The prison reform movement was when prisons were built to hold criminals and the mentally ill. Soon, penitentiaries and mental institutions were designed to replace the jails because they were unfit for the people imprisoned there. Dorothea Dix started a movement for new ways to treat the mentally ill. This movement reduced the imprisonment of public debtors and paupers, and reduced public hangings. Asylums were built later as an attempt to rehabilitate and reform inmates. With the imposition of silence and solitary confinement, inmates had the opportunity to reflect on their wrongdoings. The idea of a properly structured institution was thought to prevent moral failure and help the creation of educational facilities. Providing homes for “friendless” women were thought to help stray children away from crime and help women not become prostitutes. Providing homes for the poor were thought to help them live more productive lives. Overall, these institutions were created with the intention of helping guide people to the preferred life. The Second Great Awakening’s impact on culture and society revolved around achieving individual salvation and being forgiven for all personal sins and working to reach moral perfection of society. This influenced the prison reform because all of these prisons were established to guide people to the perfect life chosen by society. The inmates could be forgiven for their sins, or reach salvation in this case, by thinking about their wrongdoings and trying to fix them. This reform movement expanded democratic values by introducing equality and individual rights to the prisons because the inmates, especially the mentally ill, were not treated with any sort of care and did not have any basic human rights. Each class of inmates were also treated differently. Dorothea Dix brought justice to the mentally ill by giving them their own separate institutions and training staff to treat them with respect and to give them proper treatment. The prison reform could have also expanded democratic values for the greater good because everything that was done and achieved was to benefit all of the mentally ill patients and giving them the proper treatment that they need in order to live their lives. Dorothea Dix was a teacher and a social reformer who led international reforms because of her devotion and care for the wellbeing of the mentally ill. Dorothea Lynde Dix was born in Hampton, Maine on April 4, 1802. She was the oldest of three children in her family. Her father, Joseph, was extremely religious and made religious tracts. He made Dorothea stitch them together and that was said to be her least favorite chore. When she was twelve, her and her siblings moved away from home and went to live with their grandmother in Boston, the later moved in with their aunt in Worchester, Massachusetts. At age fourteen, Dorothea began teaching. In the year 1819, she returned to Boston and founded the Dix Mansion, a school for girls, and a second charity school for the girls who couldn’t afford it, to attend with no cost. Unfortunately, she had to stop teaching and close her schools due to her poor health. Soon, Dorothea began to write textbooks for students including her most famous work, Conversations on Common Things, which was published in 1824. She then moved away to England to recover from her tuberculosis and stayed there for eighteen months until she was better and able to move back to Massachusetts to continue her career. After her first career in teaching young girls was over, Dorothea moved back to Boston in 1838 and volunteered to instruct a Sunday school for women inmates at East Cambridge Jail in 1841. While teaching, she witnessed the horrific conditions these people were put through. They were put in unfurnished, unsanitary, and unheated places. Some were unclothed, and even chained to the walls of the place and locked in cages. She also noticed that it was the mentally ill that were treated unfairly and worse than the others held there with them. When she asked about the conditions of the jail, she got one answer, “The insane do not feel heat or cold.” After hearing that and seeing the conditions and the little care that was given towards the inmates, Dorothea took matters into her own hands and went to the courts. After a long battle, she won her case and started visiting jails where the mentally ill were held and started her inspections on the conditions and treatment towards the inmates. Eventually, her investigations expanded beyond just the city of Boston, to the whole state of Massachusetts. Dorothea Dix got involved in the prison reform movement after she decided to volunteer to teach the unsay school to women at East Cambridge Jail and seeing the terrible conditions the mentally ill inmates were put through. She was also influenced when she previously visited the most advanced insane asylum in England. The patients were treated with respect and taken proper care of. Aside from what everyone else believed about the mentally ill never being able to recover, she believed that with the proper care and compassion, a full recovery could be made. After being influenced, Dix immediately took charge and began seeking more humane housing conditions and behavioral treatments for these people. She traveled across state for nearly two years inspecting the conditions of these prisons and keeping note of them all. In January of 1843, she handed the courts a detailed report of her investigations from the past two years. A bill was finally passed for the expansion of the Worchester Insane Asylum due to her compassion and dedication to the welfare of the mentally ill. She then moved on to the surrounding states of New York and Rhode Island in hopes of spreading the word of more humane institutions. Dorothea spent the next forty years of her life travelling to fifteen states in the United States and Canada to influence them to build mental hospitals. Thanks to her never-ending devotion, thirty-two hospitals for the mentally ill have been created all across the United States. She also spent two more years in Europe (1854-1856) where no new hospitals were built, but she changed the way older ones ran. She also published Remarks on Prisons and Prison Discipline in the United States to urge better treatment for even ordinary prisoners. Later in life, Dorothea kept striving to give the mentally ill the treatment and care they deserved. Overall, her work affected fourteen states and the construction of hospitals as well as the training of staff at mental institutions. She also called for the legislatures in these states because she wanted hospitals built for the mentally ill as well. As a result of her outstanding efforts and hard work, thirty-two hospitals were built. In 1861, Dix was named Superintendent of Army Nurses because of her job as a volunteer army nurse during the Civil War. She held that name and position until the year 1866. She spent the next six months helping families find men that went missing during the war. In 1867, the started working with hospitals again and earning money to repair any damage done and any hospitals that were destroyed. That was around the end of her career and also when the major events and accomplishments took place such as the hospitals being built and bills being passed for more humane treatment for patients. In 1881, when Dorothea was seventy-nine years old, her health began to get worse. She checked herself into the state hospital of Trenton, New Jersey, which was built in her honor. She spent the rest of her life in there where she passed away in 1887, at the age of eighty-five. Dorothea Dix was generally a selfless person. A vast majority of her works were charity works and were done for the sole purpose of giving people the treatment and care they deserved. She wanted no praise for her accomplishments and rarely wanted recognition for anything she did. As an author, she barely put her name on her pieces because she just wanted to help without anything in return. She dedicated her entire life to helping and getting justice for those in need.