Water Water is the earths most important
Waterremediation is the process by which you are ridding the water supply of varioustypes of contaminants, making the water is fit for human consumption and use (Clark, 2013).
In addition torendering the water safe for humans, the process of remediation also seeks tomake sure that the residue removed from the water is disposed of in a mannerthat minimizes the negative impact on the environment (N.F.Gray, 2008). The safety of drinking water isdetermined by assessing compliance with the requirements of the drinking waterquality standards (Dararagh Page, 2007-2008)There is a major water quality crisisacross the world and many factors are responsible for a continuous deteriorationof water quality. These include rapid population growth, massive industrialisation,and widespread urbanization (Clark, 2013). Water is the earthsmost important and essential component of the universe, it is an invaluablecomponent as it plays a role in the proper functioning of the Earths ecosystem.The water supply industry is vitally important not only to maintain the healthof the community, but for the sustainability of industry, business and ofcourse agriculture.
Water demand varies significantly between countries due todifferences in culture, climate, and economic wealth (N.F.Gray, 2008).As vital as water is, safe drinkingwater is unavailable in many parts of the world. Worldwide, the need for drinkablewater is increasing while the supply is decreasing. In many places the water isvery scarce, but in other areas there is plenty of water which is not drinkable(Clark, 2013). The production ofwaste from human activities has to be treated and disposed of efficiently inorder to sustain the quality of our ecosystems (Treacy, 2015).Water resources are being contaminated and is causing the quality of waterresources to deteriorate exponentially.
It is estimated that 1.2 billion peopleare forced to drink unclean water due to the shortage of affordable pure water (Unicef, 2006). 5 million people ayear, mainly children, die as a result of water-related diseases.
This uncleanwater is due to the human race polluting the water supply to the point where wemust purify water so as it is safe to drink. Rain used to be nature’s way ofproviding fresh water for us, unfortunately in recent times the rain iscontaminated with various pollutants that we have added to our atmospherethrough our everyday doings. Water rapidly absorbs both natural and man-madesubstances, in general this makes the water unsuitable for drinking andrequires some form of treatment. The problem does not seem to be getting anybetter- the UN estimates that 2.7 billion people will suffer water shortage by2025 (Ahuja, 2013).The need of its quality improvement and preservation is growing continuallybecause of the importance of water.
By 2020, the global population is supposedto reach up to 7.9 billion and because of this the world may be under greatfresh water scarcity (V.K. Gupta, 2012). The realization of high drinkingwater quality requires integrated control measures at all points along thesupply chain starting with catchment management and the protection of waterresources, throughout treatment, storage and distribution, as well as the homeplumbing system. Therefore maintaining high quality drinking water is veryexpensive, and may at times be unnecessary where no threat to human health hasbeen identified. Thus, drinking water standards must be a compromise betweencost and risk to both consumers and the environment.
Although water scarcityand sustaining the increasingly high levels of demand may compromise standards,which must be realistic and achievable under local operating conditions. Entericpathogens and hazardous chemicals are the contaminants most associated withdrinking water. (N.
F.Gray, 2008) The contaminants and pathogens whichare associated with drinking water are very diverse in terms of their healtheffects, the time in which it takes for symptoms to develop and those who areat risk. The effects can range in severity from minor conditions such as dentalfluorosis to extremely severe life-threatening conditions which include birthdefects and cancer.