Tuberculosis et al., 2017). MTB has infected
Tuberculosis(TB) is a prominent public health disease affecting the lives of millions ofpeople worldwide. Tuberculosis is a bacterial sickness spread by coughing,sneezing, whistling and laughing of an infected individual via air channel. Bacterialspecies of Mycobacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) arethe main infectious species of tuberculosis. Those people who have low socio-economicstatus are highly susceptible to TB disease.
Public healthcare employees as well as supporters also have high risk, particularly respiratory therapistsand pulmonologist. Proper identification and treatment is required for TB avoidance,transfer and death reduction. (Kafeel et al., 2017). Mycobacteriumtuberculosis (MTB) is an obligate bacterium and depend on its host organism formultiplication and spread (Eileen et al., 2017). MTB has infected humans fromages.
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This can be understood by structural authentication through human beingfossils, the existence of Mycobacterial DNA in human debris and rigorouslyillustration of this bacterial disease indicate everywhere in human history(Hershkovitz et al., 2008).WorldHealth Organization (WHO) reports that more than 10.4 million people were influencedthrough TB in 2015 while 1.4 million people died as well (Mohsin et al., 2017).
It is also believed that about 2 billion people worldwide carry the inactiveform of TB disease. MTB is enclosed by alveolar macrophages, after it getsentry into host human via respiratory duct, dendritic cells, neutrophils or epithelialcells. To promote surviving bacterium into the cells, it adopts differentstrategies; the most important one is the secretion of protein such as Mpt64,the 6-kDa early secreted antigenic target (ESAT6), the 10-kDa culture ?ltrateprotein (CFP10), and the antigen 85 (Ag85) complex which has a prominent rolein the virulence of MTB.
The Ag85 complex is the main secretory antigen, and ithas an important role in the pathogenicity of MTB. Patients having activepulmonary TB are prominent sources of infection, and they continuouslycontaminate the air with the bacterium. Reliable and sophisticatdidentification approach is essential to inhibit the spread of the disease.Different experiments have been performed for the detection of secretedproteins of MTB as immuno-dominant and early markers for TB disease. Detectionmethods for mycobacterium genus include culturing, microscopy smear, enzymelinked immune sorbent assay (ELISA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunebased methods which are very helpful for the identification of secreted MTBantigens. Some laboratories use Lowenstein Jensen medium (LJ) that is an eggbased medium for the identification of MTB. Although the conventional growthmedia is time taking because the rate of growth is very slow.Tuberculosis(TB) still stays one of the major mycobacterial ailment in developing nations.
Pakistan is the number 6th in Tuberculosis (TB) Infection load,according to World Health Organization (WHO) the incidence rate is 181 infectedcases per 100,000 individuals (Zahra Hassan et al., 2006)..Geographically Pakistan has border with four developing countries, all have TBin endemic form.
Furthermore in a supportive way, it is also attaches withSouth Asian Countries which have also TB in highly epidemic form. BothIdentification and treatment are notable difficulties; it is determined 4/5patients in Pakistan remain without medical care (Zahra Hassan et al.,2006).
Itis all due to illiteracy, lack of awareness, unavailability of reliable diagnosticmethod and lack of treatment availability.Presentresearch has been design for evaluation of diagnostic methods available for therural and urban areas in Pakistan. In order to propose a strategy for suitableand reliable method of detection.Our main objectives of the above mentioned studyare:· Evaluation ofdifferent diagnostic methods used for identification and treatment of theMycobacterial Tuberculosis.· For therecommendation of proper diagnostic technique of Mycobacterial Tuberculosis.· To enhanceawareness by Guiding and motivating people about Public health protection forthe major infective MTB disease.