The republic of cyprus Essay
The Republic of Cyprus is an island in the Eastern Mediterranean ( portion of the Middle East ) , located 35 stat mis south of Turkey and 64 stat mis southwest of Syria. It is the 3rd largest island in the Mediterranean after Sicily and Sardinia, with an country of 9.251 sq kilometer.The island ‘s strategic place, its Cu sedimentations and its lumber attracted the first Greeks who came to the island over 3,000 old ages ago at the terminal of the Trojan wars.
They settled down conveying in with them and set uping the Grecian individuality, linguistic communication and civilisation. Over the centuries Cyprus came under the sway of assorted swayers including the Egyptians, Assyrians, Persians, the replacements to Alexander the Great and the Romans, before Cyprus became portion of the Byzantine Empire. Later came the Crusaders, the Lusignans and Venetians, Ottomans and British. Cyprus won its independency in 1960, for the first clip in 3.500 old ages, but the Grecian individuality of linguistic communication and civilization has been retained. In July 1974 Turkey invaded Cyprus and since so 37 % of the island in the North, is being illicitly occupied by Turkish military personnels who acted in misdemeanor of all rules regulating international dealingss.
Nicosia, the capital metropolis, is located centrally on the island. It is divided into two subdivisions, with Turkish and Grecian communities separated by a bastioned boundary line. Limassol, one of Cyprus ‘ chief ports, is the 2nd bigger town and under development metropolis. The most of import metropoliss in Northern Cyprus are Famagusta and Kyrenia.
Cyprus consists of two cragged parts, separated by the Mesaoria field. The Troodos, the southern mountain group, is taller with the highest extremum, Mount Olympus, lifting two 1000 metres above sea degree. The Kyrenia mountain group, in the North, is approximately half as high ; the Pentadaktylos Mountain is really dramatic with a extremum resembling five fingers.
The islands ‘ propinquity to southwest Asia makes it one of the hottest parts of the Mediterranean, and during the summer high force per unit area coming up from North Africa keeps the temperatures high.From ancient times Cyprus was called the “island of the sun” because the Sun radiances for 340 yearss a twelvemonth. Its clime is considered one of the healthiest in the universe. Infectious diseases are practically unknown.
The clime of Cyprus ne’er fails to please its visitants and every season has a appeal and beauty of its ain. The Sun shines continuously and mean annual temperatures rise to 30A° C ( 86A° F ) .The clime is equable, with an copiousness of cheery yearss throughout the twelvemonth even in December and January ; there is an norm of six hours of bright sunshine per twenty-four hours.
The mean daytime temperature from June to September is 32oC, from December to February 16oC and the other five months 25oC.Winters are mild with some rain and snow on Troodos Mountains ( normally get downing before Christmas ) and with mean daytime temperatures around 16A°C. Most of the rain in Cyprus falls between December and February, with the island averaging 40 yearss of rainfall each twelvemonth.
From the topmost point of Mount Olympus to the seashores and sweeping fields, Cyprus is nature ‘s island. Many keen wild flowers grow in glorious profuseness in springtime. Trees, bushs and workss luxuriate in the Mediterranean sunlight all twelvemonth unit of ammunition. Bright bougainvillea blazes vividly against white walls, reflecting its luster in the crystal clear Waterss.
Right through this brilliant vegetation of the island an every bit brilliant and alone carnal land emerges. From reptilians and amphibious vehicles, to set down mammals and fish. Cyprus is besides prized for its bird life, and the migratory birds that use the state as a way station are thirstily awaited between seasons.With its about 1,800 species and races of blooming workss, Cyprus, is an highly interesting topographic point and has all the properties, which make it a phytologist ‘s Eden.
Bing an island, it is sufficiently isolated to let the development of a strong endemic blossoming component. At the same clip being surrounded by large continents, it incorporates botanological elements of the adjacent land multitudes. About 8 % of the autochthonal workss of the island, 125 different species and races, are endemic. The island ‘s great assortment of home grounds, attributed to a varied microclimate and geology, is the chief ground, which contributed to this high figure of endemics.The contemporary zoology of Cyprus includes some 7 species of land mammals, 26 species of amphibious vehicles and reptilians, 357 species of birds, a great assortment of insects and touchs, while the coastal Waterss of the island give shelter to 197 fish species and assorted species of pediculosis pubis, sponges and echinoderma. The largest wild animate being that still lives on the island is the Cyprus mouflon, a rare type of wild sheep that can merely be found in Cyprus. The sea animals include seals and polo-necks, though unluckily the Monk seal no longer strains in the coastal sea caves of the island.
On the other manus two Marine polo-necks, the Green polo-neck ( Chelona mydas ) and the Loggerhead polo-neck ( Caretta Caretta ) have been found to engender on a regular basis on the island ‘s flaxen beaches and are purely protected.Cyprus is used by 1000000s of birds as a stepping-stone during their migration from Europe to Africa and back, something that has been observed since Homeric times. The chief ground for that is the happening on the island of two wetlands, with alone and international importance, viz. Larnaca and Akrotiri salt lakes.The birds of Cyprus outnumber 350 species, about 200 of which are passage migrators.
Some 46 occupants and 27 migratory species breed on a regular basis on the island while the endemic species ( alone to Cyprus ) are around 10. From the legion wild birds of Cyprus, birds of quarry are the most absorbing and amongst them the Eleonora ‘s falcon ( Falco eleonorae ) and the imperial bird of Jove ( Aquila heliaca ) are the gems on the Crown.Cyprus is one of the few topographic points on Earth where the geological procedures have played such an of import function in the development of its natural environment. These procedures prescribed at the same clip the socioeconomic and historical development of the island, both in antiquity and in modern times.
It is said, “Scratch the dirt anyplace in Cyprus and you will happen hints of its magnificent past” . This is no hyperbole.
Evidence of the island ‘s 9,000 old ages of history is scattered throughout the island.Remainss from the Neolithic period bear informant to the being of an ancient civilisation. Harmonizing to tradition many of the ancient metropoliss of Cyprus were founded by the heroes of the Trojan War whom besides Hellenized the island. Assyrians, Phoenicians, Egyptians and Persians all passed through the island.
This strategically of import island was portion o the Roman Empire for four centuries. Excavations have brought to light temples and castles, amphitheaters and baths. Merely as magnificent are the early Christian basilicas ; every bit magnificent are the Byzantine churches with their beautiful mosaics and icons.
And so Crusader palaces, Venetian munitions. Cyprus is a living book of images taken from universe history.
- 7000-3900 BC NEOLITHIC AGE
- 3900-2500 BC CHALCOLITHIC AGE
- 2500-1050 BC BRONZE AGE
- 1050-750 BC GEOMETRIC PERIOD
- 750-325 BC ARCHAIC AND CLASSICAL PERIOD
- 325-58 BC HELLENISTIC PERIOD
- 58 BC – 330 AD ROMAN PERIOD
- 330 -1191 AD BYZANTINE PERIOD
- 1191-1192 RICHARD THE LIONHEART AND THE TEMPLARS
- 1192-1489 FRANKISH ( LUSIGNAN ) Time period
- 1489-1571 VENETIAN Time period
- 1571-1878 OTTOMAN Time period
- 1878-1960 British Time period: Under the 1878 Cyprus Convention, Britain assumes disposal of the island. It remains formally portion of the Ottoman Empire until the latter enters the First World War on the side of Germany, and Britain in effect extensions Cyprus in 1914. In 1923 under the Treaty of Lausanne, Turkey relinquishes all rights to Cyprus. In 1925 Cyprus is declared a Crown settlement. In 1940 Cypriot voluntaries serve in the British Armed Forces throughout the Second World War. Hopes for self-government being granted to other states in the post-war period are shattered by the British who consider the island vitally strategic.
After all agencies of peaceable subsiding of the job are exhausted. a national release battle is launched in 1955 against colonial regulation and for brotherhood of Cyprus with Greece, which lasts until 1959.
- 1960 REPUBLIC OF CYPRUS: Harmonizing to the Zurich-London Treaty. Cyprus becomes an independent democracy on l6th August 1960. It is a member of the United Nations the Council of Europe the Commonwealth and the Non-Aligned Movement. Harmonizing to the above pact Britain retains two Sovereign Bases ( 158.
5 sq. kilometer ) on the island at Dekelia and Akrotiri- Episkopi. The 1960 Constitution of the Cyprus Republic proves impracticable in many of its commissariats and this makes its smooth execution impossible. In 1963 the President of the Republic proposes some amendments to ease the operation of the province and the Turkish Cypriot community responds with rebellion. The Turkish Cypriot curates withdraw from the Cabinet and Turkish Cypriot civil retainers cease go toing their offices while Turkey threatens to occupy Cyprus.
Since so the purpose of the Turkish Cypriot leading moving on instructions from the Turkish Government has been the breakdown of Cyprus and its appropriation to Turkey. Using as a stalking-horse the putsch of July 1974 instigated against the Cyprus Government by the military Junta, so in power in Athens, Turkey invades Cyprus on July 20, 1974 go againsting all rules regulating international dealingss and the UN Charter. As a consequence about 37 % of the island is occupied, 40 % of the Greek Cypriot population violently uprooted and 1000s of people, including civilians, killed, abused or vanish without hint. The continuance of Turkish military business and the misdemeanor of the cardinal human rights of the people of Cyprus have been condemned by international organic structures, but until today Turkey refuses to retreat from Cyprus and maintains the island ‘s division by the force of weaponries. Turkey has established the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, an illegal province, recognized merely by Turkey and continues to keep the division of the island through force.
The population was estimated at 792,604 in 2008 ; the largest per centum is Greek. A little figure of Greeks live in the Turkish Cypriot country and a little figure of Turks live in the Grecian Cypriot country. Seventy-eight per centum of the Cypriot people are Grecian Orthodox and 18 per centum are Muslim. There are minorities such as Maronites.
The people of Cyprus are traditionally warm and welcoming and see a visit to their island as a compliment – 1 that is repaid with echt cordial reception, summed up in the Grecian word Philoxenia: Friendship towards the invitee. Their native linguistic communication is Grecian, but English is readily spoken in all the stores, eating houses and hotels – in fact merely about everyplace. In a universe of ever-increasing force, Cyprus has a unusually low offense rate, and from merely one visit to the Island the visitant can understand why. The gait is at leisure, the people sort and helpful, ever ready with a smiling. The Cypriots are difficult workers excessively – resilient people who have withstood and accommodated the sequence of encroachers throughout their long history.
The towns of Cyprus present a modern cosmopolite atmosphere blended with historic edifices and ancient memorials. Enforcing colonial and authoritative manner edifices rub shoulders with well-designed modern-day hotels, flat blocks and attractive shopping streets, some narrow and quaint, others exhaustively modern. By contrast, life in the small towns follows a slower gait, reflecting the importance of agribusiness, bungalow industry and household ties. Traditional level roofed small town houses made of clay brick are a common sight, while stone-built homes with tiled roofs can be seen in the mountains. Many small town houses feature delicious vine-shaded courtyards and the typical local oven “fourno” for homemade baking.
Cyprus is an independent crowned head Republic with a presidential system of Government. The construction of Government is similar to other western democracies where human rights, political pluralism and private belongings are safeguarded.
There is a multiparty system of democracy based on relative representation.The Head of State is the President of the Republic ( Mr. Dimitris Christofias ) who is elected by cosmopolitan right to vote for a five-year term of office. The Council of Ministers, which is appointed by the President, is the executive organ of the Republic.
Legislative power lies with the House of Representatives whose members hold office for a period of five old ages. Cyprus is a member of the United Nations, and its specialised bureaus, the Council of Europe and the Commonwealth. The island besides has an association understanding with the European Union which provides for the abolishment of all barriers to merchandise and the constitution of a imposts brotherhood between the two sides by 1998.
Cyprus is represented through full diplomatic missions in 29 states, 9 major international organisations and several consulates general around the universe.Along with the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia, the Republic of Cyprus entered the EU on May 1, 2004. The EU ‘s acquis communautaire is suspended in north Cyprus pending a colony of the island ‘s division
Cyprus has a well-developed system for instruction in both primary and secondary stages. It provides both the populace and private instruction to its citizens. The high quality of direction can be attributed to the above mean public presentation of instructors. This is in blunt contrast to the outlook of the teaching staff in the developed states.
The pupils of the public instruction system have to take excess categories to complement the school in signifier of tuitions, which is non so with the pupils of private schools. The graduation from the public schools is non recognized by the English and American universities. They have to look in ‘A ‘ degree scrutinies to acquire admittances in English or American universities. The high school classs are non based on any centralised scrutiny. Any visual aspect in centralised scrutiny for some capable sums to 25 % of the concluding graduation Markss. The 75 % of the concluding classs is taken on the footing of undertakings during the semesters.The pupils of the private schools do non meet such issues. They normally attend the foreign universities with comparative easiness.
Even the Cypriot universities do non acknowledge high school classs as standards for admittance. For admittance the pupils have to look in the University entryway scrutiny and measure up through it.
Agribusiness, traditionally an of import portion of the economic system, histories for the smallest per centum of the Gross Domestic Product ( GDP ) . Crops include barley, murphies, veggies, olives, citrous fruit fruits and grapes. Goats, sheep, cowss and hogs are reared. Copper has been mined in Cyprus for 1000s of old ages.
Other natural resources are asbestos, pyrites, gypsum, marble, clay earth pigment, lumber and salt. Industries are nutrient processing, the production of fruit juice, vino and sherry, fish agriculture, fabrics, light chemicals, metal merchandises, wood merchandises, cement and gypsum production, building and ship fix and renovation. The service sector histories for the largest per centum of the state ‘s GDP. Tourism is a major industry and Cyprus has become an international concern and fiscal Centre in 2008.
Cyprus is proudly repossessing its ancient award of being the place of birth of the goddess Aphrodite, and even is offering a tasteful re-creation of her ancient rites. The supreme goddess of love and beauty knew what she was making when she chose the lovely Cyprus as the site of her outgrowth from the seafoam. The island of the Sun! ! !