseases in Africa have yielded impressiveresults since 1990. African countries have adopted WHO recommended programmes interventionssuch as using insecticides treated nets and antiretroviral medicines forHIV/AIDS. This has demonstrated high level of political commitment to combatingeach of the diseases. Africa carries the highest burden of HIV/AIDS, malaria,TB and other diseases.

The number of people living with HIV/AIDS has reduced inAfrica regions especially east Africa which has reduced by 46% while in north-Africait has remained constant at low level. Angola and Uganda has been worseningsituations and occurrence of new infections in countries such as Rwanda,Eritrea, and Botswana has registered a reduction of HIV/AIDS related deaths. Thishas been possible due to a number of factors including improvement of testing, cancellingand access to antiretroviral therapy; reduction of mother-child transmission,the increase of prevention through the use of condoms and the improvements ofgeneral awareness and knowledge of the diseases including a better understandingof the link between HIV/AIDS and TB.

Stigma continues to be a challenge to thenational response in the effort to eliminate HIV. There is need to educatepeople to avoid discriminating persons with HIV.Accordingto reports women are the most infected and living with the disease. This hasraised concerns on the number of children infected and other vulnerable groupssuch as young people and those affected during conflicts, disasters and displacement.Gender based violence and sexual abuse has been a factor increasing the spreadof HIV. The lack of access to education, health services and social protectionare likely to undermine the ability to protect them against HIV and to accessantiretroviral therapy.Engagingmen in the fight against HIV has also been proven to be productive in thereduction of these diseases.

UNAID has invested billions in AIDs response in Africaexcluding North Africa which come from domestic sources and internationalsources. HIV/AIDs can undermine human capital and productivity and hence becomea challenge to structural transformation that countries must address by allmeans possible. Africa has shown a downward trend in themalaria cases and death especially in North Africa for example in 2010 moroccowas declared a malaria free zone and in other African regions malaria hasreduced by 34%. The use of effective intervention has remained at the heart of Africato see the reduction of malaria.TBincidences and death rates have reduced from 2000. Central African Republic, Egypt,Eritrea, Ghana, Malawi, Niger, Rwanda and Uganda are some of the countriesexperiences highest reduction rate with more than 50%.

Some other countriessuch as Cameroon. South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland have had severalincidences of TB and have doubled since 1990. The changes and treatment of TBhas been successful through the use of Directly Observed Treatments DOTs. Thechallenges still remain due to TB and HIV/AIDs co-infection and occurrence ofmulti-drug resistant. The challenges must be addressed by focusing on at riskgroups including women, refugees, children and prisoners.Healthcrises cannot be avoided for example the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in December2013 which began in the rural guinea near the border of Sierra Leone and LiberiaMDG2015.In 2014 Ebola spread to urban areas and it was the first time the disease wascarried abroad by our travelers, highlighting the potential global risk of thedisease.

In the late 2014 Ebola was declared a public health emergency ofinternational concerns. The outbreak did not only affect the health sector butalso many aspects of development. The countries suffered from reduction ofagricultural production, food security, reduced wages, and investments by internationalcompanies.

MDG 2015The Ebola outbreak provided a lesson forstopping future epidemicsForestsserve multiple environmental, socio-economical and cultural roles in manycountries. They also play a role in global carbon cycle. A mojor concer had beenon human activities  toward forest growth,general forest health and the regeneration process.

Forest- areas arecontinuing and fast-decreasing might be a signal of unsustainable practices inthe forest and agricultural sector. The global rate of deforestation has slowedin the last decade. There is a need to develop and implement policies thatencourage the sustainable management of forests in order to provide a widerange of ozone depleting substances and services and that also contributes to povertyreduction and the development of rural communities.

MDG report 2015Africaaccounts for a small percentage of carbon dioxide co2 emitted each year. Libyaand other countries such as South Africa, Mauritius, emitted the most co2 whileLesotho emitted the lowest while DRC, Gabon, Mauritania, Rwanda reduced co2 emissions.Some other countries such as Angola, Nigeria, and Algeria registered asignificant increase.

Co2 emission leads a decomposition of organic soil, soil degradationand erosion. Climate change has serious negative effects on economic growth. Thereis a need to develop and improve local systems to allow for proper monitoringof co2 emissions. Increased investment in the field of renewable energy and thepromotion of resource efficient and cleaner production that is required tobring down the level of Co2 emission.

MostAfrican countries are on the track in the reduction of consumption of ozone depletingsubstances. Most Africans countries are part of the Montréal protocol which hasmade remarkable progress with respect to reduce their consumption of substancesthat deplete the Earth’s ozone layer. Despite the achievement made but countriessuch as Algeria, Djibouti, and Tanzania among others, some countries have experiencedan increase in ozone depleting substances such as Swaziland and central Africa republic.

This might be due World leaders gatheredat the united nation to shape a broad vision to fight poverty in its manydimensions. They broke them in sustainable development goals which was laterchanged and called the millennium development goals MDGs. The MDGs have savedmillions and improved the conditions of many more. The goals includeeradicating extreme poverty and hunger, achieve universal primary education,promote gender equality and empower women, reduce child mortality, improvematernal health, combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensure environmentalstability and finally develop global partnership for development.Despite many successes,the poorest and most vulnerable people are being left behind because of theirsex, age, disability, ethnicity or geographical locationMDG 2015.

But withglobal action. Things will be turned around. This is the only path to ensurethat the development agenda leaves no one behind. A bold new agenda is emergingto transform the world to better meet human needs and the requirements ofeconomic transformation, while protecting the environment ensuring peace andrealizing human rights.MDG  2015Global poverty hasdeclined significantly over the past 20 years. The target of the MDGs is toreduce poverty by half the number of people living in extreme poverty.

Thepoverty rate in the developing regions has decreased from 47% in 1992 to 14% in2015. All developing regions except sub-Saharan Africa had met the target ofreducing the number of people who live in extreme poverty by 2011. The world’smost populous countries china and India have played a central role in theglobal in the global reduction of povertyMDG 2015. Sub-Saharan Africa povertyrate started to reduce in 2002 but it remains to tag along far behind because ithas a number of countries such as Nigeria and Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)with the highest number of people living in poverty.In Africa women sufferthe greater risk of living in poverty because of unequal access to paid work,lower earnings, lack of social protection and limited access to assetsincluding land and property hence living the vulnerable to povertyMDG 2015. Asthe global economy enters a new period slower growth widening inequalities andemployment is not expanding fast enough to keep up with the growing need of laborforce.

  According to the international labororganization ILO, Africa still has the largest number of unemployed people.Employment opportunities remain to be a challenge to both developing and developcountries. The employment situation in sub-Saharan Africa has slightly improvedbut progress in livelihood has been offset by persistently high underemploymentas well as lo labor productivityYouth especially youngwomen, continue to be affected limited employment and unemployment.

The youth unemploymentis three times higher than the rate of adults this situation is evident in thenorthern Africa. MDG2015Although the MDGstargets to eliminate extreme poverty and hunger will be challenging. Many ofthe people suffering the most are the people living in fragile and remoteareas. Access to good schools, health care, electricity, safe water and othercritical services remains elusive for many people and it frequently determinesthe socioeconomic status, gender, ethnicity or geography. MDG 2015Eradicatingpoverty and hunger remains at the core of the development agenda. The number of Africans livingbelow poverty increased even thou globally the poverty rate has dropped. In 1990the number of people living in poverty was 376 million but in 2010 the numberincreased to 414 million. Nigeria has a total of 25%, DRC 13%, Tanzania 6% and Ethiopia5%.

This is an indication that economic growth has failed to improve the livingcondition of people in Africa. This shows that the growth structure matters becauseit is vital for reducing poverty.Effortsto combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, TB and other diseases in Africa have yielded impressiveresults since 1990. African countries have adopted WHO recommended programmes interventionssuch as using insecticides treated nets and antiretroviral medicines forHIV/AIDS. This has demonstrated high level of political commitment to combatingeach of the diseases. Africa carries the highest burden of HIV/AIDS, malaria,TB and other diseases.

The number of people living with HIV/AIDS has reduced inAfrica regions especially east Africa which has reduced by 46% while in north-Africait has remained constant at low level. Angola and Uganda has been worseningsituations and occurrence of new infections in countries such as Rwanda,Eritrea, and Botswana has registered a reduction of HIV/AIDS related deaths. Thishas been possible due to a number of factors including improvement of testing, cancellingand access to antiretroviral therapy; reduction of mother-child transmission,the increase of prevention through the use of condoms and the improvements ofgeneral awareness and knowledge of the diseases including a better understandingof the link between HIV/AIDS and TB. Stigma continues to be a challenge to thenational response in the effort to eliminate HIV. There is need to educatepeople to avoid discriminating persons with HIV.

Accordingto reports women are the most infected and living with the disease. This hasraised concerns on the number of children infected and other vulnerable groupssuch as young people and those affected during conflicts, disasters and displacement.Gender based violence and sexual abuse has been a factor increasing the spreadof HIV. The lack of access to education, health services and social protectionare likely to undermine the ability to protect them against HIV and to accessantiretroviral therapy.Engagingmen in the fight against HIV has also been proven to be productive in thereduction of these diseases. UNAID has invested billions in AIDs response in Africaexcluding North Africa which come from domestic sources and internationalsources.

HIV/AIDs can undermine human capital and productivity and hence becomea challenge to structural transformation that countries must address by allmeans possible. Africa has shown a downward trend in themalaria cases and death especially in North Africa for example in 2010 moroccowas declared a malaria free zone and in other African regions malaria hasreduced by 34%. The use of effective intervention has remained at the heart of Africato see the reduction of malaria.TBincidences and death rates have reduced from 2000. Central African Republic, Egypt,Eritrea, Ghana, Malawi, Niger, Rwanda and Uganda are some of the countriesexperiences highest reduction rate with more than 50%. Some other countriessuch as Cameroon.

South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland have had severalincidences of TB and have doubled since 1990. The changes and treatment of TBhas been successful through the use of Directly Observed Treatments DOTs. Thechallenges still remain due to TB and HIV/AIDs co-infection and occurrence ofmulti-drug resistant. The challenges must be addressed by focusing on at riskgroups including women, refugees, children and prisoners.Healthcrises cannot be avoided for example the Ebola outbreak in West Africa in December2013 which began in the rural guinea near the border of Sierra Leone and LiberiaMDG2015.In 2014 Ebola spread to urban areas and it was the first time the disease wascarried abroad by our travelers, highlighting the potential global risk of thedisease. In the late 2014 Ebola was declared a public health emergency ofinternational concerns.

The outbreak did not only affect the health sector butalso many aspects of development. The countries suffered from reduction ofagricultural production, food security, reduced wages, and investments by internationalcompanies. MDG 2015The Ebola outbreak provided a lesson forstopping future epidemics.Forestsserve multiple environmental, socio-economical and cultural roles in manycountries. They also play a role in global carbon cycle. A mojor concer had beenon human activities  toward forest growth,general forest health and the regeneration process.

Forest- areas arecontinuing and fast-decreasing might be a signal of unsustainable practices inthe forest and agricultural sector. The global rate of deforestation has slowedin the last decade. There is a need to develop and implement policies thatencourage the sustainable management of forests in order to provide a widerange of ozone depleting substances and services and that also contributes to povertyreduction and the development of rural communities. MDG report 2015Africaaccounts for a small percentage of carbon dioxide co2 emitted each year.

Libyaand other countries such as South Africa, Mauritius, emitted the most co2 whileLesotho emitted the lowest while DRC, Gabon, Mauritania, Rwanda reduced co2 emissions.Some other countries such as Angola, Nigeria, and Algeria registered asignificant increase. Co2 emission leads a decomposition of organic soil, soil degradationand erosion.

Climate change has serious negative effects on economic growth. Thereis a need to develop and improve local systems to allow for proper monitoringof co2 emissions. Increased investment in the field of renewable energy and thepromotion of resource efficient and cleaner production that is required tobring down the level of Co2 emission.MostAfrican countries are on the track in the reduction of consumption of ozone depletingsubstances. Most Africans countries are part of the Montréal protocol which hasmade remarkable progress with respect to reduce their consumption of substancesthat deplete the Earth’s ozone layer.

Despite the achievement made but countriessuch as Algeria, Djibouti, and Tanzania among others, some countries have experiencedan increase in ozone depleting substances such as Swaziland and central Africa republic.This might be due to the imports of Hydrochlorofluorocarbons HCFC equipment. ECA et al 2013Africancountries have also improved in the protection of terrestrial and marine areas suchNamibia, Congo, guinea Bissau and morocco. Also access to safe drinking water hasimproved but sanitation still a challenge.

The rural urban divide, lack of adequateinfrastructure and the poor sanitation on people living in slum further leads toslow progress especially in improving water supply.the imports of Hydrochlorofluorocarbons HCFC equipment. ECA et al 2013Africancountries have also improved in the protection of terrestrial and marine areas suchNamibia, Congo, guinea Bissau and morocco. Also access to safe drinking water hasimproved but sanitation still a challenge.

The rural urban divide, lack of adequateinfrastructure and the poor sanitation on people living in slum further leads toslow progress especially in improving water supply.

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