There is devoted to the discussion of
There is a large volume of published studies describing the roleof errors and corrective feedback in second language acquisition.
This chapterfocuses on error analysis, perspectives on error correction, and corrective feedbacktypes. The main aim of this chapter is to present contrasting opinions on theplace corrective feedback has in the second language acquisition. First, ashort analysis of errors is outlined.
The next section is devoted to thediscussion of key arguments for and against error correction. Finally, the differenttypes of corrective feedback are discussed. Second language learning is a process where students makemistakes in both comprehension and production (Ellis, 1994). Before proceedingwith a thorough analysis of errors, it is crucial to identify errors andmistakes. According to Brown (2007), mistakes are slipswhich result from the failure to employ a known language system accurately,while errors refer to the incorrect learner’s system. Edge (1989), on the other hand,divides mistakes into three categories: slips, errors, and attempts. Accordingto him, slips are small linguistic mistakes which a learner can recognize andself-correct, while errors are mistakes which the learner cannot self-correctand requires the teacher’s intervention.
However, teachers may find it verydifficult to distinguish mistakes from errors. There is only a thin linebetween the two. In most of the cases, the teacher or researcher must besubjective when determining if the learner’s utterance is an error or amistake. What may be a mistake for one student, it can be an error for another(ibid). Another criterion which needs to be considered for identifying errors isthe frequency of the deviant form (Brown H. D.
, 2007). Hence, if a learnerrepeatedly says “Mr. and Mrs. Brown works in a bank,”, or “I goes to schoolevery day,” it means that the learner has misunderstood a rule. This error reflectsthe learner’s competence level in the second language where all the verbs inpresent simple tense require -s or -es. The learner thinks she knows the rulebut, in fact, she doesn’t know it quite enough.
Teachers have to make thedecision if the deviant form is an error or mistake based on their knowledge ofindividual learners.