The japanese wow zone of freedom Essay
Walking through the ‘Pop Life ‘ exhibition in Tate Modern, you begin to experience cheerful, happy, notice a glance of smiling on your face and all of a sudden inquire why. Bing surrounded with a parade of popular civilization and client oriented goods portrayed on canvases, big form pictures, hip music in the background and animate beings displayed in armored combat vehicles, your head and phantasy can non halt but inquire: What is the intent of dad art? Is it art? Where is the line between high and low art drawn? Why does the populace so mostly accept it? What comes next? The last halt takes you to the room full of colorful amusing flowers, vinyl sculptures and glistening tomato bottles covered in gemstones.
This joyful resort area is crowned with a music picture with Kirsten Dunst directed by Takashi Murakami. You have merely entered the ultimate Murakami universe. You leave the exhibition with exhilaration and twinkles in your eyes. Possibly, pop art, and particularly Nipponese pop art, brings the child inside of you. The child that is trouble-free, full of enthusiasm and dreams.
And in conclusion, you take a piece to believe about what you have merely seen. Be it art, or was it creative person ‘s advancing their public image? What are the individuality political relations of the modern-day dad creative person?
Pop art brief brushs
Pop art is referred to as a manner of life, instead than the culturally perceived ocular art motion, which originated in the mid 1950s in the UK and subsequently on developed in the USA. It is considered a signifier of Modern Art. The attitude to mass production, philistinism and consumerism are the anchors that stirred creative persons ‘ imaginativeness and became a major portion of the motion itself, as the ocular side of pop art is based on advertisement, amusing books, etc. Pop art is symbolized by the agencies of reproduction, representation of kitschy, popular elements, and picturing the sarcasm brought about the elitist civilization.
Alien, bizarre and conflicting images are really common.Pop art is a reaction to Abstract Expressionism with artist attesting against the impersonal world. Pop art brings the hard-edged truth wrapped in consumerism, aggregate civilization artefacts, popular icons, representation of the calendered famous persons with a genius of sarcasm and lampoon at the same clip. Pablo Picasso, Marcel Duchamp, and Man Ray ‘s later graphicss are claimed to be come oning toward and taking to Pop Art.British creative persons became infuenced as good by American creative persons such as Jasped Johns and Robert Rauschenberg and Andy Warhol. Pop Art became really much the portion of the image of stylish singing London, coincided with the young person and dad music phenomenon ofthe 1950 ‘s and 60 ‘s ( e.
g. The Beatles ) . A typical illustration would be Peter Blake, who designed album screens for Elvis Presley and the Beatles. He placed Brigitte Bardot in his images, every bit good as Andy Warhol placed Marilyn Monroe in the same manner in USA.
Pop Art is hence a motion that portions involvement in the urban, consumer, modern experience and universe.Andy Warhol is considered the most celebrated dad creative person because of his effort and success in traveling the manner of art into a lifestyle adopted by many of his followings. He depicted the true nature of mass production and was the first one to hold embraced the thought of art as concern.
Manga and its function in modern-day Japan and Pop art
Understanding the ocular side of modern-day Nipponese dad art and manga, as one of its constituents, demands to be linked with the historical development.
As Japan did non let any western influences through their boundary lines, and had long approved merely merchandising with Holland, the state had developed a alone manner. The isolation made the society take a different contemplation on art and apprehension of art. In 1854 the USA forced Japan to open their boundary lines for dealingss with other states, which resulted in a revolution and the Meiji Restoration of 1867, conveying foreign trade, hence influences through globalization to the state. This was the start of a new cultural and economic relationship from Japan with the remainder of the universe. Since so, Japan became influenced by the western universe, even though such alteration was made by force.Equally long as the USA pressured Japan to open their boundary lines, they literally opened themselves every bit good to the western influence.
On the other manus, a full integrating between Western picture and the one of Japanese did non happen until the attempts of the Youga and Nihonga painters. Then the circulation of in writing images was invariably informing creative persons about motions in other topographic points. Such development brought approximately quandary that western creative persons had to confront, such as national individuality inquiry, or the single versus society.On the other manus, despite the development, there was a deficiency of critical discourse in Nipponese perceptual experience of western art.
Therefore, we can see similarities to Japonisme in Europe following certain facets of Nipponese civilization. In Nipponese civilization, it is believed that all traditional values would be lost in the impulse for new information from the western universe and the expectancy that Japan should be modernized. By its agencies, western art represented a whole cultural system that became a challenge for Japan.
In a manner, it every bit good represented a function theoretical account and a centre of the universe.Manga, which literally means capricious images, is referred to the method of pulling apicture harmonizing to the manner the coppice or pulling stuff glided across the page at random ( hence the capricious side of the term ) . However, when speaking about manga in greater item, we have to understand that the history of manga extends far beyond the existent birth of Zanzibar copal. In the past, people were being entertained by the pictural art that was similar to today ‘s manga, was non much more than amusing strip. What happens to be really important and of import, is that manga holds a topographic point in Nipponese history of art in general.One of the people that have greatly contributed to the spread of manga, in instead indirectway, is Joseph Pulitzer. He was the publication innovator who was responsible for leting the first humourous amusing strips to look in publications.
We can happen a batch of similarities in the manner these American sketchs are dwelling of to Nipponese manga. These include the consecutive panels or individual illustrations that tell a narrative or do comedic points. A typical illustration of a celebrated American sketch figure is The Yellow Kid ( by J. Pulitzer ) .
Now, here we can see the interconnectedness between these two civilizations. The Japanese picked up on the amusing tendency, and began pulling their ain amusing strips and imitations in more western manner. One of these was for illustration Ippei Okamoto, an creative person. He became greatly influenced by plants that featured Pulitzer ‘s magazine. Furthermore, every bit good as the western sketchs became influenced by the Nipponese manga, one interesting facet appeared. In both sides we can see a gradual advancement. Early Nipponese life was chiefly influenced by Disney, every bit good as early western cartoon strips strips were influenced by the early manga.
Interestingly, sing the illustration of manga cartoon strips being translated into different linguistic communications, there we could see how the thought of a stable Nipponese uniqueness becomes supported. Nipponese is normally written right-to-left in plants of fiction, manga is drawn and published this manner in Japan. Therefore when assorted rubrics were foremost translated to other linguistic communications, the graphics and layouts were reversed and flipped in a procedure known as “ flopping ” , so that the book may be read from left-to-right. Formatting, which has now become platitude in North America. Left-to-right data format has gone from the regulation to the exclusion.It is interesting, that despite globalisation, manga is still maintaining its alone face, even when it comes to typography. The manga typography is non being changed to different intents but remains in it ‘s ain manner throughout its broad applications.
In instance of manga sculptures, sooner those of Takashi Murakami, we come across a great usage of vinyl, that has become really popular in recent times besides with other creative persons form the Western art universe, such as Jeff Koons. Nipponese pop art civilization is a conflict to advance the national individuality and prolong it in its singularity.’It is this originative freedom, something that we cherish in the United States as a cultural standard, that is at least partially behind the most advanced features of Nipponese popular civilization: the small white pool famously composed of 17 lines, four colourss, and no oral cavity whose appeal transcends planetary boundaries ; the fuzzy xanthous Pikachu ; the legion manga and Zanzibar copal, some of which explore physical transmutation, philosophical riddles, and heavy personal injury with make bolding visuals and unexpected secret plan turns.You may be a sedate Nipponese man of affairs by twenty-four hours, but at dark and on weekends, the civilization lets you craft your ain individuality. A practical after-hours ego.
‘ ( Kelts, Roland 2006, p.23 )Presents, the general populace, as the audience for Pop Art, finds itself in two universes due to the entree of several media, including the cyberspace. Westerners do non value, nor perceive this alteration every bit much, as it is amplified in Japan. The media becomes a manner of prolonging popular civilization in which the audience portrays their interior egos accepting issues that are publically unacceptable. ‘But in Japan, there are two really specific words to specify these egos: tatemae, or the presentation of your public ego, and honne, how you truly feel.The underlying truth. ‘ ( Kelts, Roland 2006, p.24 ) Possibly, the modern-day portraiture of ‘honne ‘ in the mundane lives that is pursued through the modern-day Nipponese Pop Art, is what makes the public excited about the results.
Furthermore, it is the gaiety of the ‘honne ‘ that is giving out the freedom and pulverizing the mass-production facet that is engraved in the Pop Art motion.Given the position of singularity with respects to the cultural development in Japan, plays its major function every bit good when speaking about the Nipponese Pop Art. Descrying the graphicss, one can instantly acknowledge them as Nipponese because of its commonly used manners. Anime and ukiyo-e ( Nipponese woodblock prints visualizing landscapes, historical events, the theater, etc. ) , every bit good as traditional Nipponese art have become the beginnings of inspiration for Nipponese creative persons. The above mentioned Takashi Murakami, is considered the best-known dad creative person in modern-day Japan. His studio, dwelling of a group of creative person working under the thought of the superflat motion, portrays the pop- arty compulsion of mass production, taking its inspiration chiefly from Zanzibar copal. Its mark audience is Nipponese young person, therefore the unique, playful and happy manner.
On the contrary, other creative persons normally use hentai ( sexually explicit or adult cartoon strips and life ) as a beginning of inspiration, making surreal and upseting art. Though its provocativeness, such art is widely accepted by the Japaneses, appealing to both older and immature audience. In its wider sense, Nipponese Pop Art is a representation of the post-war position of the differences between high and low art, as opposed to it being questioned by the western civilization.Takashi Murakami is a modern-day Nipponese creative person, who embraced Warhol ‘s legendary statement ‘good concern is the best art ‘ ( Tate 2009, p.13 ) . He works across the media, from all right art to commercial and digital media, which brings him to the line between high and low art.
He is well- known for his cooperation with Louis Vuitton, Kanye West and his changes of plants for mass media and pop civilization.Murakami graduated from the Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music. Even though, his early surveies involved traditional Nipponese art, due to the popularity of manga and Zanzibar copal, his involvements shaped towards the otaku civilization ( population being compulsively interested in manga and Zanzibar copal ) . Murakami was excited about the modern Nipponese life, therefore the otaku captivation. His changeless impulse to turn out the Nipponese civilization, and take it to the degree of high, cross-culturally recognized art, pulverizing the barriers of the system, brought about the construct of Superflat, which aims at increasing the market consciousness of art being sustained in its market. ‘ The Superflat Manifesto did non do the righteous claim that Nipponese can bring forth high art merely like Westerners ; alternatively [ Murakami ] aimed to animate planetary art by altering the value system, proclaiming ‘the clip has come to take pride in our art which is a sort of subculture, ridiculed and deemed “ monstrous ” by those in the Western art universe ‘ ( Tate 2009, p.
77 ) .Takashi Murakami is accredited for this distinguishable manner called the Superflat.What is Superflat? Superflat is considered to be a postmodern art motion, influenced by Zanzibar copal and manga.
‘The term is Murakami ‘s ain, his pronunciamento on the manner assorted signifiers of in writing design, pop civilization and all right humanistic disciplines are compressed – flattened – in Japan. The term besides refers to the flatness of Nipponese in writing art and life, every bit good as to the shallow emptiness of its consumer civilization. Murakami foremost used it to label an exhibition he organized for the PARCO section shop museums in Tokyo and Nagoya. ‘ ( DROHOJOWSKA-PHILP, H. ( 2004 ) Superflat, [ Online ] , Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.
artnet.com/Magazine/features/drohojowska-philp/drohojowska-philp1-18-01.asp [ 12 Nov 2009 ] ) In a manner, Superflat is a self-advertised art motion, which became a really successful portion in its self-defined niche market of Western general populace. Because of its major entreaty to Western audiences, and purpose to be foremost promoted outside the Nipponese boundary lines, it is considered a trade name pass oning on a phenomenal graduated table.As much, as Murakami intends to show the Western universe with the true Nipponese nature, the more he opens himself to it. The very impression of this could be seen on him, as a individual. Despite him being a dad creative person, unlike Warhol, his public image stays identity-driven. He keeps the low Nipponese expression, non being tight down by him graphics.
He presents himself as a respected Nipponese citizen, with his spectacless on and a traditional Nipponese hairstyle.Through his public visual aspect, he stands to his beliefs in the beginnings of manga and justifies the manner chase of many of his followings.’Murakami ‘s theories about the beginnings of manga and Zanzibar copal were more elaborate, if non ever academically sound: The dropping of the atomic bombs created a injury in Nipponese civilization for which there was no case in point in universe history.
Publicly at least, and possibly feeling no other option, the bulk of Nipponese wanted to bury their post-traumatic emphasiss and travel frontward rapidly ( really postmodern, really Nipponese ) ‘ . ( Kelts, Roland 2006, p. 40-41 ) Based on this observation, Murakami claims, that merely creative person are able to keep the true feeling, act in the ‘honne ‘ , and therefore they are obliged to show the feeling. Hence, manga and Nipponese Zanzibar copal was a reaction to the post-war traumatic epoch.This brings up the contradiction of Murakami working on the music picture and album screens for creative persons, such as Kanye West, or collaborating on luxury goods design motive for Louis Vuitton, which clearly move his “ trade name ” image up the ladder of success and public grasp. Despite such cooperation brings success to him and his KaiKai & A ; kiki studio, it automatically lays a shadow of contradiction when his critical credibleness is put to inquiry. The quandary appears when oppugning his plants as opposed to its close relation to the market. Can his work claim societal and political apspect when placed together with the market? In this sense, Murakami moves toward the Warhol-style art versus concern thought.
Because of this Warhol facet in his patterns, it is being justified why his individuality political relations become disrupted and lost in the overall purpose. However, this does non destroy or negatively act upon the mainstream credence of his graphics. On the other manus, his Business Art schemes made the Nipponese art more available in the Western civilization, traveling the Nipponese true non-post-war word picture of experiencing through art outside the boundary lines, educating the populace.
‘On the surface, his modus operandi seems to come directly out of the Warholian playbook, with small fluctuation from the original theoretical account: nisus for mainstream famous person ; following corporate constructions ; providing to our corporate appetency for sensationalism ; offending daring hierarchies that separate high from low, trade good from art ‘ . ( Tate 2009, p. 78 )The bravery of Andy Warhol to convey the first of all time construct of the Business Art, created a convulsion among the art critics and challenged the values artist were supposed to project and encompass for centuries. Warhol pushed himself into the famous person phase, lobbing for his ain artistic character as a trade name. He shortly became an active portion of the pop civilization, and most significantly of the high society. This position gave Warhol an daring feel.
He showed the society that artists do non hold to obey the criterions and stirred the market versus art quandary. His public visual aspect, stigmatization and clich & A ; eacute ; – breakage won a steady topographic point among the mainstream, where he so embraced his calling and targeted his graphicss. Murakami began to play his card in the Warholian esthesis, using such patterns to his concern KaiKai & A ; kiki Co Ltd. Studio.
‘The theoretical account here is Warhol, of class, who talked and wrote a batch but merely in words that issued from his branded character, so that no 1 could be certain of their position: ‘Being good in concern is the most absorbing sort of art. ‘ As art draws nearer the standard trade good it would be foolish to anticipate critical remark on a merchandise by its shaper. ‘ ( Stallabras, Julian 2004, p.100 )He has taken this case of Americanism and implanted it in the Nipponese grounds.He identified the major features of the post-war society in Japan, and built his imperium on the merge between all right art and popular ware.
Interestingly, in Nipponese linguistic communication, there are no beginnings for the nomenclature of all right art until the Meiji Restoration in 1868, every bit good as the creative persons were foremost exposed to daring art much later. To sum up his Warholian consumption, Murakami smartly works with the economic forces, fall ining imported and domestic goods and thoughts to make a merchandise, that will implant the cultural trademark in its export. ‘As cultural critic Dick Hebdige has noted: ‘ As for the current fad for Murakami in America, it seems likely…
that Americans feel they understand Murakami without carry oning research because they are responding to a hyperstimulated and decontextualized Japan that looks a batch like their society. ‘ ( Tate 2009, p. 79 )KaiKai & A ; kiki ‘s success in its merchandise line is the ultimate cogent evidence for such development. Its ware comprises of shokugan ( snack plaything ) statuettes, jerseies, postings, playthings, personal accoutrements, etc.
These market goods carry Murakami ‘s signature carefully placed on them through the ocular motive. Among the most celebrated 1s, we could advert Mr. D.O.B.
( a Mickey Mouse-like character ) , smiling flowers, or the jellyfish oculus that has clear facets of manga in their portraiture. Such characters, and their thorough selling could be seen as one of the first efforts to get rid of the lower status composite in Nipponese civilization developed due to the causes of war. On the other manus, Murakami does non bring forth merely such ware merchandises, he besides engages in sculpting and painting. However, such graphicss are non as available due to their value of six figure monetary values. Hence, the public popularity and handiness of the ware merchandises made his political orientation and values to toss the American popular civilization power by merely showing the Western market the Nipponese contextual signifiers in the western recognized format.Murakami ‘s passion and engagement in otaku through showing the ware suited to his enterprise prepares the western evidences for its broad credence, therefore making the dad art lunacy for the mass-produced dress, seen in the past by Warhol and his followings. On the other manus, analyzing the past American Pop Artists, who succeeded at conveying the low art and cultural trade names and marks to the top, Murakami goes beyond the thematic and ocular facet of the affair.
Through Murakami ‘s work, we can see him showing the otaku values and attitude, which hence go somewhat against the Business Art political orientation. This consequences in him non being the ultimate ‘ ‘sell-out ‘ as would be said of an creative person in the West ; the white-cube art production, luxury fashion-brand consulting and KaiKai & A ; kiki selling are all every bit weighted in his extremist cultural whirlpool. ‘ ( Tate 2009, p. 80 ) Murakami uses the otaku figures good, in order to show and show a new cultural roar of the Nipponese art.
He does non travel against the traditional mainstream, but takes it as it is and alters it to the image of the mass-consumer of modern-day art universe.Art historian Midori Matsui said on Murakami ‘s behalf: ‘ Murakami ‘s uniqueness ballad in his dialectical thought, which inspires him to turn negative conditions of postmodern Nipponese society into new methods of making and construing a uniquely Nipponese art… Murakami utilised these negative conditions [ embodied by otaku civilization ] – puerility and level societal civilization – as a vehicle to develop a alone aesthetic, a method of cultural readings and regulations of artistic operation to convey a radical alteration in the construction of Nipponese art. ‘ ( Tate 2009, p.80 )The cultural justification of Murakami ‘s run through KaiKai & A ; kiki additions the mass-market power and its commercial facet of market by every individual purchase of either the Superflat monogram bag for Louis Vuitton, or KaiKai & A ; kiki lavish plaything.
Sing the cooperation with Louis Vuitton, it non merely helps Murakami to derive the international acknowledgment, but besides maps as a vehicle to impart the otaku docket. The recent illustration of this is his short film for LV called the SUPERFLAT FIRST LOVE 2009, where he smartly uses the kineticss of well-known trade names to his purposes of publicity. Therefore, however there is an unbelievable sum of otaku civilization shown in the short picture, consisting of many Nipponese component, that might be foreign to the western spectator, he successfully uses this as a platform for beef uping his position in his political individuality with international acknowledgment.The relationship between American and Nipponese popular civilization is good explained by Henry Jenkins as in: ‘Increasingly, American popular civilization is reacting to Asiatic influences, with the rise in force in mass market amusement a belongings of heightened competition betweenJapan, India, Hong Kong, and Hollywood for entree to international markets. Action elements surface, non merely in games but besides in movie, telecasting, and cartoon strips, because such elements are more readily translated across lingual and national boundaries. The demand to appeal to a mass consumer, Seldes insisted, meant that popular creative persons could non give themselves over to morbid self-absorption. Making plants in media that were still taking form, popular creative persons were non burdened with a heritage but invariably had to research new waies and organize new relationships with their populaces.
The lively humanistic disciplines look towards the hereafter instead than toward the yesteryear. ‘ ( Jenkins, Henry 2006, p. 32-33 )
Post-Warhol creative persons
‘At the same clip, modern-day art has moved into closer contact with selected elements of a mass civilization that has become so permeant that this bend is sometimes confused with a new battle with the ‘real ‘ or ‘real life ‘ . Art stars have long been famous persons, but now the art scene as a whole is treated much like manner or dad, and even its minor participants appear in the variety meats devoted to tracking the crossing orbits of the heavenly organic structures. In peculiar, art and manner have progressively been seen hand-in-hand, as the cult of young person that has enveloped civilization as a whole has besides swept through the art universe. While this history will frequently take the period since 1989 as if it were a unitary whole so that we may more clearly analyze the construction of the art universe and its merchandises, a figure of of import alterations associated with globalisation have transformed modern-day art.
These are the coupled issues of politicized art in the US, the economic rhythm, and a transmutation in the standard signifier of modern-day art show. ‘ ( Stallabrass, Julian 2004, p. 25-26 )In 1986, American creative person Jeff Koons, engages in making a chromium steel steel sculpture of an inflatable coney. In 1990, Koons marries a pornstar and makes a series of sculptures and sexually expressed exposure pictures on tremendous canvases observing non merely his great build, but his personal aspirations. This additions him one-off assessment, every bit good as equal unfavorable judgment and famous person visible radiation once more. Subsequently on in 2007, he follows on this design to make a elephantine version of this sculpture this clip He filled for a public twenty-four hours exhibit in New York.
The sculpture stirs the Waterss of art critics. His response to their unfavorable judgment is to print their exposure with their sentiments in magazines.
1987- Andy Warhol dies.
In 1988, the YBA ( Young British Artists- Damien Hirst, Gavin Turk, Tracey Emin, Gary Hume, etc. ) emerge with their callings with an exhibition called ‘Freeze ‘ , in a warehouse in London Docklands.In 1995, Tracey Emin creates ‘Everyone I have slept with ‘ . This art installing comprises of a collapsible shelter with all the names she was in bed with since 1963.
The contemplation on this art work is her puting herself in the centre phase stating narratives from her life. Her ulterior work consists of pocketbook designs for Vivienne Westwood and auto ornaments for Fiat. In 1999, she is short listed for Turner Price for her work My Bed.
This nomination causes great arguments.In 2003, the boat associating Tate Britain to Tate Modern gets a alone motive of Damien Hirst ‘s signature points. In 2007, He sells his graphics ‘ For the love of God ‘ , which is a diamond skull for $ 50 million.After Warhol ‘s decease, the famous person ‘brand ‘ dad art position starts to worsen. The art is traveling into a different degree, with the mass-consumption being even greatly encouraged through art looking in manner and other mainstream objects. Artists no longer can merely advance themselves as famous persons ; they have to touch clich & A ; eacute ; ‘s to fulfill us, the viewing audiences. ‘Contemporary creative persons tend to manage the issue of consumer civilization with captivation and jitteriness, and there is good ground for both reactions.
Fascination, because consumerism appears to go of all time more cultural, as much concerned with merchandising or simply displaying images, sounds, and words as it is with material things. Jitteriness, because the engines of this production are so huge and extravagantly funded, their end product so blatant and ubiquitous. If trade goods tend towards being cultural, what infinite is left for art? ‘ ( Stallabrass, Julian 2004, p.84 )
High art vs. low art
High and low art signifiers are clearly symbolic boundaries. What differentiates a piece of art from being considered mainstream? It is the boundaries, that the general public creates by its credence or neglecting that define this. Again, as reference antecedently, this simple equation is driven by the supply and demand.
Based on these variables, we create a belief that distinquishes between high and low art, which so links to the sociological position on these facets. In its basic signifier, low art means easy accesible art, art that is available to take down societal categories. On the other manus, following the basic thought of high art, these hold a higher position due to their higher pecuniary value, which every bit shifts them to the upper category.In instance of Pop Art, such expression can non be applied. On one manus, Pop art, as in Warholian Business Art could be considered low art because of it apparel handiness.
On the other manus, being cognizant of the contextual significance of specific graphicss under Pop Art gives them a greater value. Therefore, given the fortunes and the freedom of idea, the difference is estabilished by each and every person analyzing the plant of Pop Art.
What ‘s following?
It is evident, that every bit fast as civilization moves toward going even more mass-production and ingestion driven, the cultural credence of art becomes higher. On one manus, we do accept popular civilization as a signifier of art up to a certain extend, but on the other manus, the more we re surrounded with it, the more we accept it as a portion of our civilization and expression for something new and original.
The population becomes blind toward the content of art and puts attending to it s ocular facet, every bit good as it searches for the familiar impressions. This creates a more ambitious environment for creative persons. Takashi Murakami and his KaiKai & A ; kiki are clearly disputing their ends and win in portraying the national individuality through their graphics. Murakami uses the media, and subjects in a manner, that they become globally recognized, replacing traditional art in the given countries.The post-war injury has pushed Nipponese Pop Art ‘ s boundaries and encouraged it to blossom and demo its ‘honne ‘ to the outside universe.
- Jenkins, Henry. Wow Climax: Tracing the Emotional Impact of Popular Culture. New York, NY, USA: NYU Press, 2006.
- Stallabrass, Julian. Art Incorporated: The Story of Contemporary Art. Oxford, , GBR: Oxford University Press, UK, 2004.
- Celts, Roland. Japanamerica: How Nipponese Pop Culture Has Invaded the U.
S.. Gordonsville, VA, USA: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.
- Tate Modern, London. Pop Life: Art in a Material World, GBR: St Ives Westerham Press, 2009
- Tate Modern Autumn 2009, Exhibition usher, 2009
- An Exhibition Tour with Takashi Murakami, available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.
youtube.com/watch? v=J_fHmM6Ay6M & A ; NR=1 [ 13/10/09 ]
- New York Magazine: Jerry Saltz at ‘©Murakami ‘ , available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.youtube.com/watch? v=cxmMxi-lelg & A ; feature=related [ 13/10/09 ]
- SUPERFLAT FIRST LOVE 2009, picture topographic point, Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.youtube.
com/watch? v=Jx8gM_r3HvA & A ; feature=related [ 13/10/09 ]
- Interview with Takashi Murakami by Jonathan Ross on Japanorama, available at: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.youtube.com/watch? v=l3i2hyHK0_g [ 13/ 10/09 ]
- Visit to Tate Modern, Pop Life: Art in a Material universe exhibition. Visited on: 08/11/09