The Technology In Biodiversity Biology Essay
There is an increasing consciousness that biodiversity is non merely closely interconnected with long term wellness and energy of the biosphere as an index of planetary environment but besides as a regulator of ecosystem working. Tropical communities are frequently worse susceptible to loss of biological diverseness than temperate communities because tropical species are occur in lower densenesss and are less widely distributed and frequently have weaker dispersion capablenesss.
Increasing human intercession and inordinate development of resources have resulted in great alterations and supply dismaying signals of accelerated biodiversity loss. The conventional species level attack for biodiversity direction has major restrictions. A major alteration in the understanding the precedences of biodiversity preservation and direction has resulted in a policy displacement from preservation of individual species to their home grounds through synergistic web of species at landscape degree is considered of import ( Orians, 1993 ; Edward et al.
, 1994 ) .Biodiversity can be represented at assorted degrees of organisation, like allelomorphs or genotypes within a population, species or ecosystem across a landscape or even a planet. There is a turning demand for better apprehension of the biodiversity distribution pattern vis-a-vis human intercessions. India have really varied environmental conditions and are among the states with high biodiversity. The blossoming workss, which provide maximal direct benefit to mankind, consist about 19395 taxa, which is about 7 % of the described species in the universe ( Karthikeyan, 2000 ) . The huge stretches of coastal belt in south and high mountains species of Himalayas in the north provide a complex environmental set up or niches for works and animate beings. It has resulted in the formation micro-endemic Centres of workss in the state.
The great highs and complex terrain of the Himalayan part, which change often, supply eternal microclimatic conditions suited to the species to turn and germinate. The Himalayas have more than 5 micro-endemic Centres. Shiwalik scopes are one such mirco-endemic Centre. About 125 wild relations of harvest workss have been reported in the western Himalayas and Shiwaliks scopes are portion of these. These scopes are among the youngest hills in the universe and are active every bit good as fragile. Shiwalik hills of Punjab province have rich biological diverseness and act as major natural green belt of the province. The province is good known for agricultural green goods and industries. But the degradational activity coupled with the devastation of woods in the name of developmental activities has altered the natural landscape of the part to a great extent.
It is confronting menace for its really existence once more from world in the name development. Because of these increased anthropogenic activities, as a consequence of population detonation and alteration in land usage patterns, the natural landscape has been modified which has resulted in atomization of woods with hapless species composing. Hence the ensuing landscape mosaic is a mixture of natural and human managed spots that vary in size, form and agreement. Now it is realized that we must travel from the preservation of individual species to graduated tables beyond single sites and degrees of organisation.
Understanding landscape spacial form is of import since it contains all degrees of the biological hierarchy, from ecosystems to species and cistrons, which are targeted for biodiversity preservation.Remote feeling engineering is being widely used universe over for the speedy appraisal of the Earth resources. Because it being a cost effectual and insistent in nature with synoptic coverages engineering, has eternal application potencies. The engineering assumes significance in footings of preservation of natural resources as it provides ‘bird ‘s oculus position ‘ of the ecosystems or landscapes or parts and their position, because preservation is now non limited to a works or species but much beyond that.
Vegetation is composed of several communities and these communities may happen in spots of little to big size and in assorted forms. Vegetation composing of these spots is governed by several environmental factors, and at that place exists a relationship of the biological profusion with country of the wood and the influence of biotic factors. Ecologists have established the relationship among these environmental and biotic factors with the biodiversity. Spots can be characterized based on their size, form, location, country etc. in through geospatial mold in Geographic Information Systems ( GIS ) . Therefore assorted factors can be at the same time considered and processed in GIS.
In this study, flora type map derived from orbiter informations was considered as premier input for landscape ecological analysis of forest ecosystem. Geographic Information System ( GIS ) is used to deduce landscape indices such as atomization, porousness, patchiness, spot denseness, interspersal and apposition, which depict landscape features. These indices were integrated with biotic force per unit area zones to picture perturbation gradient in the survey country.
Phytosociological informations collected from field sampling was analyzed to deduce species profusion, biodiversity value and ecosystem singularity of assorted forest types. Accessory databases such as propinquity from the roads/villages, terrain complexness etc. were derived in GIS sphere. All above inputs were integrated in systematic mode by delegating relevant weightages to deduce maps demoing perturbation gradient and biological profusion. The attendant maps highlight countries that are biologically rich.
2.1 Physical & A ; Climatic Status
The survey was carried out in the Shiwalik hills of Punjab province holding geographical country of 9448.97 km2 and situated in north western portion of the province. It lies between latitude 30o 34 ‘ 10 ” .
82 ” and 32o 33 ‘ 02.96 ” N and longitude 74o 50 ‘ 30.30 ” and 76o 52 ‘ 51.26 ” E.
It is loosely divided into sub-mountainous Himalayas and the eastern and western alluvial fields. The of import rivers run outing the part are the Sutlej and the Beas. The mean one-year rainfall varies between 400 to 600 millimeters and the average one-year temperature ranges from 22.
500 C to 25.00 C.
The composing of the Shiwalik sedimentations shows they are nil else than the alluvial debris derived from the bomber aerial waste of mountains, swept down by their legion rivers and watercourses and deposited at their pes. This procedure was really much like what the bing river systems of the Himalayas are making at present twenty-four hours on their emerging to the fields of Punjab. An of import difference is that the former alluvial sedimentations now doing up the Shiwalik systems have been involved in the latest Himalayan systems of turbulences, by which they have been folded and elevated into their outmost foot-hills, although the oldest alluvial sediment of many parts of northern India serves to bridge the spread between the newest Shiwaliks and the present alluvial sediment.
The Shiwalik system is a great thickness of detrital stones, such as coarsely bedded sandstones, sand-rock, clay and pudding stones, mensurating between 4,500 and 5,200 m in thickness. The majority of formation is really closely similar to the stuffs representing the modern alluvial sediment of rivers. The petrology of the Shiwliks suggests their beginning ; they are chiefly the water-worn dust of the flinty nucleus of the cardinal Himalaya, deposited in the long and wide vale of the Shiwaliks. The upper coarse pudding stones are the alluvial fans or talus-cones at the outgrowth of the mountain watercourses ; the great thickness of the clay and sand represents the silts and finer deposits of the river laid down in the lower field. The weathering of the Shiwalik stones has been continuing at an extraordinally rapid rate since their deposition, and purely disconnected signifiers of topography have been evolved in this comparatively brief period.
Gigantic escarpments and dip-slopes separated by wide longitudinal work stoppage vales and intersected by deep meandering ravines of the cross streams-surface characteristics, which are the most common elements of Shiwalik topography. The work stoppage is unusually changeless in a Northwest-Southeast way, with lone brief local swervings, while it is about ever in rigorous lifts.
3. Land Use PatternThe recorded wood country ( including dry deciduous chaparral ) of Shiwalik hills of Punjab province is 1599.42 km2, which constitutes 16.93 % entire geographic country.
The major wood types are dry deciduous, damp deciduous, dry deciduous chaparral and cone-bearing wood. The non-forest country such as agribusiness, grassland, H2O organic structure, canals, colonies, riverbed and bare land contributes 7849.55 km2 which constitutes 83.07 % of the entire geographical country.
3.1 Vegetation type
( a ) Northern dry mixed deciduous wood ( 5B/C2 )
In most vicinities the tree canopy has been earnestly broken by human activities, consequences in scattered tree and little bush. This wood is dominated by Acacia catechu, Anogeissus latifolia with the association of Lannea coromandalica, Aegle marmelos, Ehretia laevis, Mallotus philippensis, Nyctanthus arbor-tritis, Dendrocalamus strictus etc.
( B ) Dry bamboo brakes ( 5E9 )
Merely one species Dendrocalamus strictus occurs and signifiers comparatively low brakes with a scattering of the tree and bush of dry deciduous forest such as Anogeissus latifolia, Lannea coromandelica etc.
( degree Celsius ) Dry deciduous chaparral ( DS1 )
A low broken dirt screen of fruticose growing 3 to 6 m high including some tree species reduced to similar conditions, normally many stemmed from the base. The community is dominated by Woodfordia fruiticosa, Carrissa opaca, and Nyctanthus arbor-tristis with the some association Dodonaea viscosa, Aegle mormelos, Cassia fistulous withers, and Acacia catechu.
( vitamin D ) Khair-Sissu woods ( 5/1S2 )
Dalbergia sissu predominates in this association. The canopy is unfastened associated with Acacia catechu. The older forests have more or less definite under floor, which is chiefly composed of immature species and few species of Tamarix dioca, Acacia fernesiana, Cannabis sativa and grasses like Saccharum spontaneum, Erianthus Saccharum bengalense etc.
( vitamin E ) Shiwalik chirpine wood ( 9/C1 )
The pine stands singly or in groups with a scattered with lower deciduous tree narrative on the ridge and side inclines. There is normally a reasonably uninterrupted growing of xerophytic bush occurs as under-storey flora.
Pinus roxburghii is associated with Mallotus philippensis, Pyrus pashia, Syzygium cuminii, Albizzia chinensis, Acacia catechu, and Terminalia chebula.
( degree Fahrenheit ) Subtropical Euphorbia chaparral ( 9/C1/DS2 )
Euphorbia royleana signifiers consociations sometimes of considerable extent. Their distribution is related to edaphic factors, notably dry rocky ridges, where biotic force per unit area has been high.
Biodiversity word picture orbiter remotely sensed information is being used for deducing flora screen type map.
The flora type therefore derived represents the home grounds and their milieus. These spots of the different forest types occur indiscriminately as per the bing environmental conditions. Using landscape ecological principals these can be analyzed and quantified. Some of these parametric quantities are atomization, porousness, appositions, interspersal etc. and indices are derived to demo their features. Proximity of woods to route and small towns and their impact is established.
All these beds are overlaid to obtain perturbation index. Disturbance index image is the of import for qualifying and placing least or no disturbed countries ( Fig. 1 ) .
Land observations are taken through graded random trying in all the forest types. Their economic utilizations have been found from literature. Entire Importance Value ( TIV ) of each works is established for its value for nutrient, fuel wood, wood coal, lumber, medical specialty etc.
Ecosystem uniqueness is established from the list of the species found during study based on its representativeness, speciesFig 1: Approach for Biodiversity Characterization at Landscape Level UsingRemote Sensing and GIS ( after Roy et al. , 1998 )indigenousness etc. Biological profusion is obtained after incorporating species profusion, biological value, perturbation index, ecosystem uniqueness, terrain complexness.
5. Materials and Methodology
Following satellite distant feeling informations have been used for land screen and land usage categorization of the country ( Table 1 ) .Table 1: Detailss of orbiter informations used
IRS-1D LISS III934812 Oct.
2000IRS-1D LISS III944803 Nov. 2000IRS-1D LISS III944903 Nov. 2000IRS-1D LISS III954931 Oct. 2000IRS-1D LISS III955031 Oct. 20005.2 Ancillary informationsSurvey of India topo sheets on 1:50,000 have been used. Relevant literature on vegetation has been consulted.
2 Vegetation Cover type function
5.3.1 Preprocessing of orbiter informations
IRS-1D LISS-III information ( Oct, 2000 and March, 2001 ) were used to fix flora screen type map. A entire five scenes were loaded and each scene was rectified with regard to 1:50,000 graduated table SOI toposheet ( Entire 32 toposheets were used, geometrically corrected and mosaicked to a individual image ) . A 2nd order transmutation was followed.
Average root mean square mistake within one pel was maintained while fixing transmutation theoretical account. Lambert Conformal Conic projection ( LCC ) was used during rectification of image ( Fig. 2 ) . Each rectifiedFig. 2 FCCscene was subjected to radiometric rectification before mosaicing it to a individual mosaic image.
After extraction of needed country from this individual mosaic image, it was subjected to Supervised Maximum likelihood categorization utilizing the land truth information collected during the fieldwork.
5.3.2 Land truthing
Reconnaissance study was carried out in the country to get the cognition of the flora and other wide land utilizations. During reconnaissance information on the correlativity of image elements with that of land characteristics was besides obtained. Interpretation key was formulated and categorization was performed.
5.3.3 Vegetation Classification
Based on the a priori cognition supervised categorization method was followed. Training sites were selected and processed and the characteristics with high categorization truth were extracted. Using binary image the staying country was extracted and unsupervised categorization method was performed. The classified end product was eventually subjected intercrossed categorization attack to fix flora type map of the survey country demoing assorted flora types. The truth of the image was evaluated utilizing field cognition and the land truth information.
Along with the different types of wood, other general lands use / land screen categories were besides classified so as to understand the landscape of the part. Following wood categories have been delineated and a comparing with Champion and Seth ‘s ( 1968 ) categorizations strategy is given below ( Table 2 ) .List of the land screen and land usage classes identified on the orbiter informations.Moist deciduous woodDry deciduous woodDry deciduous chaparral ( Lantana )Coniferous forestGrass landPlantation/Avenue treesAgribusinessWater organic structureColonyRiverbed/Barren landTable 2: Vegetation categories compared With Champion & A ; Seth ‘s Categorization:
Satellite based categorization of flora types
Champion and Seth Classification ( 1968 )
Moist deciduous woodDry bamboo brakesKhair-sissu woodDry deciduous woodNorthern dry mixed deciduous forestDry deciduous woodDry deciduous chaparralSubtropical Euphorbia chaparralDry deciduous chaparralPineShiwalik chirpine wood
5.3 Field informations
One of the most of import constituents of biodiversity word picture is the information on workss or species richness.
Information on works species is farther processed for measuring other parametric quantities like Total Importance Value, Ecosystem Uniqueness, Biodiversity value etc. There it is of import that good distributed adequate sample are taken for information on species happening. Classified flora screen type has been used for happening the sample size. Sampling strength of 0.021 % has been done. Higher sample strength is adopted ( than recommended ) in position of variableness in the country.
5.4.1 Sampling design
Graded Random trying attack was followed and Numberss of sample points were distributed to its chance proportional to its size. Field information was collected from 74 sample points of 20×20 m size during October 2000 ( Table 3 ) . The sample secret plans of 20x20m were used for tree species and nested attack and nested attack has been followed for puting sample secret plans of 10x10m for bushs and 1x1m secret plan ( five secret plans ) for herbaceous bed.The information was collected on following parametric quantities in each of the sample secret plan.
Description of ecosystem and forest type including phenologySpeciess name and figure of persons for every speciesGirth at chest tallness in centimetresEconomic importance such as graze, medicative, human nutrient, fuel, lumber, wood coal and other utilizations such as industrial usage, rope devising, tanning leather etc. This importance value was collected by questioning local people questioning wherever possible and from literature.The information was analyzed for deducing assorted indices bespeaking biodiversity value, species profusion and ecosystem singularity for different forest types.Table 3: The distribution of sample points in each of the forest typesfound in all the Shiwalik Hills of Punjab province
No. of sample secret plans
Moist deciduous32Dry deciduous31Deciduous chaparral7Pine forest4
Database of all the species collected was created in MS Excel for farther processing, inside informations have been provided in the subdivision on phytosociological analysis.
6. Database Creation in GIS
In geo-spatial analysis integrating of spacial and non-spatial informations or vector informations is of import. As discussed earlier the biotic perturbation had played a really important function in bing biodiversity of sycophant. Database in GIS sphere provides chance to analyse their impact zones. Therefore, the undermentioned maps were digitized from accessory beginnings for their integrating:Village locations point and polygon characteristics )Road and railroad websContour lines with 20m intervalsThe route and colony maps were used as input in farther analysis for deducing perturbation gradient.
Contour map was used to fix digital terrain theoretical account utilizing ERDAS IMAGINE 8.4 package.
7. Landscape Analysis
The attacks for biodiversity word picture discussed in the literature contains several wide classs such as genetically based attack, species based attack, ecosystem based attack, and integrative attack. The attack adopted in present survey is integrative method that includes significance of ecological, societal, and cultural factors to the biodiversity in add-on to biological factors.
The attack used for the survey focuses on following facets:Rapid appraisal for monitoring of biodiversity loss and/or additionFunction of biological profusion to understand its spacial nature, that helps in planning and executingThe customized bundle “ Bio_CAP ” is developed at Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, Dehradun to transport out multi-criteria spacial analysis. The orbiter informations provide cardinal input i.e. flora type, which is used for deducing several landscape indices ( atomization, porousness, patchiness, interspersal, and apposition ) picturing position of forest ecosystem. Accessory database on roads and colonies has been used to fix propinquity buffer map and contour map is used to fix terrain complexness map. All these parametric quantities were integrated together with the field informations on species profusion, ecosystem uniqueness and biodiversity value.
The ultimate consequence is the map that depicts countries categorized as per perturbation index.
7.1 Landscape analysis utilizing Bio_CAP
The field informations, flora type map and accessory GIS information ( roads, small town locations, and contour ) were analyzed utilizing Bio_CAP ( Biodiversity Characterization Programme ) a customized bundle to fix assorted indices picturing landscape features.
Atomization has been the major cause of biodiversity loss and has been measured as a figure of forest and non-forest spots in per unit country.Patchiness is a step of the denseness of spots of all forest types or figure of bunchs in a given mask or country.Porosity is a step of figure of spots or denseness of spots within a peculiar type flora, usually primary flora type ( s ) , irrespective of spot size.Interspersion is a count of dissimilar neighbour pels ( characteristic ) with regard to cardinal pel ( characteristic ) of a peculiar grid or measuring of the spacial intermixing of the flora types.Juxtaposition is a step of propinquity and contiguity of two or more flora types. Higher weightage is given to the categories who portion or are likely to portion more boundary.Human influence zone is dependent on socio-economic set-up of the area/region and propinquity the forest resources and can change from 0.5 kilometers to 5 kilometer or even more.
Proximity buffer or zone of influence from the roads and human colonies has been prepared.
7.2 Disturbance Index:
Perturbation has direct impact on the happening of workss and animate beings or biodiversity. Disturbance regimes supply an penetration into the wedged country and its grade of impact under assorted flora or other natural resources.
Disturbance Index has been considered here as a map of atomization, porousness, patchiness, interspersal, apposition and influence zones or distance for the beginning. The analysis has been performed in the customized GIS bundle called Bio-CAP for this intent.
7.3 Biological Richness
Biological signifiers of any country reflect the environmental conditions back uping the growing and development.
Recently accent has been to look at the ecosystems ( micro-climatic fluctuations ) or landscape diverseness and its public-service corporation for preservation instead than one species. Therefore, the biological profusion here has been considered as a map of ecosystem uniqueness, biodiversity value, species richness, Terrain complexness ( computed through DTM by finding discrepancy in DTM values ) and most significantly disturbance index. The inside informations of these parametric quantities have been discussed elsewhere ( Roy et al. , 1999 ) .
8. Observation Highlights
1 Vegetation ClassificationHybrid attack has been followed to make the digital categorization of the information set ( Fig. 3 ) . Table 4 summarizes the consequences of categorization in the part. Forest types viz. , moist deciduous, dry deciduous, pine and dry deciduous chaparral together constitute about 1404.06 KmA? , which is about 14.65 per cent of the entire geographical country of the part.
Non-forest categories such as agribusiness, plantation, riverbed, bare land, colony, grassland and H2O organic structure makes up approximately 85.35 per cent of the geographical country. Amongst the woods, dry deciduous wood hasFig.3 classified mapbroad distribution in the part from Chandigarh to Pathankot and covers an country of 775.85 KmA? . Dry deciduous chaparral is the following dominant forest type of the part which is chiefly constituted with Lantana chaparral distributed throughout the part and so followed by moist deciduous forest found in Dhar, Pathankot, Dholba, Talwara, Nangal, Noorpur in a disconnected spots. And cone-bearing wood covers an country of 6.51 KmA? and is localized on the higher ridges or side inclines in the northern portion of the Pathankot territory.
Table 4: Area under different Land screen / land usage classes in the part
Land usage / screen category
Area in km2
Moist deciduous wood276.46Dry deciduous wood775.85Dry deciduous chaparral ( Lantana )345.24Coniferous forest6.51Grass land38.
24Plantation/Avenue trees211.04Agribusiness7443.22Water organic structure78.
9. Phyto-sociological analysis
Phytosociological analysis was carried out to understand the floristic and flora form in the part. For the phytosociological analysis the flora types were grouped into five major types. Based on the species country curves developed ab initio an optimized field secret plans size of 20×20 m was adopted uniformly for all the types. In each secret plan all the species names ; tallness, girth, herbs and bushs were recorded.
The phytosociological database was created and computed the basic structural parametric quantities viz. frequence, radical country and denseness. Using these parametric quantities the importance value index ( IVI ) was calculated for all the types ( Annexure-II ) .Fig.4: Graphic presentation of Land use/land cover types and theirDistribution.
9.1 Speciess profusion ( Shannon-Weaver Index )
Speciess profusion can be described as the figure of the species in a sample or habitat per unit country. Higher the value greater the species profusion.
Speciess profusion ( Shannon Weaver Index ) was measured utilizing importance value index ( Table 5, 6 ) . Dry deciduous wood shows highest diverseness ( 3.5361 ) with entire figure of 363 species followed by moist deciduous ( 3.0959 ) with moist deciduous woods so dry deciduous chaparral ( 2.2666 ) holding 77 species and cone-bearing wood shows least diverseness ( 1.6207 ) with 58 species ( Fig.
5 ) .Table 5: Biodiversity position in the Shiwalik hills of Punjab province
No. of Speciess
Entire no. of
Entire Importance Value
46Dry deciduous311417514736310.53Deciduous chaparral2571258779.75Pine1171536588.01Table 6: Forest type wise Shannon Weaver Index in the Shiwalik hills ofPunjab province
Average Basal Area ( M2 )
Index SWI ( H ‘ )
Moist deciduous38.4123.0959Dry deciduous22.9483.
9.2 Economically Important Speciess
Economically Important workss are the species, which have societal and economic value. In the Shiwalik hills of Punjab province 240 economically of import workss were recorded. The entire importance value ( TIV ) for each species was calculated sing 10 of import utilizations.
The parametric quantities considered are ( 1 ) . Food ( 2 ) . Fuel ( 3 ) . Fodder ( 4 ) . Fiber ( 5 ) . Timber ( 6 ) . Medicinal ( 7 ) . Oil ( 8 ) .
Gums/Resins ( 9 ) . Tannin and ( 10 ) . Others. These 10 parametric quantities have been weighted for a graduated table of 1 to 10 wherein maximal value represents highest economic value. Maximum entire importance value was observed in dry deciduous type ( TIV of 10.53 ) and cone-bearing type has the least value ( TIV of 8.01 ) ( Table 7 ) .
Some of the economically of import species are Acacia catechu, Achyranthes aspera, Adhatoda zeylanica, Ageratum conyzoides, Azadiracta indica, Cannabis sativa, Moringa oleifera, etc. List of 232 economically of import species and their utilizations were given in the Annexure II.
Fig 5: Speciess distribution in each wont type
Table 7: Entire Importance Value of different flora types
46Dry deciduous10.53Deciduous chaparral9.75Pine8.01
9.3 Medicative Plants
About 132 medicinally of import species have been recorded during the sampling. Medicative use of these workss happening in Shiwalik hills of Punjab have been compiled from available literature beginnings. Some of the of import medicinaly of import workss are Adhatoda zeylanica, Aegle marmelos, Azadirachta indica, Bacopa monnieri, Cordia dichotoma, Terminlaia chebula, Terminalia bellirica etc. and the list has bee furnished ( Annexure.
IV ) . Table 8 provide overview of the per cent utilizable species.Table 8: Percentage utilizable species for Entire Importance value ( TIV )
Doctor of divinity11.150.799.
9.4 Ecological importance:
The species recorded during the field informations aggregation were screened for their singularity with aid of RED DATA BOOK ( Anonymous, 1987, 1988, 1990 ) and many other mentions. All the species recorded were abundant in nature. However, two species were found to be rare, viz.
, Delphinium danudatum Wall. ex HK.f.Th and Peristylus constrictus ( Lindl. ) Lindl.
10. Consequences of Landscape analysis
Increasing anthropogenetic activities created discontinuity in the natural flora screen gets fragmented and the category becomes porous. Therefore, atomization analysis of a land usage category is an of import landscape feature, which defines the position of that category in the present twenty-four hours context. Among all the features of the landscape, atomization is more important. Hence, the consequences of atomization are being discussed. For analysis of atomization in the wood, the flora map was reclassified as wood and non-forest categories, which resulted in a new spacial bed. A grid cell of 250 ten 250m was derived which gets convoluted with the spacial informations bed with a standard of deducing figure of forest spots within the grid cell. Output values were normalized between 0-10.
For readying of atomization map, the normalized values were rescaled between 0 and 1 to specify four atomization categories. The atomization value up to 3 was given the probabilistic weightage of 0.2 and was considered as non-fragmented. Like wise a value up to 5 was assigned the weightage of 0.4 and was considered to the lowest degree disconnected ; a category value up to 8 was assigned a weightage of 0.6 and more than 8 as 0.8 and was considered extremely disconnected.
Thus the out put map consisted of four atomization categories. Figure 6 shows the atomization position in the part.Forest atomization is an a index of anthropogenetic activities demoing the extent of grade of the isolation of spots from the immediate country along with the habitat loss.
Fragmentation map stratified over the flora types, all the woods show important atomization. Dry deciduous chaparral showed comparatively higher grade of atomization ( 40.20 per cent ) fallowed by Dry deciduous wood ( 5.69 per cent ) . Moist deciduous wood showed least grade of atomization ( Table 9 and Fig. 7 ) .Fig 6 Fragmentation map
2 Disturbance index
Disturbance index ( DI ) or the biotic intervention is due to human activities, interacting with the wood. It is assumed that the small towns and transit web act every bit accelerator as the point beginning of perturbation. Therefore propinquity from conveyance web and colonies is considered as one factor for deducing the perturbation in the wood. The propinquity buffer from conveyance web and colonies were generated. Three propinquity buffers were generated from the roads and small towns, each of 500 metres, utilizing the BIO-CAP bundle.
Other landscape indices like atomization, porousness, interspersal, and apposition were besides estimated utilizing the customized package bundle.Porosity is calculated to gauge the figure of spots in a wood type. The out put statistics were sampled to a graduated table of 1 – 10. In order to present uniformity in the map end product, delegating probabilistic weightages to bring forth four categories of porousness rescaled it. The porousness degree up to 1 was given a lower value of 0.3: a porousness value up to 4 as 0.5 ; porousness level up to 7 as 0.
7 and the porousness degree up to 10 was assigned a value of 0.9.Interspersion, which is a step of intermixing of the flora type, is calculated by convolving 3 ten 3 window on flora type. The figure of dissimilar pels is counted.
It represents landscape diverseness and dispersal ability of the species. Higher interspersal indicated less dispersal ability of the flora type represented by the cardinal pel. Here once more a weightage of 0.
1 was assigned to interspersion degree up to 2 ; 0.5 up to level 3 ; 0.7 up to 5 and 0.9 to interspersion degree 6.Fig 7 Disturbance mapJuxtaposition measures the propinquity of home grounds and comparative importance of contiguity. It is taken to find proportion of border shared by cardinal way with the next spots. Relative importance of contiguity is taken attention by delegating weightages to possible associations.
The common regulations to delegate weightages are ( 1 ) natural forest adjacent to natural forest – Highest weightage ; ( 2 ) Natural forest adjacent to agribusiness and other adult male made features-Lowest weightage and ( 3 ) natural forest adjacent to upset forest-Medium weightage. All the above indices were integrated to fix the map picturing the perturbation prevailing in the part ( Figure 8 ) .Figure 8 shows the degrees of perturbation in the forest country of the part. The perturbation degrees were grouped in four categories. Class1 defines low perturbation, category 2 medium perturbations, category 3 high perturbation and category 4 as really high perturbation part. Deciduous chaparral showed higher grade of perturbation ( 50.
77 per cent and 16.79 per cent in high and really high classs severally ) .Pine forest showed least perturbation ( 11.04 per cent and 8.
71 per cent in high and really high classs severally ) followed by moist deciduous wood ( 17.98 per cent and 14.27 per cent in high and really high classs severally ( Table 10 and Fig. 9 ) .
10.3 Biological profusion
Biological profusion ( BR ) map generated for the Shiwalik hills of Punjab province, is a map of perturbation index, terrain complexness, species richness, biological value and ecosystem singularity ( Fig. 10 ) . The four categories defined for the intent are category 1 ( Low ) ; category 2 ( Medium ) ; category 3 ( High ) and category 4 ( Very high ) .
In order to bring forth the biological profusion map, the above inputs were assigned probabilistic weightages. In the context of landscape word picture, woods of Shiwalik hills of Punjab province are reasonably rich in some disconnected packages. Deciduous wood showed high grade of profusion ( 55.
09 per cent and 12.86 per cent in high and really high classs severally ) followed by moist deciduous wood ( 17. 92 in high and 16.19 in really high classs. Deciduous chaparral shows least profusion ( 13.
96 per cent in high and 1.61 per cent in really high classs ) as compared to ache forest ( Table 11 and Fig. 11 ) .
11. Discussion and Decision
Biodiversity of Punjab Shiwaliks is confronting menace due to assorted developmental activities. Satellite remote feeling informations provide much needed qualitative information on the land screen and land usage form of the part.
Geospatial information is important for their direction for long-run benefits. Attempts directed towards preservation of one or a few species have restrictions and therefore it is indispensable to see biodiversity preservation in its entireness i.e. at landscape degree.
Disturbance is one of the major factors for biodiversity loss, and the forest spots represent biodiversity depending on the bing environmental conditions and associations. Landscape rules like atomization, porousness, interspersal, apposition etc. let us to set up the perturbation gradient. The analysis done through remote detection and GIS and phytogeographical analysis revealed that bulk of the country is extremely disturbed and therefore it is affair of great concern for biodiversity preservation. Shiwalik hills are faced with increasing anthropogenetic activities and forest landscape are invaded by worlds in the name of development. Large countries are under chaparral and demand protection to avoid farther site debasement.
The part has a big figure of medicative workss. Biorich countries are restricted to certain countries and disconnected pockets. The Moist deciduous woods were found to look with highest biological profusion so followed by dry deciduous wood. A lantana chaparral invaded the porous landscape. These biodiversity ‘refugia ‘ in the unique and delicate ecosystem of Shiwaliks need to be protected on precedence for future prosperity.Fig 8 BR mapTable 9: Atomization position of the flora of Shiwalik Hills of Punjab province
Moist deciduous226.74( 81.
93 )41.74( 15.08 )7.58( 2.74 )0.
68( 0.25 )Dry deciduous604.11( 77.82 )125.14( 16.
12 )43.73( 5.63 )3.36( 0.
43 )Deciduous chaparral153.88( 44.51 )37.31( 10.79 )15.54( 4.49 )139( 40.20 )Pine4.98( 76.15 )1.29( 19.72 )0.23( 0.00 )0.04( 0.61 )Numbers in parentheses denote values in per centumFig 9: Forest type wise Fragmentation position of Vegetation of Shiwalik Hills ofPunjab provinceTable 10: Degree of perturbation of the flora
Moist deciduous wood40.88( 14.78 )146.49( 52.97 )49.73( 17.98 )39.46( 14.27 )Dry deciduous wood57.58( 7.43 )193.93( 25.01 )393.63( 50.77 )130.15( 16.79 )Dry deciduous chaparral16.91( 4.85 )39.13( 11.23 )163.91( 47.04 )128.47( 36.87 )Pine0.91( 14.15 )4.25( 66.01 )0.71( 11.04 )0.56( 8.71 )* Numbers in parentheses denote values in per centumFig. 10: Degree of perturbation of the assorted flora screen typesTable 11: Status of Biological profusion
Moist deciduous wood46.54( 16.81 )42.19( 15.24 )152.53( 55.09 )35.59( 12.86 )Dry deciduous wood77.34( 9.97 )434.41( 56.00 )139.02( 17.92 )124.95( 16.11 )Dry deciduous chaparral235.17( 68.20 )55.95( 16.23 )48.13( 13.96 )5.56( 1.61 )Pine3.25( 52.76 )1.6( 25.97 )1.03( 16.72 )0.28( 4.55 )* Numbers in parentheses denote values in per centumFig. 11 Forest type wise position of Biological profusion