“Traffic Management” Essay
“TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT” (A Case Study of Road Network of Main CBD Area Hyderabad) SUBMITTED BY: WAQAR AHMED 10 MCRP 06 SUBMITTED TO: IRFAN AHMED MEMON DEPARTMENT OF CITY AND REGIONAL PLANNING MEHRAN UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY JAMSHORO 1. INTRODUCTION Traffic management is the term used to describe the study of the needs of all users of the transport system and provision of better facilities within the constraints of cost and road space.
In Hyderabad, the traffic flow conditions in the city are more serious due to the presence of narrow roads, heavy road traffic volumes, roadside encroachments, frequent and unchecked on-street parking, high percentage of trip attraction in the CBD area due to major commercial activities and presence of incompatible land uses, poor physical and geometric condition of the roads network and above all, lack of proper enforcement. Traffic management will be enabling to reduce these short comings to be redressed and road capacities increased.Traffic circulation in a major city like Hyderabad can only be improved if; little attention has been paid to Traffic Management.
2. IDENTIFICATION OF PROBLEM Problems in Hyderabad related with traffic management due to congestion in CBD area, And congestion is basically due to the presence of narrow roads, heavy road traffic volumes, road side encroachments, frequent and on-street parking, high percentage of trip attraction in the CBD area due to major commercial activities, poor physical and geometric conditions of the roads, and intersections and lack of proper enforcement. 3.OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY * To establish a one-way system on several parallel roads. * To install a fixed signal at one of the most critical intersections of the CBD area and traffic signs in the whole CBD area. * To provide land marking on all major roads in and around the CBD area. * The most important objectives are to remove encroachments and improve the turning radii of most critical junctions. * To remove encroachments from pedestrian ways/foot paths to improve efficiency of footways in CBD area.
* To establish traffic islands on the roads for the channelization of traffic. To provide the street furniture for improvement and beautification of road network of Hyderabad, which include; 1. To provide a proper pedestrian ways. 2. To provide proper/sufficient road lighting. 3. To provide road side plantation.
4. To provide dustbins/solid waste bins wherever necessary. 5. To provide sign boards for people’s convenience with proper placement. 6. To provide proper placement of advertisement boards especially in CBD area. * To remove/reduce bottle necks. * To provide proper parking facilities in CBD area.
4. SCOPE OF THE STUDYThe traffic problem in study area has developed mainly in response to the rapid growth in the number of on-road vehicles in Hyderabad. Traffic congestion and parking are acute problems in CBD area. Therefore after the observation of the magnitude and complexity of traffic problems in the study area. It is necessary to advice a management strategy which should result in a more balanced use of available road space with in the network and thus reduce congestion at critical locations and provide other improvements for the road users within the existing network.
The proposed management techniques encompass all road users, from private car to pedestrian, with the objective of achieving of more efficient sharing of available facilities to the overall benefit of all groups. Although the objectives were to bring benefit to the whole range of road users, the only means by which this could be attempted, within the scope of this study, was “Traffic Management”. 5. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS 5. 1 PEDESTRIAN CROSS-WALK COMMPITITION Station| Leg| Pedestrian Flow Per Peak Hour| Vehicular Flow Per Peak Hour| | | 2007| 2010| 2007| 2010|Nazerath CollegeJunction| Tilak InclineStation Road| 322365| 702724| 17691730| 22782238| Koh-e-Noor Chowk| Court RoadStation Road(TEC) SideStation Road(Koh-e-Noor Side)Home Stead Chari| 285164237958| 5733785031920| 5043511238706| 103072825442031| Chotki GhittiChowk or CityThana Chowk| Station Road(Thana Side)Station Road(Arif Plaza)Lajpat RoadChotki Ghitti Road| 242250278333| 488528523961| 17311737689300| 224622488161065| KGNB Chowk| Shah RoadQazi QayumHali RoadStation Road| 6055407201251| 1223107615304360| 1900177719691969| 3682333636953698| Hyder Chowk| Qazi QayumCourt RoadShara-e-Fatima RoadRisala Road| 540285422385| 1076573848685| 177750412101220| 3336103026272079| ANALYSISNazerath College junction is one of the vital intersections of the Hyderabad CBD area. The layout is as shown in previous table. The right turns from Sadder road & from Tilak incline was restricted by placing fences diagonally across the junction but now these fences are not there and right turners from Saddar and Tilak incline are free to take the right turn. But the only one portion of fences is removed and other is still there so turners from Tilak incline use road by taking turn around police choki, it creates traffic jam at turning point of Saddar to Station road.
This creates heavy traffic congestion because of Nazerath College. At college opening and closing time traffic jam are common. Parking along the road at college closing time occupies most of the station road. This has created a lot of traffic problems| TRAFFIC FLOW COUNT DATA DURING PEAK HOURLOCATION: NAZERATH COLLEGE JUNCTION DATE: TIME: 01:00-02:00 PM| TOTAL| 1382| 409| 1168| 1791| 4750| | A/Cart| 47| 09| 34| 73| 163| | P/Cycle| 294| 115| 128| 268| 760| | Rickshaw| 215| 23| 194| 382| 814| | Car, Jeep, Taxi| 498| 141| 523| 565| 1727| | M/Cycle| 373| 121| 289| 503| 1286| Direction| Tilak Incline| Road From Saddar| Dadan Shah Road| Station Road| | | StationNo.
| 1. | 2. | 3.
| 4. | Total Vehicles| ANALYSISThis is a four legged non-signalized intersection situated in city centre. Two of the four legs are one-way i. e.
station road and Lajpat road, the traffic approaches from Station road (Thana side) and from Chotki Ghitti road. The orientation of the chowk is as shown in previous table. The interaction of heavy vehicles is still moderate (5%) where as slow moving vehicles are 20. 3% in 1990 and 31. 2% in 1998.
Auto rickshaw stop immediately after the intersection on station road creates a lot of congestion. TRAFFIC FLOW COUNT DATA DURING PEAK HOURLOCATION: CHOTKO GHITTI /CITY THANA CHOWK DATE: TIME: 01:00-02:00 PM| TOTAL| 825| 1620| 1184| 3629| | A/Cart| 98| 79| 41| 218| | P/Cycle| 127| 210| 178| 515| | Rickshaw| 64| 275| 230| 569| | Car, Jeep, Taxi| 287| 489| 353| 1129| | M/Cycle| 249| 567| 382| 1198| | Direction| Chotki Ghitti Road| Station Road (Thana Side)| Lajpat Road| | | StationNo. | 1. | 2. | 3. | Total Vehicles| ANALYSISKohinoor junction is a seven legged non-signalized busy intersection in the CBD area. The orientation of Chowk is as shown in previous table.
One of the legs, Station road (Sec B) from Kohinoor Shopping Centre. Similarly court road towards Gari Khata Chowk and Station Road toward TEC office side, are one-way away chowk. Tulsidas road is considered as one of the legs.
The right turners from Station road and straight movement from homestead chari, further distributes traffic between Court road and Tulsidas road. A link road from Hyder Chowk distribute, traffic toward Station road as a right side turning movement, and straight toward Nusrat bazaar. | TRAFFIC FLOW COUNT DATA DURING PEAK HOURLOCATION: KOH-E-NOOR CHOWK DATE: TIME: 01:00-02:00 PM| TOTAL| 585| 309| 489| 815| 1204| 3402| | A/Cart| 09| 14| 03| 17| 63| 106| | P/Cycle| 75| 98| 79| 93| 128| 473| | Rickshaw| 88| 13| 86| 88| 187| 462| | Car, Jeep, Taxi| 235| 89| 134| 383| 508| 1349| | M/Cycle| 178| 95| 187| 234| 318| 1021| Direction| Hyder Chowk to Koh-e-Noor Chowk| Tulsidas Road (to KGNC)| Station Road (Sec. C)| To Home State Hall| Station Road (Sec.
B)| | | StationNo. | 1. | 2. | 3. | 4. | 5. | Total Vehicles| ANALYSISHyder chowk is non-signalized five legged busiest intersection, situated in the city centre. The orientation of the chowk is shown in previous table.
Three of the five legs are one-way i. e. Risala Road, court Road and link road from Hyder chowk towards Kohinoor chowk.
Shara-e-Fatima and Qazi Qayum Roads are two-way segregated with median. Traffic approached at the intersection from Shara-e- Fatima, Qazi Qayum and court roads. Traffic generated toward Risala Road, Qazi Qayum Road, Shara-e-Fatima and Kohinoor Chowk.
|TRAFFIC FLOW COUNT DATA DURING PEAK HOURLOCATION: HYDER CHOWK DATE: TIME: 01:00-02:00 PM| TOTAL| 1195| 1685| 1349| 1027| 5256| | A/Cart| 34| 13| 56| 24| 127| | P/Cycle| 104| 213| 137| 89| 543| | Rickshaw| 180| 192| 234| 209| 814| | Car, Jeep, Taxi| 488| 898| 538| 347| 2271| | M/Cycle| 389| 364| 384| 358| 1495| | Direction| From KGNC to Hyder Chowk Q. Q. R| Pakistan Chowk to Hyder Chowk| Turning Pt. of Hyder Chowk to Q. Q Risala, S. F. Road| From Koh-e-Noor to Hyder Chowk C. R.
| | | StationNo. | 1. | 2. | 3. | 4.
| Total Vehicles| 6. PROBLEMS IDENTIFIED IN THE SYSTEM 6. 1 STATION ROADStation road is a one-way road start from Nazareth College Chowk and terminates at Railway Station. There are five main intersections on the road. 1. Nazareth College Chowk 2.
Rahat Cinema 3. Chotki Ghitti Chowk 4. Kohinoor Chowk 5. Al-Waheed Chowk 6.
Bacha Khan Chowk During study the road is divided in four sections for the purpose of ease. SECTION-A Starts from St. Mary’s School and terminates at Chotki Ghitti or City Thana Chowk. SECTION-B Start from City Thana up to Koh-e-Noor Chowk SECTION-C Start from Koh-e-Noor up to Al-Waheed square Chowk SECTION-D Start from Al-Waheed square Chowk and terminate at Bach Khan Chowk The study portion of road has the length of 1.
0 km A. ENROACHMENTSStation road, the busiest thoroughfare in Hyderabad CBD area, has not a simple place left un encroached, especially in front of electronic market, city than, Lady Dufferen Hospital, Kohinoor Shopping Centre, Road to Al-Waheed Square leading to Bacha Khan Chowk. Also, all five intersections are fully encroached especially at turning points. The nuisance is beyond the control and traffic jams are common phenomenon. Travel speed remains less than 10 km/hr most of the time.
The encroachment types, which are more intensively found, are: * Irregular on-street parking. * Loading, unloading of goods. * Commercials. * Hawkers/Peddlers. * Residential. * Electric poles and telephone poles. * Speed breakers.
* Rickshaw Stands. B. IRREGULAR ON-STREET PARKING As station road is the busiest road in Hyderabad (CBD) area because of its location and orientation.The major feeders to this road are Tilak incline, Chotki Ghitti road, Sheer Singh road from Gari Khata (from circular building). The land use activities include Nazerath College, St. Mary’s School, Electronic Market (Naseem Centre), Banks, HMC Office, Koh-e-Noor shopping centre, Rikshaw Stand at Koh-e-Noor shopping centre, etc. the maximum parking demand is in section B and C.
the maximum parking accumulation in section A is at Nazerath college during its closer time in the after noon and in the evening hours because of demand generated by electronic market. The traffic behavior along the road prevent chaotic situation most of the day. Haphazard parking, road side encroachment, Rikshaw and mini-taxi activities and Koh-e-Noor shopping centre are crucial problems.The general parking trends on hourly basis for individual section show the percentage of various categories of vehicles parked such as light vehicles, heavy vehicles, Rikshaw, mini-taxis, and motor cycles. Vehicles are parked on both sides of the road, especially on Koh-e-Noor chowk because of Koh-e-Noor shopping centre, through off-street parking provided at Koh-e-Noor shopping centre; problem is still same in front of the shopping centre. At Al-Waheed Square Chowk there is a less problem because of off street parking in TEC office building, but as parking demand is increasing day by day, so this is not sufficient at this time. C.
ROAD/INTERSECTION GEOMETRY AND PAVEMENT CONDITIONFrom road geometry point of view it has been observed that no geometric improvement can be done unless the road is freed from encroachments. The existing condition of footpaths is substandard, there is no consistency and where provided these are found encroached. The intersections of major roads to this road are also problematic. The road width varies from section to section with 71 ft. at Nazerath College, 51 ft. from St.
Mary’s School to HMC, 64 ft. from HMC to Lady Dufferen Hospital and 95 ft. at Koh-e-Noor Shopping Centre and again reducing to 59 feet at Al-Waheed Square. This variation of ROW, in view of the heavy traffic flows at this road causes squeezing of traffic at various spots that result in frequent traffic jams.The pavement condition of the road is not satisfactory. Few defects have been found from Nazerath College to HMC office, some spot holes, corrugations, alligator cracks, Asphalt between Koh-e-Noor to Al-Waheed Square. The speed breakers in all intersection approaches are also very poor and infiltration is observed at approaches. The medium is observed only from Bacha Khan Chowk to Railway Station.
Nazerath College Chowk is the busiest intersection in the CBD area. It presents a chaotic look at Nazerath College off timing. Fences were removed so traffic violations created.
Chotki Ghitti Chowk is un signalized intersection, has poor intersection geometry.Al-Waheed Chowk is situated at the intersection of station road and Nusrat Bazaar road at Al-Waheed Square. It is a three-legged Y shaped intersection with poor intersection geometry and encroachments along all of its legs. The Bacha Khan Chowk is a three-legged intersection with unsatisfactory intersection geometry, road side encroachments, and frequent traffic jams at peak-hours. D. ROUTE OPERATIONAL DEFICIENCIES Station road is totally deficient of route operations. All traffic passes through this road is free from any restrictions.
All loading and unloading of passengers as well as goods activities carried out regardless of the traffic jams at back.No proper bus stops were provided despite its most important position in CBD area. E. TRAFFIC FLOW PROBLEMS/LAW ENFORCEMENT Station road has a forced traffic flow as compare to other roads. The practical capacity of road is 1400 vehicles/hr with average width of 44 ft. the volume of traffic exceeds their capacity, as in2010 the maximum peak volume was 3112 and in 2008 the maximum peak volume is 1362 but the capacity remain the same, no improvement were observed. The condition deteriorates because of increased traffic flow, road side encroachments, haphazard road side parking and poor driving behavior. There is no law enforcement by traffic police for increased traffic violations.
F. LACK OF PEDESTRIAN FACILITIESOn station road footpaths are available but because of encroachments, pedestrian are forced to walk on the road, this means that inadequate pedestrian facility exist on the station road. There are no proper arrangements of road crossings. On the whole it is said that the road have worst condition in every respect. G. GOODS CARRYING ACTIVITIES As station road is one of the busiest roads in the CBD area, having multiple land use activities, the goods carrying activities continue throughout the day.
This has reduced the effective road width and creates traffic jams during peak hours. 6. 2 TULSIDAS ROAD Tulsidas road operating in one-way direction towards KGNB Chowk from Koh-e-Noor Chowk having 0. 3-km length A.
ENCROACHMENTS The types of encroachments on Tulsidas road are: * Irregular Parking * Hawkers/Peddlers * Loading and UN-loading of goods * Commercial * Electric poles * Speed breakers * Uncovered main hole The road possesses enough ROW but due to road side encroachments and an open drain reduces road width. B. ON-STREET PARKING The main cause of reduced road width of Tulsidas road is on-street parking on both sides if the road. 6. 3 RISALA ROAD Risala road is another important and busiest road in CBD area that runs parallel to the station road but in opposite direction, the traffic enters in CBD area through station road and leave through Risala road.The road starts from Hyder Chowk and terminates at Cafe George. There is one intersection on this road “The Society Chowk” overall length of the road is 0.
6 km. Median is not available. This is one-way road. Almost same condition prevails at this road as at Station Road. The ROW varies from 42 ft to 74 ft. Footpaths are available but mostly encroached. Thus excessive encroachments and on-street parking in a haphazard manner are the main sources of congestion along with frequent pedestrian activities on road, since the footpaths are encroached as well, with an average of about 5 ft. width on both the sides.
Almost all types of pavement defects are present at various sections of the road.The situation is further of aggravated by intermix of high percentage of SMVs and HVs, existence of Suzuki stand at society chowk and bus stand along left edge of the road from Hyder Chowk to circular building adds to problem. During survey poor driving behavior was also observed, People Park their vehicles in centre of the road at circular building more than two hours. Goods carrying activities also observed during survey. Heavy vehicles and other light and SMVs give worst picture of poor management of traffic with forced flow of traffic and lack of route operational activities.
Society Chowk is not in operation. Police control was observed during peak hours.Existence of Suzuki/Mini taxi stand at the corner of Radio Pakistan road and Risala road has created problems for left turners coming from Risala road and for the traffic approaching the intersection from Radio Pakistan road. 6.
4 RADIO PAKISTAN ROAD Radio Pakistan road starts from Shahra-e-Fatima and terminates at Society chowk. The road width varies from 44 ft. to 65ft.
between DC office and radio Pakistan and then gradually reduces up to the end of the road at society chowk. Minor encroachments were observed at DC office, Law College and G. P. O. Footpaths are available with fair condition. Flow of traffic is low as compared to other roads only forced flow was observed between radio Pakistan and society chowk.
Degree of encroachment is also high as compare to other road section due to Suzuki stands up to society chowk. Road condition of most parts of the road is good. Some pavement defects were observed only in the last section along with open road side drains. Degree of loading/unloading of passengers and goods is also low as compared to other roads. This two-way road with central median shows a good picture as compare to other roads in the CBD area. 6. 5 LAJPAT ROAD This is a main one-way link between station road and Risala Road. The road is in its worst condition from every respect.
Road side encroachments are a greater in amount, loading/unloading activity of goods carried throughout the day.On-street parking creates traffic congestion because of loading/unloading of goods, frequent traffic jams occur. Roadside encroachment (include all types) and roadside parking decrease about 60% of the road width. Traffic violation is a usual activity on Lajpat road. Road geometry is unsatisfactory many types of defects were observed at this section i. e. pot holes, alligator cracks, horizontal cracks etc.
all these lead to forced flow of traffic with frequent traffic jams. No interaction of traffic police was observed during survey. 6. 6 SARFARAZ ROAD Sarfaraz road starts from Nazerath College and terminates at Jacob road. Two main intersections lie at this road, i. e.Sarfaraz Chowk and Muslim College Chowk.
The road width varies from 40 ft. to 60 ft. but it sharply reduced to 16 ft. On-street parking problem is in between Nazerath College Chowk to Sarfaraz Chowk because of Al-Rahim Shopping Centre. Footpaths are provided only on one side of the road up to the Sarfaraz Chowk. There is lack of pedestrian facility up to Muslim College Chowk.
The road was start to encroached from Nazerath College to Sarfaraz Chowk and little bit of encroachment from Sarfaraz Chowk to Muslim College Chowk existed by bookbinders. Pavement condition is satisfactory. Garbage and construction material was also observed on road sides.Intermixing of SMVs and HVs create another traffic problem. Road and intersection geometry is not satisfactory. Sarfaraz Chowk is an intersection mostly uses to cater traffic from CBD to National Highway. 7. SUMMARY OF FINDING The nature of problems relating to traffic CBD area and their effects on the flow system are summarized below.
* Encroachments along roadsides and at approaches are the main causes of traffic problems. * Irregular and excessive on-street parking demand resulting in minimizing road capacities. * Lack of control by traffic police and absence of traffic control devices such as traffic signals, traffic signs, road marketing etc. the major factor behind poor traffic management. Existence of unauthorized Bus, Suzuki, Auto-Rikshaw and Rikshaw stands along roads sides causing tremendous traffic delays and flow problems.
* Frequent and unauthorized stopovers of public transport modes along their routes. * Public transport system lacks proper planning and control to meet the travel demands. * Roads/intersections are lacking proper geometry. * Most of the roads having pot holes, corrugation and poor riding quality resulting in slow speed and under utilization.
* Improperly constructed speed breakers are in abundance. * Footpaths are in extremely poor condition and mostly encroached-forcing pedestrians at walk on the road violate their safety. Existence of Unauthorized truck stands and roadside auto-repair activity within the built up areas major capacity constraint and source of moisture. * Higher composition of SMVs and HVs in CBD area.
* Uneducated drivers (Poor driving behavior). 8. RECOMENDATIONS A. ROADS Following actions would be required to overcome the existing traffic problems to ensure positive improvements in the road networks and hence the traffic flow system in CBD area of Metropolitan Hyderabad. 1.
Construction Of Foot Paths And Medians Where Ever Required A. Pavement improvement, resurfacing of following roads, *Station Roads * Risala Roads * Qazi Qayum Road * Tulsidas Road B. Reconstruction and re-design of footpaths. * Risala Road Station Road C.
Construction of footpaths and medians, wherever required specially on, * Tulsidas Road D. Provision of street furniture wherever necessary. E. Geometric design improvements of all roads. 2. Removal Of Road Side Encroachments Along * Station Road * Risala Road * Premises Of Hyder Chowk * Premises Of Bacha Khan Chowk 3. Pedestrian Facilities * Provision of Zebra crossing where ever required.
* Pedestrian signals to be provided at Koh-e-Noor Shopping Centre. 4. Traffic Management * Proper law enforcement and development of police to regulate traffic and check violations if any. * Designation of one-way traffic flows on selected routes. Restriction on passage of heavy vehicles in busy corridors. * Phasing out of SMVs and strictly ban on movement of SMVs during peak hrs. * Designation of corridors restricted to pedestrian movements only. * Only night time loading/unloading activities by heavy vehicles to be allowed in CBD.
* Use of traffic signs and road markings where ever necessary. * Improvements in operations of various modes. * Provision of street furniture wherever necessary. * Total ban on Mini Taxi’s in Hyderabad and all mini Taxi Stands must be removed. * Strictly checkout the silencers of Rickshaws, Buses, Mini Bus, Bikes, that protect the environment.
* Shifting of workshops and garages outside the CBD area. 5. Parking No parking allowed at intersection approaches and along curbs of intersecting roads. * Possibility of introducing parking fee. * Fork lifters deployment wherever possible. * Introduction of parking ticket system for wrong on street parking. * Development of off-street parking sources in the vicinity of station road and Risala road.
* On-street parking restricted to one side of busy roads. * Strictly ban on on-street parking at following locations: * Court Road * Tilak Incline * Link Road from Hyder Chowk to Koh-e-Noor Chowk * Lajpat Road * Station Road(from HMC to Chotki Ghitti Chowk) B. INTERSECTION Following improvements would be required to ensure proper functioning of these intersections. 1.Signalizations of intersections to prove the traffic flow following recommendations are proposed. * Two signalized junctions (i.
e. Pakistan and D. P. O Office Chowk) are re-timed according to the present traffic demand. * All the junctions equipped with signals and their apparatus is not functioning should be immediately repaired. (Society Chowk, Hyder Chowk, Koh-e-Noor Chowk). * Signalization of following junctions recommended.
* Koh-e-Noor Chowk * Al-Waheed Square * Hyder Chowk * The signal heads should preferably be 30 cm dia on major roads. * A secondary signal head is essential for better vision for all approaching traffic. * All signal controllers should be equipped to fulfill future demands to traffic i. e.
hey should be programmed for isolated timing, as well as for synchronization needs in an integrated system. Moreover, integrators should be made of solid state electronics instruments, so that they can be controlled by computers, too as the need may arise. * Periodic maintenance and operation of all the traffic signal in the city should be taken care of by qualified and experienced staff trained for such purpose. 2.
Removal of encroachments at intersections approaches. * Al-Waheed Chowk * Bacha Khan Chowk * City Thana Chowk * Hyder Chowk * Koh-e-Noor Chowk 3. No parking zones at approaches to intersection. 4. Deployment of Traffic Police at each intersection. 5.Intersection geometric improvement on.
* Sarfaraz chowk * Koh-e-Noor chowk * Nazerath college chowk * Al-Waheed Square chowk * T-Junction chowk * Intersection at American centre * Minor road links specially on Risala road and Station road. 6. Provision of Land mark at intersections for purpose of beauty and identification of the intersection or area. REFERENCES * Barwald, John E. , “Transportation and Traffic Engineering” (1976), England. * Bhatti. A.
K, “Traffic Management Techniques” (1987) * The Design of Traffic Management Schemes (May 1978). Edited by, Dr. Leonard * Hyderabad Master Plan (2007), Prepared by, Osmani & Company Pvt. Ltd