This and development of countries since “man
This chapter will describesthe general background for study, the objectives, scopes of the work and alsothe structure for the research. Concrete is known as theextraordinary structural material or as one of the composite material forconstruction used (Prabhu et al., 2014). Concrete will be continued dominant asconstruction material with the civilization and development of countries since”man uses no materials but only water in such tremendous quantity”, mentionedby Brunauer and Copeland (1964).
It is widely been used for the production ofbridge, foundation architectural structure and pavement. Therefore,developments on the various types of concrete for making more alternativeconstruction materials are attributed over the year. Classification of concreteis mainly depending on the density of concrete. It can minimise the buildingdead load and also contribute to the economic structural design due to its lowdensity of lightered concrete (Narayanan and Ramamurthy, 2000). Annually, there is 8 to 12million tonnes of natural aggregates consumption for the concrete since theaggregate occupy 70 % to the overall volume (Devi and Gnanvel, 2014). Structuralconcrete is commonly and wisely used for most of the construction activities(Hosseini et al.
2009). Meanwhile, there are huge amount of natural resourcesand raw materials are used to produce concrete all over the worldwide (Altwairand Kabir, 2010). Nowadays, there are 1.5 billion tons of cement, 11 billiontons of sand and aggregate consumed to produce concrete per year byconstruction industry (Shafigh et al., 2013). As the result, the highdemand of natural aggregates have caused irreparable damage to the environmentand reduced sharply for the resources of natural aggregate. The conservation ofnatural resources and environment protection become concern of moderndevelopment. Therefore, new sustainable development solutions are required tominimise the general natural resources comsumption, environmental pollution andalso the huge amount of the industrial waste production (Rangan, 2008).
Moreover,thr concrete industries need to shoft the model towards sustainable production.According to Mo et al (2015), investigation on the convection of recycled or wasteproduct into potential construction materials has motivated researchers tofulfil the sustainable development. Aggregates are one of theessential element for concrete production and have the characteristics ofvolume stability, resistant to erosion and desired to the final product withthe binding medium such as ordinary Portland cement, water, super-plasticiser,lime and others. Construction aggregates are also as granular materials, forexample stone, crushed stone, gravel and others which are commonly applicationfor the construction works such as residential, commercial, industry,infrastructure and others related activities. The lightweight aggregatesare generally categorised into natural and artificial. For natural, it consistsof diatomite, volcanic cinders, pumice, scoria and tuff.
The artificialaggregate is from modified naturally materials, for example expanded clay,slate, shale, vermiculite and perlite which process iunder high temperature andalso industrial by-product such as expanded blast furnace slag, sinteredpulverized fuel ash (Shafigh et al., 2010). According to Emdadi et al (2014), thelightweigh aggregate gives cost effective, viability economies and structuralstability because there is more versatile in structure with lower weight (Zhangand Poon, 2015).Besides, the recycling ofconstruction and demolition wastes has been recognized where the unwanted byproducts are potential to conserve natural resources and minimise the energyconsumption in production process (Murali et al.
, 2012). It is alsoa standard alternative for construction and maintenance in some of theparticular countries where there is a shortage of construction aggregate. Nowadays, the innovation onthe recycled or industrial by product as the construction materials ispopular. The new development of hightechniques for the waste management and the used of residues via productivemethod are the main interested and concern area for researchers recently(Manikandan and Ramamurthy, 2007). So, researchers investigate hard on the bulkuse of available residues for construction materials.
Also the modified ofwaste materials and utilise it is able to avoid depletion of natural resourcesand reduce the overall cost for disposal (Bijen and Van der Wegen, 1985). Accordingto Bahoria et al. (2013), utilisation of industrial waste as constructionmaterials is the ecological option to minimise the waste disposal issuesbesides conserving the natural resources.