Understand Humanistic Theories Learning Theory Humanistic Essay
The emergence of humanistic learning theory can not be separated from the movement of humanistic education that focuses on affective outcomes, learning about how to learn and learning to enhance creativity and human potential. This humanistic approach emerged as a form of disapproval on two previous views, the views of psychoanalysis and behavioristik in explaining human behavior. Disagreement is based on the assumption that the views of psychoanalysis too pessimistic outlook bleak and despair while behavioristik considered too rigid (mechanistic), passive, static and tractable in describing human.
II. UNDERSTANDING LEARNING BY humanistic theories According to the theory of humanistic study should be initiated and directed for the benefit humanize humans. Humanistic learning theory and more abstract nature study of philosophy. This theory is more talk about concepts.
In humanistic learning theory, learning is a process that begins and is intended for the benefit of humanizing mankind. Humanize humans, ie, to achieve self-actualization, self-understanding and self-realization of people learn optimally.Dal this, then this humanistic theory is eclectic (harness / summarizes all any theory in order to humanize humans). One of the important ideas in the theory of humanistic learning is that students should have the ability to direct their own learning behavior (self-regulated learning), what will be learned and to what extent, when and how they will learn. Students studying directing at the same time motivating yourself to learn rather than just being passive recipients in the learning process. Students also learn to assess the usefulness of studying it for himself.
Flow humanistic view of learning as a process that occurs in an individual that involve all or part of an existing domain that includes the domain of cognitive, affective and psychomotor. In other words, humanistic approach emphasizes the importance of emotions or feelings, open communication, and values ?? held by each student. To that end, humanistic learning method leads to an effort to hone the students human values. Teachers, therefore, advisable to emphasize the values ?? of cooperation, mutual aid, and benefit, honesty and creativity to be applied in the learning process.
I. SOME VIEWS . VIEWS KOLB (Experiential Learning Theory) The theory was developed by David Kolb in the early 1980’s.
In theory, Kolb defines learning as the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. Knowledge is considered as a combination of understanding and transforming experience. Experiential Theory Learning later became the basis of a model of learning that emphasizes experiential learning in a holistic model of learning in the learning process. Experience then have a central role in the learning process. Furthermore, Kolb learning divide into 4 stages: ) Stage practice of concrete (Concrete Experience) It is the very early stage, the person experiences an event as it is (just feel, look, and retelling the events. ) In this stage, a person do not have awareness about the nature of the event, what actually happened, and why it happened. 2) Phase Active and Reflective Experiences (Observation Reflection) At this stage there have been observations of events experienced, looking for answers, implement reflection, developing questions how it happened, and why it happened. 3) Conceptualization Phase (Abstract Conseptualization)At this stage one has attempted to create an abstraction, developed a theory, concepts, procedures about something that is the object of attention.
4) Active Experimentation Phase (Active Experimentation) At this stage there is an active effort to experiment, and are able to apply concepts, theories into real situations. Basically, these stages take place outside of awareness a learner, (just happened). Experiential Learning is a learning model that really notice the difference or uniqueness of the student, so the model has a goal to accommodate differences and the uniqueness of each individual.By observing the learning style inventory (learning style inventory) are developed for individual students, David Kolb’s learning styles classified into four categories as follows: a. Converger This type prefer to learn when faced with questions that have specific answers. People with this type are not emotional and objects rather than human faces.
They are interested in the natural sciences and engineering. b. Diverger This type of variety in terms of looking at something and then link it into a unified whole.
People with this type prefer to connect with people. hey prefer to explore the language, literature, history and other social sciences. c. Assimilation This type is more interested in abstract concepts.
People with this type is not too much attention from the practical application of their ideas. Field of study of interest is the field of science (science) and mathematics. d. Accomodator This type is interested of development concept. People with this type of interest in things that are concrete and experimentation. Field of study is appropriate for this type of business field and jobs, while the corresponding techniques such as sales and marketing.Of the four forces, does not mean people should be permanently classified in each category.
According to Kolb, learning is a progression through three phases, namely, the collection of knowledge (acquisition), focusing attention on a particular field (specialization) and take an interest in the less desirable areas of interest and hence the new purpose. Thus, although at an early stage individuals are more dominant in a particular learning style, but in the process of development would allow them to integrate all the categories studied. 2.HONEY AND VIEWS Mumford The view of the Honey and Mumford learning much influenced by Kolb. They then learn to classify people into four groups, namely: 1) activist groups Characteristics: § Good to get involved and participate in an activity for a new meperoleh § Easy encouraged dialogue § Having an open mind § Respect the opinions of others § Easy to believe in others § Less careful consideration in their stride.
2) Group reflector Characteristics: § Be very careful and full consideration in making decisions § Not easily influenced by other people Tends to be conservative 3) Group theorist: Characteristics: § Very Critical § Likes to analyze § Always thinking rationally by using reasoning § All things being on the theory and concepts § Do not like opinions / judgments of subjective § Do not like things that are speculative § Have a strong stance § Not easily influenced by other people 4) Group pragmatic Characteristics: § Practical, do not like to beat around the bush with a theory / concept § Something useful that can be applied / practicable for human life 3. VIEWS HabermasAccording to Habermas, the learning process occurs when the interaction between the individual and his environment, both natural and social environments. There are three types of learning: 1) Technique (tehnical Learning) That person can learn how to interact with the natural environment correctly. One must master the knowledge and skills to be able to control and manage the environment with this natural science . Dal indispensable. 2) Practical Learning (Practical Learning) That person can learn how to interact with the social environment (the people that is around) as well.
The field of sociology, communication, psychology, anthropology and seenisnya sangtlah needed for practical learning. However, by no means neglected the natural environment. 3) Learning emancipatory (Emancipatory Learning) Learning emancipatory emphasis on a person reaches an understanding and awareness of the high culture of change or transformation in the social environment. Sciences related to language and culture is needed. This stage by Habermas is considered the highest stage of learning, for cultural transformation is the highest educational goals. 4.
BLOOM AND VIEWS KrathwohlThis view focuses on what should be controlled by the individual (as a study destination) after the learning event. Learning objectives have been summarized in three areas called Bloom’s Taxonomy, namely: 1) Cognitive Domain, consists of 6 levels, namely: a. Knowledge (remembering, memorizing) b.
Understanding (interpreting) c. Applications (using concepts to solve problems) d. Analysis (describing a concept) e. Synthesis (draft combine parts into a whole concept) f.
Evaluation (to compare values ?? – the values, ideas, methods, etc. ) 2) Psychomotor Domain, consists of 5 levels: a.Imitation (mimicking the motion) b. Usage (using the concept to make the motion) c. Accuracy (in moving to the right) d. Coupling (as well as doing some movements correctly) e. Naturalization (doing motion naturally) 3) affective domain, consisting of five levels: a.
Introduction (to accept, aware of something) b. Responding (active participation) c. Awards (received values, loyal to certain values) d.
Organizing (linking the value of his own beliefs) e. Practice (to make the values ?? as part of the pattern of his life) II. CONCLUSION Humanistic theory is able to provide direction to all components of learning.
All components of education is directed to the formation of the ideal man, the man that can achieve self-actualization. Someone will be able to learn well if you have an understanding / comprehension of him. Humanistic theory is helpful in understanding the way educators learn. Educators must consider how the development of learners in self-actualization. Emotional experience, and individual characteristics should be considered in order to lesson planning. According to this theory, so that meaningful learning for students, necessary initiatives and the full involvement of the students themselves.