United States and Iraq Become Enemies Essay
In the beginning stages of the Cold War, Truman and Eisenhower administrations thought it would be a good idea to keeping a closer watch on the Soviet Union. The administrations saw that if alliances were made in the Middle East, they could help stop the spread of communism and a more powerful anti-Soviet alliance could be formed. With the Middle East on our side not only could the United States feel a little bit safer from the USSR, but the States could also control the very large oil deposits found in the Middle East, one of which is found in the country currently known as Iraq.Iraq was created by Great Britain at the end of World War I; it was the former Ottoman Empire. Great Britain, seeing an opportunity to have some control, appointed a king of Iraq that was that was an ally of Great Britain. In 1958, military officers were able to overpower the current western government, and establish a republic government. The major goals of the republic were to gain control of the oil resources in the country by taking it away from the United States and Great Britain.
The republic was able to remain in control for about ten years until there was a successful led by the Ba’thist, which until recently was led by Saddam Hussein. The United States wanted to have some sort of control of Iraq and its oil supply. The U. S began to post posters and brochures all over the Middle East. In Iraq, shops, schools, and other public locations had anti-communism posters. Iraq not only saw the posters, but also received the anti-communist material in the mail, from film units, as well as religious leaders.During the early 1950’s Iraq and the United States worked together in trying to stop the spread of communism. The Soviets realized the interest that the United States had in the oil in Iraq and used this weakness against the United States.
“The United States saw the potential for all the oil that was located in the Middle East, Iraq included. A U. S. State Department referred to this oil as “a stupendous source of strategic power, and one of the greatest material prizes in world history. ” in 1944 United States President Theodore Roosevelt told a British Ambassador, “Persian oil is yours.We share oil in Iraq and Kuwait. As for Saudi Arabian oil, it’s ours.
” In 1959, the United States backed an attempted assassination attempt of the new Iraqi ruler Abdul Karim Qassim. The U. S. was hoping to gain more control of the oil supply in Iraq.
The U. S. also wanted Karim Qassim assassinated because he restored relations with the Soviet Union and allowed the Iraq Communist Party reform. The assassination on Karim Qassim was unsuccessful. In 1963 The United States backs the Ba’ath party on another attempt on Abdul Karim Qassim life.This time the attempt is successful and Abdul Salam Arif becomes the leader of Iraq.
Soon after the U. S. backed the Ba’ath party assignation Saddam Hussein becomes the leader of the Ba’ath Party.
In 1966 Abdul Salam Arif dies in a helicopter crash and his brother Abdul Rahman Arif took over power in Iraq. In 1968 he dies as well and Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr becomes the newest president of Iraq. After taking control, al-Bakr quickly loosens the ties with the United States, and joins sides with the Soviet Union.
This of course threw created an issue in the Iraqi- United States relations.After the United States had spent millions of dollars in Iraq attempting to keep the Soviets ideals out, the newest president of Iraq throws all of the U. S efforts out the and moves to the side of the communist Soviets. In the 1970s Iran and Iraq were having a border dispute over oil.
The United States backed the Iraqi Kurdish rebels. The U. S.
supported the Kurdish because they wanted to help strengthen Iran and weaken the Iraqi regime. After the U. S. gives support to the Kurdish rebels, they settle their dispute.
Then the U. S. withdraws they’re support and doesn’t supply refuge in Iran.Many Kurds are killed by Iraqi government. In 1979 Saddam Hussein, took power of the country of Iraq. In 1980 Saddam Hussein declares war on Iran, at this time was an enemy of the United States. The United States then becomes allies with Iraq again and The United States then sends large amounts of money and weapons to Hussein for the war against Iran.
However the relations between Iraq and the United States changed forever in August 1990 when Iraqi troops invaded Kuwait. After American troops were in the Middle East for six months, the United States launches a battle against Iraq.The United States attacks Iraqi military targets for 42 days. On February 24th, the United States started the 100-hour war.
100 hours was all it took for ground troops to drive the Iraqi’s out of Kuwait and back into Iraq. Throughout the entire war, between 100,000 and 200,000 Iraqis were killed at war. Relations between United States and the Iraq were no longer on the friendly level any more.BibliographyBuzzanco, Robert. “How did Iraq and United States become Enemies? ” Vietnam and the Transformation of American Life: http:// hnn. us/articles/1066. html