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Amplitude – the height of a wave from the origin to a crest, or from the origin to a trough. Atomic emission spectrum – a set of frequencies of electromagnetic waves given off by atoms of an element; consists of a series of fine lines of individual colors. Electromagnetic radiation – a form of energy exhibiting wavelike behavior as it travels through space; can be described by wavelength, frequency, amplitude, and speed. Electromagnetic spectrum – includes all forms of electromagnetic radiation; the types of radiation differ in their frequencies and wavelengths.Frequency – the number of waves that pass a given point per second. Photoelectric effect – a phenomenon in which photoelectrons are emitted from a metals surface when light of a certain frequency shines on the surface.

Photon – a particle of electromagnetic radiation with no mass that carries quantum of energy. Planck’s constant – 6. 626 x 10 ^-34 J x s. Where j is the symbol for the joules.

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Quantum – the minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom. Wavelength – the shortest distance between equivalent points on a continuous wave; is usually expressed in meters, centimeters, or nanometers.Atomic orbital – a three dimensional region around the nucleus of an atom that describes an electrons probable location.

De Broglie equation – predicts that all moving particles have wave characteristics and relates each particles wavelength to its frequency, its mass, and planks constant. Energy sublevel – the energy levels contained within a principle energy level. Ground state – the lowest allowable energy state of an atom. Heisenberg uncertainty principle – states that it is not possible to know precisely both the velocity and the position of a particle at the same time.Principle energy level –the major energy level of an atom. Principle quantum number – assigned by the quantum mechanical model to indicate the relative sizes and energy of atomic orbitals. Quantum mechanical model of the atom – an atomic model in which electrons are treated as waves; also called the wave mechanical model of the atom. Quantum number – the number assigned to each orbit of an electron.

Aufbau principal – states that each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital available. Electron configuration – the arrangement of electrons in an atom, which is prescribed, the Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hunds rule.Electron-dot structure – consists of an elements symbol representing the atom nucleus and inner level electrons that is surrounded by dots, representing the atoms valence electrons. Hunds rule – states that single electrons with the same spin must occupy each equal energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite can occupy the same orbitals. Pauli Exclusion Principle – states that a minimum of two electrons can occupy single atomic orbital but only if the electrons have opposite spins.

Valence electron – the electrons in an atoms outer most orbitals, determine the chemical properties of an element.


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