This lab study analyses the findings of two of import trials. These are microbiological analysis of piss on CLED agar home base ( urine civilization ) and biochemical analysis of piss ( uranalysis ) . Urine civilization trial examined urine sample cultured on cystine-lactose-electrolyte deficient agar home base for any possible bacterial growing after the incubation period. Gram positive or gram negative bacteriums growing can be found or non. However the presence of 10 settlements of each in this experiment which were E. coli and S. aureus bacteriums indicated either possible taint of the urine sample or infection of the urinary piece of land by assorted disease and upsets of the urinal piece of land.
The biochemical analysis of piss was besides done where by the sample urine both positive and negative controls were subjected to trials for presence of different components non usually found in normal urine utilizing trial strip with absorptive tablets capable of proving different components by observation of colour alteration. Presence of unexpected urine components indicates infection of the urinal piece of land and sometimes certain diseases, upsets and nutrition instability.
Urinalysis which is besides termed as biochemical analysis of piss is a biochemical trial on urine sample intentionally meant to help in diagnosing of a broad scope of urinary piece of land diseases. Examples of such diseases include high urinary glucose degrees in people enduring from diabetes, high ketone organic structures degrees in piss in state of affairss of ketunia among other urinary upsets. Urine is besides capable to immunological analysis and these trials are the 1s used to observe gestation ( Carricajo, 1999 ) .
Microbiological analysis of piss besides termed as urine civilization is a microbic trial responsible for sensing of infective bugs capable of doing urinal piece of land diseases and upsets ( Martinko, 2005 ) . The numbering of such bugs for our instance is by usage of cysteine-lactose and electrolyte-deficient agar largely abbreviated as CLED agar. However other types of agar media that can be used alternatively of CLED agar include blood agar and MacConkey agar. CLED agar medium is a non selective medium which is able to back up growing of many pathogens found in the urinary piece of land and has the ability to give a clear distinction of such pathogen ‘s settlements with lower limit or no proteus species spread ( Kee, 2001 ) .
For biochemical analysis of piss, both positive and negative control samples of piss were conducted by rigorous followers of the instructions by the maker. A trial strip observing eight different substances was dipped into the urine sample, so the strip was taken out and the excess piss was removed by pass overing the border of the strip to the interior side of the tubing. The colour of the tablets on the strip was observed for any alterations and the tablets were read in the way of the pointer and within the clip given in the container. The reading was recorded and the trial was repeated for a negative control urine sample ( Clarridge, 1998 ) .
For the urine civilization trial, the cysteine-lactose and electrolyte-deficient agar medium was prepared harmonizing to the instructions provided on the label by the maker by first weighing accurately and fade outing in appropriate sum of distilled H2O. Sterilization of the media was so conducted at 121 grades Celsius for 15 proceedingss in an sterilizer ( Nunez, 1995 ) . The sterilised media was the poured on to several sterilised home base for hardening and this was done on a clean and unfertile microbiology working bench. After obtaining the urine sample for microbic analysis, the sample was assorted gently to avoid foaming and the terminal of a unfertile 10 micro-liter calibrated cringle was dipped in the urine sample to merely below the surface and was removed vertically. Then the volume of piss within the graduated cringle was inoculated over the full surface of CLED agar home base, which was so incubated in ambient air overnight at 37 degree Celsius ( Chernecky, 2001 ) .
For the urine civilization trial, this examined a urine sample cultured on cystine-lactose- electrolyte deficient agar home base for any possible bacterial growing after the incubation period of 24-48hours. Urine civilization was positive with two bacterial species growing observed harmonizing to the typical colonial morphology and colourss on the CLED agar home base. A count of 10 settlements of Gram negative bacteriums E.Coli were recorded A on the CLED home base every bit good as A 10 settlements of gm positive S.aureus. The figure of settlement from each bacterial species isolated on the agar home base was so multiplied by the dilution factor of 1.000.000 to obtain a denseness of 10.000.000 CFU/L of piss.
For uranalysis, a trial that enables us observe unnatural components of urine such as glucose, protein, ketones organic structures, blood and bile pigment, the positive control urine trial consequences showed abnormalcies in its components by the presence leukocytes, blood, nitrites, proteins and ketones organic structures in the sample compared to the negative control piss which showed normal consequences in its components.
Discussion of the consequences
Urine is a by merchandise and it is produced in the kidneys and so into the urinary vesica where it accumulates till adequate stretching of the vesica walls is achieved which leads to its release via the urethra. Urinalysis is really of import to find whether the piss is normal or if it is from unhealthy single since it contains different scopes of waste merchandises which should be present in normal urine and others which are non expected in normal urine therefore there presence indicates certain diseases and upsets. Urinalysis gives us a clear indicant of the internal biochemical procedures of the patient under trial. Harmonizing to this experiment, the presence of leucocytes, blood, nitrites, proteins and ketones organic structures in the positive control urine sample indicated the followers. Presence of leucocytes indicates shows us that the urinary piece of land from which the piss was obtained was infected and this is apparent due to sensing of esterase enzyme which is usually absent is normal urine. This indicates that this sample of piss should be subjected to farther trials like civilization trial, sensitiveness and even microscopy ( Kouri, T. ( 2000 ) .
Healthy persons do non incorporate ketone organic structures in their piss. Therefore presence of ketone organic structures in the urine sample tested indicates that the person was deprived of saccharides since ketones and propanones are really the by-products of metamorphosis of the fat. This shows that the persons was either enduring from diabetes mellitus or he single was missing saccharides since both of them are possible causes of presence of ketones and propanones in the piss. When piss is detected to hold blood, it indicates a status known as haematuria. Sometimes the blood may non be seeable to our bare eyes and this is called microscopic haematurias while sometimes the blood discolorations are seeable to our eyes and this is known as blunt haematuria. Many nephritic conditions exhibit this status of henaturia. “ These include renal, urethral and ureteric concretion, acute Bright’s disease, malignant papiloma, nephritic ca, and chronic kidney diseases and sometimes the disposal of sulfa drugs or decoagulants may do haematuria ” ( Wallach, 2000, p. 26 ) . The salt of azotic acid is known as nitrate. So when the piss tests positive of nitrates, it indicates steadfastly that the urinary piece of land is infected and perchance by bacteriuria which is an indicant of pyelonephritis, cystitis and sometimes urethritis upsets. But sine the 2nd sample of piss did non demo any of this components, it indicates that the urine came from a healthy persons. However other unsafe components that should non be found in normal urine include urobinogen, glucose, Bilirubin, stercobilinogen among others ( Henry, 20005 ) .
In the instance of urine civilization trial, E. coli is a bacterium that is frequently found in the intestine and it is harmless unless it if finds its manner to incorrect locale of the organic structure like the vesica. Therefore presence of these bacteriums which is a gram positive bacteria detected by pinkish colour on the home bases and S. aureus which is a gram negative bacteriums indicated by bluish or violet colour on the home base indicated that the individual from which the piss was obtained from might be enduring from urinal piece of land infections largely the vesica infections. It might besides bespeak taint of the urine sample as the consequences obtained suggests a likely taint as two bacterial species were isolated and there was no predomination between the two of them ( Aspevall, 2000 ) .
In decision, these trial consequences were expected and important in both urine civilization and uranalysis. Urine civilization on CLED agar home base was really utile for the growing and numbering of gm positive and gram negative urinary piece of land micro-organisms while uranalysis was every bit indispensable for supplying critical information to help in diagnosing, monitoring and intervention of broad scope of diseases.