Iycee Charles de Gaulle Summary The Strategic Management Process in Indian Telecommunications Essay

The Strategic Management Process in Indian Telecommunications Essay

About Bharti Airtel

Bharti Airtel limited is a taking planetary telecommunications company with operations in 19 states across Asia and Africa. The company offers nomadic voice & A ; informations services, fixed line, high velocity broadband, IPTV, DTH, prison guard telecom solutions for endeavors and national & A ; international long distance services to bearers. The company has 200 million clients across its operations. It is the 3rd largest radio operator in the universe and the largest incorporate private telecom company in India.Key fiscal prosodies

Metric function

FY 10 ( in manganese )

Customers137.0GrossUSD 9271Earnings before interest taxes depreciation and amortizationUSD 3714Cash Net incomeUSD 3710Net IncomeUSD 1989EBITDA Margin ( % )40.

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Industry: Telecommunication

The Indian telecommunications industry is one of the fastest growth in the universe, with about 19 million add-ons a month. The industry has witnessed consistent growing during the last twelvemonth on the dorsum of rollout of newer circles by operators, successful auction of third-generation ( 3G ) and broadband wireless entree ( BWA ) spectrum, web rollout in semi-rural countries and increased focal point on the value added services ( VAS ) market.at that place have been several new entrants in the markets recently.

This has led to of all time take downing duties and a lessening in the gross of bing participants. Fresh acquisition of clients is no longer a warrant to increase in gross. Consequently, in add-on to the lower naming rates, the operators have been forced to supply a host of value added and subsidiary services. To retain its leading place, Airtel is already taking the manner in countries of nomadic commercialism, banking etc.As the Indian telecom industry enters its 3rd stage, growing in the markets is bound to mirror the growing in the economic system.

This provides valuable arrows to the following driver of growing – the rural India – where nomadic incursion degrees still remain an abysmal 15 % . Airtel has been looking to spread out and larn in the rural/low income market section. Airtel has already ventured into supplying nomadic fiscal services, nomadic money transportations to clients in rural countries, farther leveraging its bing base of cellular endorsers.

Vision and Mission

Vision“ By 2015, Airtel will be the most loved trade name, enriching the lives of 1000000s. ”MissionWe will run into theA mobileA communicationA demands of ourA client through A error-free service bringingAdvanced Product and ServiceCost efficiencyUnified messaging solutionObjectives/GoalsTo set about transformational undertakings that have a positive impact on society and contribute to the state edifice procedureTo diversify into new concerns in agribusiness, fiscal services and retail concern with universe category spousesTo put the foundation for constructing a pudding stone for future.Environment Analysis

Swot: Internal and External Perspective

Porter ‘s Five Forces ( Cellular Services )


Menace of new entrants-MEDIUM

TRAI has been following a “ broad regulative government ” to promote greater competition with better quality and low-cost monetary values ”The authorities soon allows FDI of 76 % in the sector, encouraging foreign participants to come in the Indian market.Heavy capex demands and rigorous licensing policy hinders entry

2. Dickering Power of buyers- VERY HIGH

Lack of merchandise differentiation- There are short term additions that one participant may hold from innovation/ foremost mover advantage into a new value added serviceHighly low exchanging costs in traveling from 1 service supplier to anotherMultiple service providers- really broad assortment of pick for the clients.Competitive landscape implies systematically better offers and trades for clients.


Dickering power of suppliers-VERY LOW

Airtel outsources most of its operations. Since contracts are allocated to the highest bidder, Airtel merely looks at acquiring the best trade. This mechanism provides Airtel with a high grade of flexibleness.

For eg. Network outsourcing/maintenance spouses: Ericsson ( 15 circles ) , Siemens ( 7 circles ) , Huawei. , IT system spouse: IBM, Tower care and other substructure: Bharti Infratel and Indus towers.

4. Pressure from substitutes-HIGH

The communications infinite is really dynamic with new engineering ( 3G and 4G ) and merchandises deluging the market. Mobile services are viing with merchandises such as, Wired-lines, CDMA, Video telephone, Tata/ Reliance- Walky phones, Internet telephony- Skype, Google, fring etc, VSAT phones.Additionally, informations services on cellular phones have become an indispensable merchandise characteristic. On this forepart, nomadic services face a important menace from local ISPs, broadband service, leased lines, Blackberry and iPad.

5. Current Rivalry- MEDIUM-HIGH

Airtel is the current market leader in the nomadic service ( GSM ) sector with 31 % market portion. Vodafone, BSNL, Idea are its major rivals.Competitive AdvantageAirtel has the undermentioned competitory advantages:

Strategic confederations: Acquisitions and JVs

Airtel has been come ining into assorted JVs and acquisitions to increase its footmark every bit good as planetary presence.

The house has interest in JT Mobiles, Sky Cell etc. With the acquisition of Zain and other participants, Airtel has used this scheme efficaciously to go a planetary participant


Airtel has a clear outsourcing scheme. It outsources all its maps except selling, gross revenues and finance ; this has helped the steadfast focal point on its nucleus competences. Further due to its market leading place and volume of its operations, there are multiple bidders ; which has ensured high quality service/products for Airtel

Supplier Relationships

Airtel has strong relationships with its providers. It relies on Bharti Infratel for towers, IBM for IT systems etc. It is able to prolong its advanced concern theoretical account, by concentrating on relationship direction with sellers

International Presence

Airtel ‘s planetary presence and deep pockets are a beginning of competitory advantage for the house.

Value Chain AnalysisThe traditional Mobile industry value concatenation fundamentally involved the Mobile operator, service supplier, device maker and the client. However the nomadic services industry is quickly germinating with value added services, informations services etc. deriving significance. These are a really profitable gross watercourse for the service supplier.For illustration in the value added services section, the web operator keeps about 60 % of gross, the technology/software developer retains about 25 % , while the content supplier gets approximately 20 % of the gross from value added services ( Beginning: IMRB Research ) .Degree centigrades: UsersadminDocumentsXLRITerm 1Marketing ManagementValue chain_mobile operators.

jpgWith M-Commerce contents going progressively of import in the value concatenation, it is seen that the operator portion in the value concatenation has been worsening. Airtel has been binding up with amusement suppliers, FMCGs, insurance companies to keep a portion in the value concatenation. From a scheme position, this should be one of the focal point countries for Airtel. C: UsersadminDocumentsXLRITerm 1Marketing ManagementValue chain_Operator share.pngBusiness Level StrategyAirtel cellular service follows a cost leading scheme.

The market focal point is broad- with the house providing to 137 million clients as of FY10. Further, since distinction is really short lived and instantly imitated by rivals ; houses attempt to keep a cost advantage over their rivals. Airtel has maintained its cost leading by cut downing its operational costs and its alone concern model- which outsources all major maps except, gross revenues, selling and finance.

Differentiation is besides attempted with the aid of value added services. While there are several participant in the market, including the new entrants, Bharti-Airtel, Rcom and BSNL are the lone participants to derive a differential advantage on the history of bing infrastructural capableness.DifferentiationFocused distinctionCost leadership- AIRTEL CELLULARFocused CostIntegratedCompetitive ScopeNarrowBroadBeginning of competitory advantageDifferentiationCostCorporate Level StrategyBharti Airtel has been divided into distinguishable concern units, as follows:The Mobile Services division is likely the most valuable division of Bharti Airtel. Airtel offers GSM Mobile services in all the 23-telecom circles of India and is the largest nomadic service supplier in the state, based on the figure of clients. It provides legion value added services such as nomadic apps, hullo melodies, m-commerce, wireless cyberspace etc.The Airtel Telemedia Services division provides high velocity broadband cyberspace and related services.

It besides provides landline service in 93 metropoliss across India. It besides launched its DTH services in 2008 and is present in more than 150 metropoliss now.The Enterprise Services division provides a diverse portfolio of services to big Enterprise and Carrier clients.

This division is farther divided into two unite: Carrier concern unit and Corporate concern unit.The Corporate Business Unit provides terminal to stop telecom solutions to India ‘s big corporate. It specializes in supplying customized solutions to turn to the alone demands of different industry verticals.The Carrier Business Unit provides long distance sweeping voice and informations services to bearer clients every bit good as to other concern units of Airtel. It is present in important capacity in the International sphere as well.DifferentiationFocused distinctionCost leadership- AIRTEL CELLULARFocused CostIntegratedCompetitive ScopeNarrowBroadBeginning of competitory advantageDifferentiationCostThe Digital Television Services provides clients with a alone Television sing experience with a broad assortment of channels and programmes and with the on-demand content on Airtel Live.The international concern group trades with all of Airtel ‘s operations outside India and South Asia.Bharti Airtel has relatively low degrees of variegation, and it follows a Dominant Business scheme.

The 2nd one-fourth financials of Airtel show that its Mobile services division had a gross gross of Rs. 8099 crore, which is approximately 82 % of its entire gross of Rs. 9846 crore.Therefore its Mobile services division is its dominant concern.The grounds for Airtel to diversify are strictly based on value creative activity.

As all its divisions focus chiefly on telecommunication and related engineerings, the transportation of nucleus competences becomes much easier and much more utile. Furthermore sharing activities and resources, particularly technological cognition, is really helpful and creates a positive synergism for Airtel. It besides gives Airtel to increase its market power by prosecuting in multipoint competition with rivals such as Tata. Further it provides efficient internal capital allotment chances to airtel, as the maintained net incomes from its enormously profitable Mobile services can be put to good usage in other divisions.

Value creative activity through variegation

Airtel seeks to make value through variegation by traveling across concerns that portion both operational and corporate relatedness. With this attack, it expects to accomplish high resource sharing and accordingly, important cost decrease.It looks at operational relatedness since a figure of its concerns operate across similar engineerings and therefore the platform for a given merchandise can be used straight for widening the service from a wholly new merchandise. As an illustration, the overseas telegrams for a telephone connexion provided by Airtel can be used to supply broadband service to the client without any important alteration in substructure.

The accomplishments required from the technicians are besides non really different and therefore economic systems of graduated table are rather possible. The same logic can be extended to researching the corporate relatedness. All the diversified concerns require similar managerial and proficient expertness as can be seen in the illustration provided above.In prosecuting this scheme, Airtel will hold to be witting of the fact that it can take to diseconomies of range. This can originate chiefly from the really factor which Airtel is banking on – similarity across its concerns. A incorrect move in any one of the concerns can slop over to its other concern and cause reverberations even in the short term. This is the really ground that the organisation can non afford to ‘go easy ‘ on any of its spheres and demands to maintain up to rush in all its concerns.International StrategyToday Bharti Airtel operates in 19 states throughout the universe.

Apart from being the largest cellular service supplier in India, it is the 5th largest telecom operator in the universe. It has approximately 207.8 million endorsers worldwide – 152.5 million in India, 50.3 million are in Africa. This has helped Airtel to increase its planetary market portion and grosss significantly.

International Business Level Strategy

We will see this in farther item utilizing Porter ‘s Determinants of National Advantage theoretical account:It is deserving detecting here that after the Indian subcontinent, Airtel ‘s chief part of operation is Africa. It is possible that the company found it attractive to come in Africa because due to its economic conditions, states there would be missing in necessary factors of production.

Domestic companies in Africa would be missing in technological resources, human resources, and capital necessary in the telecommunications sector. On the other manus, there is no deficiency of such resources in India. This is one of the major grounds why Airtel chose to spread out at that place.Although the demand for services provided by Airtel is increasing at a rapid gait in India, there is still a batch of competition and the demand is smoothing out easy. To farther increase its grosss and market portion Airtel has to spread out to other states as good. Due to the deficiency of being of au naturel minimal substructure in Africa and the slow but steady addition in its economic well being, the demand conditions over there should be really high.The related and back uping industries are besides really competitory and there are a batch of participants in the telecommunication sector, like Vodafone, BSNL and Reliance.

International Corporate Level Strategy

The concern of Airtel has been divided into two units based on geographics.

Need for cost responsivenessThere are three basic international corporate degree schemes availaible to any house:Need for local reactivityAirtel has ever made it a point to concentrate on the demands of clients and supply solutions to clients harmonizing to their demands. For illustration, the nomadic services that they offer vary even among the different provinces of India harmonizing to clients ‘ penchants. Similarly, the sort of services, offers, programs and value add-on that they offer in India is really different than what they offer in other states. For Airtel, need to turn to local reactivity has ever been of the extreme importance.On the other manus, the demand for planetary integrating is non really high. The two concern groups, as shown above, are distinguishable from each other. Due to the deficiency of propinquity of the locations where Airtel operates, and other strategic factors, it is best for Airtel to hold low degrees of planetary integrating.

Keeping the above points in head, it is clear that Airtel follows a multidomestic scheme.Organizational StructureBharti Airtel follows an incorporate construction responsible for all facets of its telecom concern in India. Significant reorganisation took topographic point in October 2006 in line with the vision of doing Airtel, the most admired trade name in India by 2010.

As quoted by their president, it is their enterprise to construct an incorporate concern, taking to higher synergisms & A ; efficiencies and making an organisation that has a truly national character in every facet of concern operations. The present construction marks the passage of Airtel towards a client focused organisation while constructing sustainability & A ; scalability to seamlessly pull off 100 million clients and beyond. The new organisation has been designed to enable strong corporate administration whilst guaranting operational freedom, through functional & A ; matrix describing relationships.

Actual Structure

Bharti Airtel is structured into four strategic concern units – Mobile services, Broadband & A ; Telephone ( B & A ; T ) services, Enterprise services and DTH services.

The nomadic concern provides nomadic & A ; fixed radio services utilizing GSM engineering across 23 telecom circles. The B & A ; T concern provides broadband & A ; telephone services in 94 metropoliss. The Enterprise services provide end-to-end telecom solutions to corporate clients and national and international long distance services to bearers. All these services are provided under the Airtel trade name. The top degree direction of Airtel across its four divisions is as shown in the undermentioned figure.In the instance of Airtel, a matrix organisation construction introduces, or at least recognizes, the existent life complexness of a concern environment. Geography, map, engineering, concern unit and engineering ( among others ) are the of import factors that are recognized in the matrix organisations construction.

However, the above mentioned construction besides introduces a higher degree of internal complexness and some extra people direction challenges, so there must be important advantages that are seen by the organisation that outweigh the matrix people direction challenges.Matrix organisation constructions were ab initio introduced in complex undertakings such as the air space industry to get by with complex undertakings. Since so a figure of organisations, frequently prompted by big scheme consultancies, have adopted or altered the matrix organisation construction to assist cover with internal and external complexness.In the undermentioned figure, a sample matrix organisational construction is shown. In the instance of Airtel, the undertaking director refers to the directors of the different services provided by Airtel across its divisions. It is clear that this allows for sharing of resources across the assorted undertakings.

At its simplest the matrix organisation construction merely reflects this external complexness in the internal construction. Airtel is a trade name that is taking for a planetary presence and realizes that geographics is of import but so are map, client grouping, merchandise and engineering.Basically, a matrix organisation construction is an recognition of the impression that since it is unlikely to stipulate the weightage of importance that can be attributed to these factors, there is a demand to let a construction that is flexible and permits equilibrating and prioritising on a day-to-day footing between the assorted divisions. Therefore there is a witting tradeoff for lucidity in return for more flexibleness.

An of import issue to see here is that while the organisation construction itself is a good tantrum for Airtel, a batch of accent demands to be laid on the successful coordination of the people and their accomplishment sets within the organisation.


As a outline, the advantages reaped by Airtel as a consequence of its organisational construction include:Improved resource handiness across the old functional and geographic silos.Effective coordination on shared engineerings across the organisation ( extended to a planetary degree )Decentralization of direction determinationsImproved entree to a diverse scope of accomplishments and positions.

increased communicating and coordination across the concernFlexible as per the demands of planetary or regional clients

Structural Issues

Double coverage constructions run a hazard of originating power battles. Double lines of authorization in the matrix frequently create power battles between the perpendicular and sidelong forces as each attempts to procure member trueness and budget rupees.Teams may develop ‘groupitis ‘ , the matrix depends on squad operation, there may be an overdependence on group decision-making even where it is unneeded.

This can decelerate down undertakings and farther be a point of defeat for people directors.It is a widely acknowledged fact that the matrix construction increases administrative operating expense, it besides ideally suits the progressive development of new thoughts into undertakings. However, when a slack hits, one common inclination is to fling the matrix in favour of more traditional attacks. The matrix can go a whipping boy for inefficiencies.Decision choking – matrix organisational constructions legitimize multiple information flows throughout the organisation, making the danger that excessively much information will be processed before a determination will be made. Some undertaking directors may experience compelled to look into with everyone on every undertaking determination.Corporate AdministrationCorporate Governance is a set of mechanisms used to pull off their relationship among stakeholders and to find and command the strategic way and public presentation of administrations. An administration is owned by its stockholders but is managed by the ownership ( Chief Agent Issues ) .

Many a times the determinations taken by the direction may non be in the best involvements of the stockholders and therefore Agency costs arise. To guarantee that such a scenario does non originate it is indispensable for the house to hold strong corporate administration tools.BhartiA Airtel limited steadfastly believes in the rules of Corporate Governance and is committed to carry on its concern in a mode, which will guarantee sustainable, capital-efficient and long-run growing thereby maximizing value for its stockholders, clients, employees and society at big. Company ‘s policies are in line with Corporate Governance guidelines prescribed under Listing Agreement/s with Stock Exchanges and the Company ensures that assorted revelations demands are complied in ‘letter and spirit ‘ for effectual Corporate Governance.

As cogent evidence of the excellence of Bharti Airtel in the Corporate Administration it has been Rated ‘Level 1 ‘ by CRISIL which is the highest Administration and Value Creation evaluation ( GVC ) .One manner to guarantee strong corporate administration is by holding independent managers on the board of Directors. Their exclusive intent is to guarantee that the determinations taken by the direction are in the best involvements of the stockholders.In order to guarantee that this corporate administration tool is a sound cheque, Airtel has ensured the followers:The board has 2 executive members and 14 non executive members. 50 % of the members of the board are independent managers which is a good mark of corporate administration.

The board meets on a regular basis outside the presence of direction.The president of the board is non the Chief executive officer or a former Chief executive officer of the house. Else it may impair the ability and willingness of independent board members to show sentiments contrary to those of direction.Independent board members have a primary or taking board member in instances where the president is non independent.Board members are non closely aligned with a house provider, client, share-option program or pension adviser.

This may take to a struggle of involvement scenario.Another suited agencies of alining the involvements of the stockholders with that of the direction is by agencies of altering the construction of executive compensation. Having parametric quantities such as stock options as portion of the wage will guarantee that direction will take determinations that benefit both the shareholders every bit good as themselves indirectly. This a scheme that is used extensively at Airtel peculiarly every bit far as the top direction compensation goes.Other Corporate Governance Initiatives taken by Airtel areStockholdersBoard of DirectorsAudit CommitteePull offing DirectorHR/ RemunerationManagement & A ; OperationssESOP CompensationInvestor GrudgeCorporate Governance Mechanisms at AirtelAudit CommitteeSix members, two-third of which is independent managers.At least four times a twelvemonth.

( Max clip spread – 4 months )The Committee Chairman shall go to the Annual General Meeting.To guarantee that the fiscal statements are true and accurate and supply sufficient information.Recommending to the Board, the assignment, re-appointment and, if required, the replacing or remotion of the statutory hearer and the arrested development of their audit fees.Human Resource ( HR ) / Remuneration CommitteeSix non-executive managers, out of which four members including the president are independent managers.

Attraction and Retention schemes for employees.Employees Development Strategies.CompensationAll Human Resources related issue.ESOP Compensation CommitteeConstituted in conformity with SEBI Guidelines, 1999.Six members of whom four are independent and all are non-executiveFormulate ESOP programs and make up one’s mind on future grants.

Formulate footings and conditions Employee Stock Option Schemes of the CompanyInvestor Grievance CommitteeConstituted in conformity with Clause 49 of the Listing Agreement.Four members of whom three members including the Chairman, are non-executive managersEnsure speedy disposal of assorted petitions received from stockholdersfrom clip to clip ( within 7-10 yearss from the day of the month of reception ofailment ) .Redressal of stockholders and investor complaints/ grudges.

Monthly meetingThe above detailed enterprises clearly point towards the importance that Airtel gives to Corporate Governance and this is farther reaffirmed by Level 1 evaluation for GVC by CRISIL once more in 2006.Organizational ControlsThey guide the usage of scheme, bespeak how to compare existent consequences with expected consequences and suggest disciplinary steps when the difference is unacceptable. It is an of import portion of the organizational construction and its key to a houses plans to work its nucleus competences.The organizational controls can be loosely classified asStrategic control: It is used to find the tantrum between what a house might perchance make on the footing of chances in the environment and what it can make on the footing of its nucleus competences and competitory advantages. In other words, the procedure of measuring scheme, is practiced both after the scheme is formulated and after it is implementedFiscal controls: They are used to mensurate the public presentation of the house against set thresholds and analyze the grounds for being unable to run into them if the instance by. Such controls by and large include steps like Return on Investment ( RoI ) , Return on Assets ( RoA ) .Management control: It focuses on the achievement of the aims of the assorted bomber schemes consisting the maestro scheme and the achievement of the aims of the intermediate programs.

Operational control: It is concerned single and group public presentation as compared with the person and group function prescriptions required by organisational programs.Each of these types of control is non a separate and distinguishable entity and, in fact, may be identical from others. Furthermore, similar measuring techniques may be used for each type of control.While both Financial and strategic controls are of import the extent of importance accorded to each is determined by the house scheme.

Airtel which is following a cost leading scheme focuses more on fiscal controls more than strategic 1s.However a house should non acquire excessively carried off along merely one set of controls as that would ache the long term sustainability. So if a house focuses merely on strategic controls while giving a cold shoulder to fiscal 1s, it may shortly confront a scenario wherein it will run out of hard currency.The organisational control to a really big extent is determined by the Organisation Structure.

RecommendationsSing the heavy atomization of the Indian Mobile market, we propose the undermentioned recommendations so as to guarantee that Airtel continues to be the market leader in this sphere.As the above figure suggests, there has been a heavy inflow of new participants in this sphere of late which has seen the market portion of Airtel autumn from above 50 % to approximately 30 % in half a decennary. This means that Airtel should look at hereto untapped markets specially in developing states with low incursion. Therefore following the Multi Domestic scheme more sharply is important to go on successFurthermore the ARPU ( Average Revenue per User ) in India is reasonably low. Therefore more acquisitions like that of Zain telecom ( ARPU of $ 55 V Bharti ARPU $ 7 ) makes sense. There is no point in proliferating the figure of endorsers if Airtel can non bear down them at competitory monetary valuesSince the competition in India has intensified, most participants are prosecuting a monetary value war which can be hurtful to the company ‘s short term chances. Herein Airtel should leverage its ‘ strong web and trade name equity and non prosecute in a monetary value war and attempt in move towards an integrated cost leadership/differentiation scheme.The urban market incursion is about 95 % and hence the lone manner of spread outing grosss from this watercourse is by presenting quality VAS ( Value Added Services ) .

These give high border services and are traveling to be in much greater demand as the smart phone market crestless waves. Entry and quality inventions into this niche sphere ( soon ) would give it a large first mover ‘s advantage.Forging strategic confederations with nomadic phone makers specially those of high terminal French telephones will be a great manner to tap the premium section. This section frequently has really high use and contributes significantly to the gross watercourse.

By locking them in with Airtel at the point of purchase itself, Airtel guarantees itself a long client life-time value. Besides given the economic jet, many such participants have expressed their acute involvement to come in the Indian markets.