Types Of Business Activities And Business Organizations Commerce Essay

Exclusive Trader-ship is the most crude signifier of concern organisation.

A concern organisation owned and managed by merely one individual, holding full portion of net income and responsible for all the losingss of the organisation is called exclusive trader-ship. Due to some of exclusive trader-ship the restrictions including limited capital, limited range of concern and short-life a demand for a new organisation was felt. Thus a new concern organisation evolved that is known as partnership. In a partnership two or more individuals pool together their resources to organize the partnership concern. The partnership combined fiscal resources, mental resources, and experience of spouse for the success of the concern endeavor.

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The regulations and ordinance that governs the partnership concern is called partnership contract. The contract is the bye-laws of concern and specifies the nature of the concern, spouse ‘s capital, net income and loss ratios and assorted footings and conditions associating to the concern.Limited fiscal resources, limitless liability and limited life of the partnership are cited as the curious demerits of the partnership, therefore a demand have been felt for a new organisation that do non hold the abovementioned demerits.

A new type of concern evolved after the industrial revolution called Joint Stock Company ( Corporation in USA ) . A joint stock company is a concern organisation that is an unreal individual, holding ageless being and common seal with movable portions, and separation of direction from stockholders. This type of concern attempts to extinguish the demerits associated with sole-trader-ship and partnership ( limited capital, limited life, and limitless liability ) plus it provides professional direction of the company personal businesss through separation of ownership and direction. The proprietor of the endeavor selects Board of Director amongst itself that chalk out broad-range policies refering the concern endeavor. The daily personal businesss of the concern are run by professional who have expertise in their related field.

Types of Business and Strategic Aims:

The aims of the concern depend on whether the concern is owned by private investors or by the authorities.

A private concern is a concern owned, managed and command by private investor ( s. It may take any signifier including exclusive trader-ship, partnership or Joint Stock Company. On the other manus public endeavor besides known as state-owned endeavor is owned, managed and run by authorities through its representative. If the concern owned by private investors some of the possible aims may be:To accomplish a declared end in footings of net incomeTo accomplish a declared end in footings of gross revenuesTo accomplish a declared end in footings of Return on Investment ( ROI )To be a leader in a classTo accomplish a declared per centum of Earning Per Share ( EPS )To be an environment friendly organisationTo be socially admirable organisationTo be a manufacturer of quality merchandises and/or servicesOn the other manus if the concern is owned by authorities ( province owned endeavor ) some of the possible aims of the endeavor may be:To supply high quality services ( e.

g. wellness, instruction, communicating etc ) to the multitudes on equality basesTo supply quality merchandises and/or services to the multitudes at a lower cost as compared to private sectorTo cut down the disparity between the multitudes by cut downing the income/status gapeTo supply entree to quality merchandise and/or services to all the multitudes irrespective of income, position, faith, geographic district etc.

Fiscal Activities and Organizational Structure:

Harmonizing to Vanhorn and Wachowics ( 2001 ) “ fiscal direction is concerned with acquisition, funding and direction of assets with some overall end in head ” .

The overall end is normally to increase the wealth of present and prospective stockholders.Organizational construction is an agreement of organisation activities that portray the assorted relationships amongst the organisational member. The organisational construction depicts “ who is the foreman ” and “ who is the subsidiary ” . Usually organisational construction are build on pyramid type, as depicted in Figure 1.3.Figure 1.3.

Organizational Structure

Macro ( External ) Environmental Factors:

The macro environment consists of unmanageable forces that straight or indirectly act upon an organisation ‘s ability to accomplish a coveted consequence. In the word of Kotler and Armstrong ( 2003 ) “ selling environment consists of the histrions and forces outside selling that affect marketing direction ‘s ability to construct and keep successful relationships with mark clients ” . These influences create both chances and menaces for a director. A prudent director is supposed to capitalise the chance provided by the macro environment and lessening possible bad impact of a menace that may impede the organisation public presentation.

The macro environmental factors include economic factors, demographic factors, societal and cultural factors, technological factors, and legal and political factors. An organisation direction is supposed to invariably supervise and measure these factors, and capitalise the chance if any. Organization that failed to take action in response to alter in the environmental factors will non be able to win and hence to accomplish its mission.

Section 2 Investigating Business Resources.


Human Resource Management:

Organization resources can be grouped into four classs including Financial, Information, Physical and Human Resources. Harmonizing Braton ( 2005 ) “ Human Resources Management is the the way of organisational systems to guarantee effectual and efficient usage of human endowment to carry through organisational ends. ” The human resources of the organisation are the most important assets of the organisation. In fact one can reason that the factor responsible for success and failure in most of the instances is HR, but unluckily it can non be portrayed on Balance sheet as an Asset because it is invaluable.

2.2. Purpose of Business and Technological Resources:

Resources such as air, H2O, gas, oil, woods, paper, Fe, nucleus etc is known as physical resources, while technological resources includes, computing machine, workss, machinery etc. Organization needs to guarantee that best uses of these scarce resources, by demoing quality, efficiency, and waste direction issues are addressed to better public presentation and cut down costs.

The direction of these resources involved obtaining the coveted stuffs, supplies, equipment, premises and energy and utilizing them in the most efficient manner to diminish operational cost and to achieve the organisational aims.

2.3. Access beginning of fundss:

In order to get down a concern or hike the constituted concern through injection of new financess there are assorted beginnings of fundss that an enterpriser can entree. The assorted options include Bankss that provide short, medium and long term fundss to concern endeavor. On the other manus there are besides assorted developmental establishments that provide grants to hike a concern in a peculiar sector, for illustration industry, trade, exports, agribusiness, etc. Another possible option to acquire the fund is from venture capital supplier, who normally charge somewhat higher rate than the market.2.

4. Interpret fiscal statement:Fiscal statement is interpreted utilizing ratio analysis. Financial ratio provides an penetration about the house ‘s public presentation.

The organisation can compare its fiscal consequences with its old twelvemonth consequences or they can compare the consequences with another participant of the same industry. Fiscal ratios quantify many facets of an organisation including gross revenues, profitableness, creditworthiness, liquidness, use of assets, and are an built-in portion of fiscal statement analysis. Thus ratios of a company in different industries provide an penetration sing a house ‘s hazard, capital demands, and the nature of competition.

Section 3. Introduction to selling:


Key construct and rule of selling:

Harmonizing to Kotler and Armstrong “ selling is the procedure by which persons and groups obtain what they need and want through making and interchanging merchandises and value with others ” . So we can state that the undertaking of selling is satisfy consumer demands and wants while accomplishing organisation ends. A demand is basic such as demand for nutrient, shelter, safety etc. when these demands are shaped by single penchants and civilization it becomes wants. The undertaking of seller is therefore to place a consumer demand, interpret that in wants, and designed the offering that have the capableness to fulfill such demands and wants. When organisation present the merchandise and/or service to its client, client acquire a merchandise and/or service, that have the ability to fulfill a consumer demand and want while organisation acquire money in exchange.


How and Why Marketing Research is conducted by Organizations:

In accomplishing the organisation mission and transporting out their selling duties, directors need a great trade of information ‘s to do inform determination maintaining in position the client demands and wants. Marketing research provide director penetration sing client gustatory sensation and penchants, merchandise pricing, topographic point and publicity scheme, rivals merchandises, etc and aid director make better selling determinations. Therefore selling director increase his opportunities of success in the market by utilizing up-to-date information while planing the selling mix for the company offerings.

Marketing research involves roll uping information relevant to a specific selling job confronting the organisation through research by specifying job and coming up with the research aims, fixing the research program, and so implementing and construing the findings through research study for actions to selling director.

3.3. Kinds of Marketing Information used by Organization:

Harmonizing to O’Brien and Marakas ( 2004 ) , “ an information system can be any organized combination of people, hardware, package, communications, webs, and informations resources that shops and retrieves, transform, and disseminates information in an organisation ” . A company can utilize two types of marketing information based on the place of the end-users and type of usage: the MIS for the directors and MIS for operational gross revenues and selling activities. The users of Marketing Information system and decision-making systems are chiefly senior executives, Heads of SBUs and Manager Marketing, and analyst. Normally experts use natural informations collected from assorted beginnings and polish them to be presented to selling section.


4. How Marketing Increase Demand.

The selling construct is a procedure by which sellers identify consumer demands and wants and so supply merchandises that satisfy these demands and wants, in a procedure of accomplishing organisational aims. A merchandise created and delivers based on the selling construct benefit client when it satisfies his demand or want.

When one have the ability, desire and authorization to buy certain merchandise it is called demand. Marketer creates demand for his offering by supplying to its mark markets four types of public-service corporation known as signifier public-service corporation, topographic point public-service corporation, form public-service corporation and ownership public-service corporation.

Section 4: Effective Peoples communicating and information:

4.1. Important of using suited people:

For effectual communicating in an organisation it is critical to employee suited people across the organisation. The communicating within and outside the organisation will hold impact merely when the receiving system ( one who receives and construe the message ) pursue precisely what the transmitter ( a individual who transmit and thought or message ) mans.

This depends a batch on the people inside the organisation. If people inside the organisation are talented and have mature personality they will construe the message by utilizing their professional accomplishments acquired through assorted preparation and development. If the instance is opposite, the organisation will be confronting troubles in every aftermath of life. Communication accomplishments of an employee besides add good will for the employee every bit good as the organisation.

4.2. Communication utilizing appropriate method:

The appropriate method of communicating is first to find the intent of communicating. The director can find that by replying: Why is the communicating required? After specifying the intent of the communicating the director so necessitate to place the mark audience, as the building of message will depends a batch on the audience. He is supposed to determine some background information sing the receiving system of the message including place, educational degree, experience etc. The communicator is so required to develop his message in a really clear, coherent, correct, concise and logical mode by maintain positive attitude that is reflected in pick of words.


Different type of information and how it can be procedure:

Communication can happen through different procedures and methods and can besides be classified on the channel used and the manner of communicating. On the footing of channels communicating can be divided into verbal communicating ( communicating in written or unwritten signifier ) and non-verbal ( communicating through organic structure linguistic communication, looks, visuals etc. ) On the footing of manner communicating can formal and informal. Formal communicating occurs when in formal organisation scenes including communicating between a superior and subsidiary or organisation and taxing governments etc. On the other manus informal communicating is free and unrestricted communicating between employees who portion insouciant relation with one another. An illustration of this is communicating between pears.


Showing Information Efficaciously:

Effective information contains 7 features that are known as 7 C ‘s of effectual communicating. This 7 C ‘s are Credibility, Courtesy, Clarity, Conciseness, Correctness, Coherent, and Consideration. Credibility of information means that the information nowadays should be trusty. Courtesy means that the presenter of information should get down and stop on gracious note.

Clarity is of import regardless of the content of the message. A message is clear when it contains information that is easy interpreted. A message should besides be right when it is 100 % mistake and accurate and facts and figures are backed through documented grounds. The presented message demand besides be consistent, intending stable and have no ups and down. Concreteness of message is present when the message is non obscure and abstract but instead a solid statement that is used to reenforce the assurance. Conciseness of the message means supplying to the point information to the mark that saves clip for both transmitter and receiving system.

Section 5: Introduction to Accounting:


1. Purpose of accounting and classification of concern income and outgo:

Accounting is said to be the linguistic communication of concern. Harmonizing Horngren and Harrison ( 2001 ) , “ accounting is the system that measures concern activities, processes that information into studies, and communicates these findings to determination shapers ” .An organisation income can be classified into Gross Income ( the remainder of entire gross minus cost of goods sold or direct disbursal ) , Operating Income ( Gross Income subtraction Operating Expense ) , Income before revenue enhancements ( Operating Income subtraction involvement disbursals ) Income After Taxes ( Income before revenue enhancements minus corporate revenue enhancements, if any ) . On the other manus disbursals can be categorized on the footing of Cost of goods sold ( stuff, labour and overhead disbursals in instance of fabrication, and purchase monetary value plus direct disbursals in instance of merchandizing concern ) , runing disbursal ( include selling, gross revenues and disposal disbursal ) .


Fixing a hard currency flow prognosiss:

Cash flow prognosis is the sum of money that organisation expects that will come-in ( Inflow of hard currency ) and goes-out ( outflow of hard currency ) . The influx of hard currency includes beginnings such as hard currency gross revenues, aggregation from client, bank loan, and returns of stocks issued, or through gross revenues of fixed assets. On the other manus hard currency escapes include all the expense to providers, payment of staff wages and benefits, refund of loan and/or capital, payment of disbursals like rent, rates, revenue enhancements, capital outgo for the acquisition of new assets, and involvement payment by an organisation. The entire net hard currency flow is the difference between the entire hard currency Inflow and entire hard currency escape for a peculiar period of clip.

The prediction of hard currency flow includes tabling all the major hard currency influxs, for illustration, hard currency gross revenues, grosss from client, loans etc and so analysing the timing of expected payments in the signifier of wages, stuff, capital outgo etc. To this sum the current period cyberspace hard currency flow is added ( if positive ) while the desired started hard currency flow for the approaching twelvemonth is so subtracted. If the organisation has left with negative figure so it arranges a loan consequently.

5.3. Net income and loss history and balance sheet:

The net income and loss history besides known as Income statement portrays the consequences of concern for peculiar period of clip normally a twelvemonth. It can be called a traveling image of the concern saying the entire gross earned by the organisation and entire disbursals incurred on gaining the gross, and the terminal consequence whether net income have been earned or losingss have been sustained.

On the other manus Balance Sheet depicts fiscal place of a concern organisation on a peculiar day of the month normally at the terminal of twelvemonth. Balance Sheet is like a snapshot of the organisation that portrays the Assets it organisation and liabilities and proprietors equity of the organisation.

5.4. Review concern public presentation utilizing simple ratio analyze:

In order to measure an organisation public presentation one can utilize ratio analysis for construing the consequences and so comparing that with its ain past consequences or with that of industry participant. The most normally used ratio includes liquidness ratios, that step the concern liquidness whether the house will be able to pay its short term debts when it comes due or non. Profitability ratios step houses profitableness with regard to gross revenues, equity, assets, long term assets etc.

Coverage ratios step whether house will be able to pay its fixed charges from the net income or non. Activity ratios step assorted activities of the organisation including stock list, receivables, payables, etc.


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