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Title: Civil versusCriminal LiabilityTyped By: MashiaHarris School: KaplanUniversitySection number: CJ289Date:12/16/2017 The firstprinciple is Legality that is a core value, it is a person’s right but also animportant resistance in the criminal justice law. The prosecution giving towhich crime or penalty that can exist without a legal ground. In Latin, itstates Nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege that stands for (“no crime withoutlaw”). (Iulia Crisan) It is, in fact, a guarantee of human rights; it alsohelps defend the people from state manipulation and unjust of the intrusion ofthe law. It is there to make sure that the fairness and transparency of thejudicial system are Authority. Legality is often associated with the attemptsto coerce the states, the governments, the Judicial system and the legislativebodies from indorsing on retroactive legislatures, or ex-post facto clauses andensuring that all criminals behaviors are forbidden, and all sentencesestablished before the beginning of any criminal trials.
(Iulia Crisan). Forexample, some courts have the power in all questions of the legality of asentence, authority, or ability.Actus Reus is more than just anact. It is to be made up of-of whatever circumstances and penalties are knownfor Liability for the crimes in a query. In other words, all the essentials ofcrime other than the intellectual fundamentals. The crimes of Actus Reus aredivided up into two sections: the first one is there are behavior crimes wherethe Actus Reus is the forbidden behavior.
For example, the Actus Reus of thecrime of hazardous driving is basically driving an automatically drove vehicleon a highway or other public residence. There were no harm or significance ofthat hazardous driving that needed to be conventional. The second one is knownfor misdemeanors where the Actus Reus of the misconduct requires proof ofevidence that the demeanor caused a prohibited result or significance.
(JasonHenry) For example, the Actus Reus of the crime of criminal mutilation is thatthings belonging to another person. Actus Reus has to be voluntary the peoplethat are accused must be “Freely will” if he or she is to incur to getliability. It could be instinctive for an assortment of reason: like whenautomatism arises where the defendant does a physical act but is oblivious towhat he or she is doing or is not in control. (Jason Henry)Causation is applied in the determinationin many legal cases. Caution is the essential relationship amongst the unlawfuldoing act and the offender and the person of a loss of a family member or aplaintiff. Causation contains assess whether a certain factor was a vitalessential for harm or a physical contributing issue to the harm of occurringPhysical contributing.
The first test of cautions is determined to find themulti-cause if the injuries. The claimant stomachs the burden of showing the negligentact of oversight of each of the offender, then the wound would not havehappened. By the offender doing this- this contributory carelessness may beapportioned as allowed by a ruling. The plaintiff must also prove that theoffender’s negligence was intentional towards the plaintiff. The impossibilitymust be due to the issue that is outside the claimant’s control. For example,the first one: would be contemporary boundaries of logical information. Thesecond one is: It must be clear that the offender broke a responsibility ofcare due to the claimant, thus, revealing the claimant to an irrational risk ofdamage, and the claimant must have partaken into painful injury.
In otherwords, the claimant’s wounds must fall inside the field of the risk created bythe offender’s breaches.Harm is involved in a concept ofactivities that can only be excepted if it causes maltreatment to anybody. Itdoes not say that the principle of harmful actions must be banned however, itdoes say that detrimental actions are the only ones that can be banned thedetrimental principle does set a slight standard for what types of action aliberal can justifiable forbid. The most concrete harm is Murder andmanslaughter because of the death of a human being, also Arson, for burningdown a building; theft by the loss of someone’s property. It is also not thateasy to associate what is harm if, it is associated with conduct that can provethat it is defined as a criminal. For example, someone from the Gambino familyCauses bodily harm to the Bonanno Family in retaliation of killing of his men.The man that was arrested was called Mikey and they were charged with murder inthe 1st degree.
Or when someone threatens someone with bodily harm. Or peoplethat have suffered from bodily harm by another person.Concurrence is the immediatecontract in crime while trying to commit a or cause harm to an individual. Itis required to prove Concurrence so that you will be able to argue that someonehad committed the crime that should be held accountable for their actions, exceptin different cases.
Concurrence is mainly used in law, but it can be a problemin some civil cases. A case that would be great for Concurrence would be onewhere a Doctor Hating a Rival Doctor but sticking Him or her with a needle fullof Anesthesia will he is at his desk, and it caused severe damage. So, theDoctor had exhibited a guilty mind and a guilty act. But if the Doctor handedthe rival Doctor the Anesthesia and he accidentally stuck himself then, itwould not be crime. The Rival Doctor may not appreciate the gratification ofJury, but it was no legal wrongs that have occurred.
Mens Rea is a part of Criminalaccountability, of Guilty mind. Mens Rea is a person’s consciousness of thefact that a person’s mindfulness has shown criminals of the mental essentialsActus Rea the acts the act is the physical part. Mens Rea was established inthe later part of common law era because the judges started to hold that an actunaccompanied cannot hold criminals consistent if it as accompanied by a guiltystate of mind. Mens Rea required for a specific mutual law crime varied, suchas Murder requires a malevolent state of mind, and larceny requires a wrongstate of mind. In today’s crimes, they only include common law in crimes aredefined by law that typically understands words that specify Mens Rea. Men Reais usually synonymously with the words commonly determined even though itusually determined words is more commonly used criminal liability when asuspect does not intend to bring about a result.
Punishment is pain that isinflicted upon a person for a crime that they have committed. Punishment takesdifferent forms of the capital penalty, beating, forced labor, and a mutilatedbody to the development and fined. Postponed chastisement consists of a consequencethat is imposed only if offense is relentless within stated times. In extentand value, such chastisements bored no unusual relation to the types orimportance of the crimes. Then it arose in the clue of equal penalty, that wasreplicated in the theological sense “an eye for an eye”. The penalty came underthe control of the public with the change of the code of the differentregulation.
It is viewed that the state is wronged by the crime because theexaction of punishment by individual acting on their own doing. For example, insome cases lynching is illegal to do.Scenario for LegalityWhen someone gets pulled over by an officer for a routinestop and the person that the officer has pulled over starts to get offensivewith the officer. It will not be illegal until the person that the officer hadto pull over gets physical with his /her, then they have the right to arrestthem for assault on an officer.Scenario for Actus reusLike when a woman keeps getting a phone call and she picksup and no one answers her when she says, hello? And nobody says anything backto her from the other line.
That Is a sign of Actus Reus because it wasillustrated that an assault can be committed without any words being said.Scenario for CausationMike has a lit cigar and him near the edge of the woods thebrush that is at the edge of the woods catches fire just as the flames areabout to fade out Ashley gets the gas off the back of the truck and pours itunto the flames that is about to fade out.so them it became a wild force fire.
Scenario for HarmIs when an officer gets a call about a person causing bodilyharm to himself by hitting his head on his ex-girlfriend door and threatens tokill his self if she does not come outside and talk to him that is calledself-harm because he is causing harm only to himself and nobody else.Scenario for ConcurrenceIf Mika starts a new business that could affect herprofessional life or could determine how she will prosper in her futureprofessional life. Because she is thinking about buying a house or maybe she isthinking of releasing a new product for her business that can break herfinances for her existing sales.
Scenario for Mens ReaShelby is a member of a street gang (she’s 19). She and hercrew were riding the streets of Skewness when they came across a rival gang,”The Crips”. There was a scuffle and Shelby pulled a butterfly knife on Kay,that emends up puncturing her lung and causing her to collapse in the street.Just in a nick of time, the police arrived, and Shelby gang and her rivalssplit the crime scene the police car didn’t see Kay in the road until it wastoo late – they ran over her and she died on sense.Scenario for PunishmentSam lost all histhings in a bet, so he goes out and decides to go around and hold up a coupleof convenient stores so, he will be able to have money to be able to getsomething to eat, but, on the last heist he got caught by the police that wasan undercover cop posing as the store owner. That is a felony offense.