What Are Food Safety Management Systems Biology Essay
Martin Fischer one time said “ Dont forget that the spirits of vino and cheese depend upon the types of infecting micro-organisms. ” Flavours every bit good as some micro being nowadays in nutrient could impact wellness, i.e. nutrient could go one of the beginnings of many fatal diseases. One of those infecting microorganism is Listeria monocytogenes.
WHO estimates that foodborne and waterborne diarrhoeal diseases taken together kill about 2.2 million people yearly, 1.9 million of them kids ( WHO 2010 ) . Governments all over the universe are increasing their attempt to better nutrient safety, and transporting out scope of work to guarantee that our nutrient is safe to eat, and therefore they are implementing nutrient safety direction system such as HACCP in every nutrient fabrication company.
What are Food safety direction systems?Food safety directions systems are set of plans or guidelines which should be applied by nutrient companies or any organisation related to nutrient supply or nutrient ingestion. One of the of import aims of nutrient safety direction system is to guarantee that consumer is safe from any foodborne unwellness. Recently many serious eruptions of foodborne disease have been reported from every continent, which describe the important importance of these diseases in both the public wellness and societal sector.
“ Foodborne unwellness occurs when a individual consumes nutrient contaminated with infective bacteriums, viruses or parasites. This status is frequently called “ nutrient toxic condition ” ( Anon 2009 ) . The most common bacteriums which cause nutrient toxic condition are Campylobacter, Salmonella, E-coli O157, Listeria, Clostridium, Staphylococcus, Bacillus Cerus, etc. Listeria is more likely to do decease than any other bacteriums ; hence item survey on Listeria is required to command the eruption by taking some precautional steps which can assist to salvage many lives.
Listeria is a Gram-positive rod shaped bacteria. If we observe it under a microscope, Listeria species sometimes appear as gram positive rods arranged in short ironss. In vilifications they can be coccoid, hence they are normally mistaken for Streptococci, and longer cells resembles as Corneybacteria. There are many species of Listeria but merely Listeria monocytogenes is the major cause of Listeriosis. To separate Listeria monocytogenes from different species of Listeria, Haemolytic activity on blood agar can be used but still this method is non an absolute method of distinction ; farther biochemical checks may be necessary to separate between different Listeria species. ( Todar 2008 )
Categorization of Listeria Monocytogenes:
L MONOCYTOGENESListeria monocytogenes is a facultative anaerobic, motile ( 20-250C ) short gm positive rod of regular visual aspect, cells are 0.
5 – 2.0 Aµm in length and 0.4 – 0.
5Aµm in diameter. Optimum temperature of growing is 35-370 C but strains can exhibit broad growing temperature ranges from 1- 450 C. Majority of Listeria monocytogenes can last in cold temperatures hence they are normally grouped in “ psychrotropic spoilage bacteriums. ” It has besides been seen that Listeria can last minimal pasteurisation heat intervention.Glass and Doyle ( 1989 ) studied survival and growing of Listeria in scope of nutrients during storage at 40C for up to 12 hebdomads. Growth of L monocytogenes was best on sliced poulet and Meleagris gallopavo. Microbial count runing from 103 to 105 cfu/g was noticed in 4 hebdomads when compared with other nutrient points like Ham, which showed a count of 104 cfu/g in 6 hebdomads.
Based on this observation, the writer concluded that pH was the more important factor in finding growing forms. L monocytogenes either turn ill or non at all on merchandises that have pH less than 5. However, George et Al ( 1988 ) utilizing lab media instead than foodstuff ascertained that L monocytogenes were capable of booming between pH runing from 4.4 ( 200 C ) to 4.
6 ( 100 C ) and could non be sustained below a pH of 5.2 at 40 C. This suggests that the storage temperature is an of import factor in finding growing control with regard to the pH value ( Forsythe et al 1998 ) .
Listeriosis is a serious infection which is chiefly cause by eating nutrient contaminated with the bacteria Listeria monocytogenes.
The high hazard groups which are usually affected by Listeriosis include aged people, pregnant adult females, foetus of pregnant adult females, and people with weakened immune system. Listeriosis is a rare disease with a really high human death rate, doing about 43 per centum of the nutrient poisoning deceases in the United States. L monocytogenes can besides do grippe like symptoms in healthy persons if the infected nutrient contains big figure of Listeria settlements. In progress phases of the disease the topic might endure from meningitis, often accompanied by blood infection. In pregnant adult females, normally symptoms of mild grippes like unwellness may happen but infection can do serious consequence on the foetus which usually leads to abortion, still birth, bringing of acutely immune compromised baby ( CDC 2009 ) .
The morbific dosage for Listeria is really low. Even 100 to 1000 cells of Listeria can do infection. Harmonizing to Centre for Disease Control and Prevention ( CDC ) : “ The one-year incidence of Listeriosis decreased by 34 % between 1989 and 1993 ; an analysis of the incidence tendency from 1996 to 2006 revealed a 36 % diminution. However, eruptions continue to happen. In 2002, an eruption that resulted in 54 unwellnesss, 8 deceases, and 3 fatal deceases in 9 provinces was traced due to ingestion of contaminated Meleagris gallopavo meat. ” Harmonizing to WHO Listeriosis is considered the emerging nutrient borne disease because the function of nutrient in its transmittal has merely been late recognized.
Outbreaks of Listeriosis have been reported from many states, including UK, Australia, Switzerland, France, Canada and the United States.
2008 Canadian Listeriosis eruption
In July 2008 there was a major eruption of Listeriosis which was straight linked to deli meat supplied by “ Maple Leaf nutrients ” a major nutrient company in Canada. Harmonizing to “ The Public Health Agency of Canada ” the entire Numberss of deceases reported were 23, where Listeriosis was underlying or lending cause and 57 confirmed instances of Listeriosis were reported from different provinces of Canada. Ontario lab consequences have confirmed that Listeriosis was an implicit in or lending cause of decease during the eruption. It was reported that about 220 merchandises of Maple Leaf nutrient were contaminated ; each stamped with “ 97B ” near the best before day of the month and most of them were Deli meat. The following tabular array given by The Public Health Agency of Canada ( PHAC ) reflects the figure of confirmed instances and deceases where Listeriosis was the implicit in or lending cause.
( CDC 2009 )
Deaths where Listeriosis was the implicit in or lending cause
Deli meat are besides called every bit ready to eat meat ( RTE ) which are in signifier that is comestible to eat without any extra processing to accomplish nutrient safety and may necessitate extra readying for palatableness, aesthetic and culinary intents
HACCP IN DELI MEAT PROCESSING Industry:
The deli meat production involves two major Procedures Upstream procedure and Downstream procedure. If the conventional definition of critical control point is considered, so the preparatory stairss where animate being is slaughter can non be consider as CCP ‘s. But Gill et Al ( 1997 ) have suggested that overall hygienic quality of cooked meat can be improved merely if we improve the hygienic quality of natural meat. To understate the hazard of taint all upstream procedures should use CCP ‘s, with particular accent on stairss at which Listeria could come in from animate being onto meat.
From managing of natural meat to distribution of cooked meat there are assorted procedure at which Listeria can do taint, hence excess attention should be taken to avoid Listeria taint at those stairss. NACMCF ( 1993 ) has proposed seven Critical Control Points which should be implemented during upstream procedures for commanding and understating the hazard of taint. These stairss include clambering, post-skinning, evisceration, concluding lavation, cooling, storage, and labelling. The elements of hygiene will differ harmonizing to the type of processing.
There will be important difference between hygiene criterion required in works fabrication cooked meat and hygienic criterion required in a topographic point where animate beings are slaughter.Before implementing HACCP in deli meat industry there are certain PRP ‘s which are really of import and should be purely followed.To place Critical Control Points at each procedure stairss Codex Decision tree can be utile, which consist of some questionnaire by which we can make up one’s mind whether to use CCP or PRP at that peculiar measure.
The first measure before implementing HACCP program is to develop a flow sheet diagram for the production of deli meat. Flow sheet diagram will supply clear, simple lineation of the procedures involved in production of deli meat.
Flow sheet diagram for the Production of Deli meat
Arrival of animate being & A ; keeping
Upstream processingWashing/Chemical rinseStuning & A ; ExsanguinationsEviscerationSteam pasteurisationCarcase fabrication/GrindingEmulsifyingCuring/SmokingCookingDownstream processingVacuum packagingAseptic PackagingStorageConsumerProper LabelingThe HACCP squad should execute onsite review of all the procedures to verify the preciseness and completeness of flow diagram. Once those initial undertakings are completed, so HACCP squad can implement HACCP program in deli meat production which should give certain critical control points at stairss where control actions are necessary to avoid Listeria taint.
As the production consist of two major procedures, HACCP analysis is done individually for both the procedures.HACCP ANALYSIS FOR UPSTREAM PROCESS IN DELI MEAT PRODUCTION:
Listeria monocytogenesPresent on tegument of animate beingUse of chemicalsNOLikely to be presentModerateImportantYes
Listeria monocytogenesPathogen left after clamberingTemp up to 75°CYes
Evisceration /removal of unwanted organic structure parts
Listeria monocytogenesConatami state by individual or objectSterilization /sanitation programmeYes
Listeria monocytogenesCross taintSteam pasteurisationNOLikelyCatastrophicMost of import measureYes
Listeria monocytogenesListeria growingKeep the temp.below 4°CNOLikelyCatastrophicImportantYesHACCP STUDY FOR MEAT PROCESSING PLANT
Listeria monocytogenesChemical dehairingUse of chemicals to take pathogensDehairing with minimal microbic burdenMinimum microbic burdenValidate by microbiological trialsRegular trial should be conducted. All the tegument should be removed
Listeria monocytogenesSteam pasteurisationHot H2O sprayingTemperature of hot H2O should be more than 75°C& gt ; 100cfu/gValidated by Calibrated thermometerProper observation of temperature log
Listeria monocytogenesRefrigerationMaintain below 4°C & A ; less storage clipTemperature should stay 4°CAbsence in 25 gValidated by graduated thermometerProper observation of temperature every hebdomad
The HACCP squad should name supervising officer at every CCP ‘s in instance if any divergence occurs at certain measure than that officer could inform to staff that is trained in HACCP and responsible for that procedure. As the production of meat starts with aggregation of animate being the works operator should buy the animate beings use for meat processing from certified provider who is using certain hygienic regulations in footings of installations, herd direction and conveyance of animate being.
In add-on it is of import to hold some records from the provider which states the nature and beginning of animate being provender used, veterinary medicative drugs or other intervention administered to animal, happening of any disease that may impact safety of merchandise. This information should be available and checked by competent governments when animate being enters the abattoir. From above tabular array it can be observed that there are certain pre-requisite programmes that should be implemented to understate the hazard of Listeria taint. Before implementing control actions at assorted critical control points works operators should follow certain PRP ‘s which could include good hygienic patterns. For good sanitation programme it is ever better to split the sanitation programme into separate plans.Personal hygiene: All employees should be trained for good hygienic patterns. All employees and other individuals who enter and work in fabrication works must follow rigorous sanitation programme and regular medical scrutiny of all the employees should be carried out every month.
Pre-operational sanitation: Prior to get down of day-to-day operation it should be guarantee that all the equipments used for cutting or processing of natural meat should be sanitized decently.Operational sanitation: During treating all healthful patterns should be followed purely. High hazard country should be separated from low hazard country and proper conveyance of bringings from low hazard to high hazard country should be control.Care: Every month preventative care and proper agenda should be set up and documented. Cleaning of premises every hebdomadWater quality: Water usage for assorted procedures should be free from any taint i.e. sterilised H2O should be used.
Proper disposal of waste.
Control actions that can be implemented at assorted CCP ‘s
Slaughter lines must be designed such that it can let uninterrupted or changeless advancement of slaughter procedure and which can diminish the rate of cross taint in slaughter line.There should be separate suites for emptying and cleansing of tummies and bowel of animate beings.It should be ascertained that there is separation of clip and infinite in between stunning, hemorrhage, evisceration and farther skinning procedure.Washing of concluding carcase is an of import measure since steam pasteurisation could kill most of the microbic burden present onto meat.
Temperature of hot H2O should be maintained.Storage of natural meat is considered to be one of the most critical stairss.Storage temperature should be maintain around 4°C and it should be ensured that natural meat is sent for farther processing and it should non be stored for longer clip.
In downstream processing HACCP plays a critical function in diminishing the microbic burden onto the meat and guaranting that the processed meat is safe to eat. Downstream treating includes stairss which cut down or restrict the growing of Listeria if these stairss are analysed in HACCP we can easy place the Critical control points at those stairss and hazard riddance or control actions will guarantee cut down figure of Listeria in meat or even extinguishing the hazard of taint by Listeria.
Due to initial microbic burden
Processing of natural meat utilizing salt
Likely to be present
Temp up to 750C
Most of import
Conatami state by individual or packaging line
Sterilization /sanitation programme
Contamination due to old batch
Storage at temp.
Most of import measure
Growth of Listeria
Keep the temp below 40C/proper packaging
-HAACP STUDY IN DOWNSTREAM PROCESS OF DELI MEAT PRODUCTION:
Listeria monocytogenesUsing salt or nitrite solution/Curing ingredientsUsing salt to continue the meat from ListeriaCoating of salt or nitrite to understate the H2O activity pH should be 5.2& gt ; 100cfu/gRefer to the scientific information available and calibrated pH metreProper supervising and pH metre.
Listeria monocytogenesOven cooking/Steam cookeryProperly cookedTemperature should be more than 75C& gt ; 100cfu/gValidated by graduated thermocouplesProper temperature thermocouples
Listeria monocytogenesRefrigerationMaintain below 4CTemperature should stay 4C and pH 5.2Absence in 25 gValidated by graduated thermocouples and pH metreProper thermocouples and pH metre
Design of works should be such that natural meat managing country should be at a distance from cooked meat managing country which can cut down the hazard of cross taintTo understate the hazard, all readying stairss should use GMP degree of hygiene with particular accent on stairss at which Listeria can come in onto meat.Hardening of meat with certain herbs which can forestall the growing of Listeria and increase the shelf life of cook meat.
If the H2O activity of meat is between 0.92-0.95 so pH should be reduced to 5.1-5.2.Ensure meat, peculiarly in instance of poulet that it is heated to minimal temperature of 75°C.Aseptic packaging or vacuity packaging to avoid cross taint.
Boxing subdivision should be considered as high attention unit.Labeling is besides one of the of import stairss in production of processed meat. Consumer should be given proper direction related to storage and handling of processed meat. Proper labelling should besides include day of the month of fabrication day of the month boulder clay which merchandise could be used one time its unfastened and list of ingredients.Proper distribution in good refrigerated transit for keeping the given temperature to assorted retail stores.Proper certification maintaining all the records including lab analysis sheets for the audits.
If there is any divergence so disciplinary action may includes destructing merchandise, keeping merchandise and proving it, and remembering merchandise if it ‘s already in commercialism.HACCP Verification and Documentation Every month company should transport out audits to guarantee that HACCP program is working expeditiously. An audit checklist depends upon the seven rules of HACCP which has been use to pull up HACCP program. Confirmation ensures that HACCP program is equal and working as intented.Verification includes activities such as reappraisal of HACCP program, CCP records, and reappraisal of microbic lab analysis sheets.
Every CCP records lab sheets should be good documented and it should be user friendly and easy accessible. Every paperss of HACCP should includeTitle of the papersProduct description.Ingredients used and equipment.Critical bound.Corrective actions.Responsible forces.
Signature of employee and supervisor.Deviation: Deviation occurs when one of the critical bound at certain critical control point is non met right or divergence besides means when effectual monitoring is non done decently if divergence occurs so it means that merchandise could be insecure for consumers therefore following disciplinary activities can be done.Identifying and extinguishing the divergence.Guaranting CCP is back under control after disciplinary action is taken.Guaranting that divergence does non happen once more.Ensure that no insecure merchandises enter in market.Proper certification is of import in instance of divergence.
Due to globalisation and increased global distribution of nutrient merchandises, nutrient safety should necessitate increased attending all over the universe. Since “ bar is better than Remedy ” , it is really of import that we make certain that the meat we eat is safe from Listeria, as meat is general nutrient merchandise which can be consume by high hazard group who are largely affected by listeria.It should be ensured that there is proper execution of HACCP. Every Meat processing industry and nutrient processing industry should implement HACCP which will cut down the human death rate due to Listeria. The tragic event in Canada has taught lessons to the full nutrient authorities bureau and now they are guaranting that similar events ne’er happen once more.