The International Tourism Industry In Spain Tourism Essay
Spain developed its touristry during the last old ages of dictator ‘s Franco administration, when the state became a popular topographic point for summer vacations, particularly for tourers from Northern Europe ( UK, France, Germany and Scandinavia ) . It is said that mass touristry started that clip because Franco ‘s authorities needed money and dedided to “ open up ” its seashores for touristry. . At that clip, Mallorca, Costa del Sol and all multi-storey edifices on the seashore were built. Murcia and Almeria were non built because there did non hold a good web. This was what protected them. However, in the heads of the locals this was the cause of their poorness ( Barke et al. 1996:120 ) .
Since so, Spain has become the 2nd – the most visited state in the universe ( the first one is France ) . 60 million foreign tourers arrived in Spain in 2007, harmonizing to the informations provided by the World Tourism Organization ( 2007 ) , that its offices are in Madrid. The cost of touristry in Spain is over $ 46 billion per twelvemonth, the highest touristry outgo worldwide except for U.S. that has touristry outgo of $ 74 billion ( Sinclair et al. 2008:75 ) .
Summer resorts and beaches
This signifier of touristry was the first that was developed in Spain, and today is the 1 that has received more income grants and subsidies form the province economic system. The nice and warm clime during the whole twelvemonth and the long beaches on the Mediterranean and South Atlantic, every bit good as Balearic Islands and the Canary Islands have been visited by tourers from northern Europe for decennaries. These summer resorts are popular among Spaniards every bit good.
The Spanish seashores that suited for summer vacations include:
aˆ? Costa Dorada, Costa Brava and del Maresme, located in Catalonia, which are really popular for local and Gallic tourers, including the popular resorts like Salou and the metropolis of Barcelona which is besides the largest port in Spain.
aˆ? Costa del Azahar, whose chief metropolis is Valencia and Costa Blanca, ( one of the most developed Spanish coastal parts, highly popular for tourers from Great Britain and Germany, holding Benidorm as the chief summer metropolis of Spain.
aˆ? Costa Calida.
aˆ? The side de Almeria, the tropical side, Costa del Sol and Costa de la Luz, all of them are found in Andalucia. Some of its summer resorts are celebrated all over the universe, like Marbella, a tourer resort for tourers with of import disbursement capacity. Finally, one of the largest Spanish ports, is Malaga ( Fsadni and Selwyn 1997:66 ) .
The volcanic Canary Islands in the Atlantic, and the Balearic Islands are two celebrated Spanish archipelagos. Many Spaniards and aliens visit them because they are really popular.
Apart from the summer touristry, there are other signifiers of touristry such as cultural, athletics or fun touristry. Two metropoliss, Barcelona and Valencia ( the two largest ports in the Mediterranean side of Spain ) are among them.
Tourism of the beaches ( Beach Tourism ) has besides contributed to the development of night life, every bit good as to the Spanish excellent nutrient civilization.
Important from the ecological and natural facet are many topographic points both coastal and island Theme and water-fun Parkss like Port Aventura are besides popular among the local population and aliens ( Eden 1996:48 ) .
Long ago it became known in Europe Senior Tourism plan that allows people over 55 to bask a vacation societal touristry in Spain with low cost. The plan subsidizes the EU vacation in the Balearic Islands and Andalusia in periods of low tourer traffic from October 2009 until April 2010.
The declarative costs where the bureau is about 400 euros for 8 yearss 4stars at selected hotels with full board, tickets, Tourss, and more.
Tourist Packages in Spain are portion of the plan Calypso approved by Parliament with a budget of 1 million euros and refers to the publicity of societal touristry with the engagement of Member States.
Cultural and concern touristry
Spain is a state full of civilization and hence, it is a popular finish for cultural touristry due to its historical importance, including metropoliss like Seville, Granada, Cordoba and Toledo. UNESCO has declared the following Spanish metropoliss as World Heritage Cities: Alcala de Henares, Avila, Caceres, Cordoba, Cuenca, Ibiza, Salamanca, La Laguna SAN Cristobal de, Santiago de Compostela, Segovia, Tarragona and Toledo ( Maiztegui-Onate 1996:84 ) .
Madrid and Barcelona ( two large Spanish city ) are celebrated historical topographic points and are besides portion of cultural touristry. In add-on, there are other of import topographic points in Spain with cultural importance are: Coruna and Vigo, in Galicia, Santander Cantabria, Oviedo and Gijon Asturias, Bilbao and San Sebastian in the Basque state. North Spain has such a green landscape that resembles to the UK ‘s and Ireland landscape and this is why it is “ Green Spain ” . They have many of import folklore, nature and culinary facets and they are even suited for summer holidaies despite the fact that the beaches of North Spain are colder than the Mediterranean 1s.
Spain is besides an of import topographic point for faith, chiefly Judaism and Christianity.The metropolis of Santiago de Compostela Galicia ( northwest Spain ) are holly topographic points. This metropolis is the 3rd holy topographic point in the Christian universe after the Vatican City of Rome and Jerusalem. The 4th holy topographic point is Camino de Santiago followed by the sanctuary Caravaca de la Cruz in the southeast country. These topographic points attract touristry from all over the universe ( Robinson 1996:210 ) .
The many jubilations and festivals in Spain. A really celebrated one is the Holy Week in metropoliss like Seville and Carthage. Very popular besides is the Seville Exhibition or Feria de Abril in Spanish, the jubilations of Spring ( Fiestas de Primavera ) which include the celebrated Entierro de la Sardina ( Burial of the pilchard ) and La Huerta EL Bando de ( the country of the grove ) This festival attracts crowds from both inside and outside Spain. There are besides the festivals Carthaginians and Romans of Carthage, the festival of San Fermin of Pamplona – celebrated worldwide, the Fiestas del Pilar in Zaragoza etc. The jubilations in little towns are besides really popular.
Spain has a batch of cultural festivals, including the Carnival all over Spain, but peculiarly the festivals of the Canary Islands and Cadiz. San Sebastian, Malaga and Sitges have celebrated movie festivals. The Lorca Rock, FIB, Festimad, and Primavera sound are some declarative music festivals. Several metropoliss have hosted international events: Catholic exhibition in 1888 and 1929 in Barcelona, the Olympics of 1992, besides in Barcelona, the Catholic exhibition of 1992 in Seville, the 2008 universe exhibition in Zaragoza and the America ‘s Cup in Valencia ( Selwyn 1997:93 ) .
The Europe Senior Tourism plan is another tourer attractive force beginning of Spain. This plan allows people over 55 to bask low cost vacations of societal touristry in Spain. It is an EU plan that subsidizes holidaies in the Balearic Islands and Andalusia in periods of low tourer traffic viz. , from October 2009 until April 2010.
The declarative cost depending on the tourer bureau is about 400 euros for 8 yearss at selected 4stars hotels with full board, tickets, Tourss etc.
Tourist Packages in Spain are portion of the plan Calypso which was approved by the European Parliament with a budget of 1 million euros and refers to the publicity of societal touristry with the engagement of Member States.
Tourism in Spain and fiscal informations
The sightseeing visits and payments in 2008 ( Sinclair et al. 2008:85 ) are the undermentioned:
Visitors ( in 1000000s )
Gross ( $ one million millions )
From the above Numberss, it is easy concluded that Spain is a major tourer finish, but it besides attracts high-ranking tourers who spend adequate money, since it has the best gross ratio per visitant among the major European finishs!
The tourer development of the state is organized. Some countries are developed for really high degree touristry as Marbella.
Some countries are selected for mass touristry, as for illustration Benidorm which is a Spanish Miami with 4 million visitants every twelvemonth or non Liouret de Mar and Rosas in Costa Brava.
In add-on, touristry is organized in big hotels, which have lower costs and higher dickering power with the major circuit operators. One illustration is the Sol Melia which has a gross of 1.3 billion euros, 35,000 employees at 270 hotels from Brazil to China. Another illustration is Iberostar with 102 hotels in 15 states and 1 billion gross, 23,000 employees and about 70,000 beds.
However, if fiscal informations acquire more analyzed the followers will be concluded:
Spain in 2008 ( Sinclair et al. 2008:94 ) welcomed 57.4 million visitants, stand foring 1.8 million fewer than last twelvemonth, which means a autumn of 3.1 % . This fact has occurred since 1997, the twelvemonth when, the statistical monitoring of the tourer industry began. This diminution is chiefly due to the lessening in reachings from France and the United Kingdom which are two of the three chief states of foreign tourers in Spain. The ratio of decreased tourer traffic is attributed to a diminution in the economic systems of these two states.
So, after the sectors of building and industry, there was the bend of the touristry sector to get by with crisis. This sector represents 10.7 % of Spanish GDP and employs 13.5 % of the work force of the state.
The countries with the highest tourer traffic in 2008 were: Catalonia with 14,193,952 tourers ( -6.7 % ) , the Balearic Islands with 10,288,958 tourers ( +1.4 % ) , the Canary Islands with 9,363,219 tourers, ( -1 % ) , Andalusia with 8,147,688 tourers ( -4 % ) , the part of Valencia with 5,655,801 tourers ( +0.2 % ) and Madrid with 4,564,345 tourers ( +3.6 % ) .
The tourers in the state in 2008 and the per centum alteration compared to 2007 is as follows:
States of beginning
Number of tourers
% alteration compared to 2007
Rest of Europe
Rest of America
Rest of the universe
Beginning: Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Commerce
Number of tourers ( in 1000000s )
% alteration compared to 2007
Beginning: Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Commerce
Criticism of the Spanish theoretical account of touristry
The Spanish theoretical account has disappointed its original protagonists. The “ promising ” North European market turns its dorsum to Spain. The impermanent economic additions in the lodging market and in the building market of holiday houses have already begun to lessen. Unlike the most optimistic prognosiss of the existent estate anteroom, these investings in 2005 showed a lessening of 16.7 % . The lessening of 6 % in 2004 was interpreted as a little fluctuation, and non as a large alteration ( Casado – Diaz 2006:78 ) .
Foreign investings in the existent estate sector dropped by 0.9 % . The belongings market in Spain has began to hold a negative repute among possible clients of northern Europe, while international organisations talk about the demand to pull off a “ soft set downing “ of the specific market to avoid unpleasant and drawn-out economic effects.
The rampant building of vacation places and hotels in coastal countries has begun to bring forth negative effects. The freely accessible topographic points on the beaches have been reduced overcrowding and distressing activities are increasing, the H2O quality is deteriorating holding as an consequence the undermining of the overall touristry policy in Spain. The professional organisations of hotelkeepers call for an immediate discontinuance of coastal countries edifice plans.
Last, there is the turning tendency for making golf classs at the new vacation place composites and the subsequent environmental effects ( Wall 1997:105 ) . Indeed, it is planned an addition in golf countries despite the impregnation of these installations. It is estimated that each twelvemonth 10 new bowls are built and in ten old ages, there will be 500 golf countries ( Mc Laren 2002:187 ) . The strengthening of tendency of making new golf countries is based on the fact that golf players spend on norm much more money per individual.
The reaction to this new state of affairs was an effort to redefine touristry policy ( Newton 1996: 150 ) . The autumn in net incomes encouraged the acceptance of places that until late was criticized inthe touristry industry.
The Mediterranean seashores of Spain gather 15,600,000 occupants who represent 39 % of the entire population. The length of its coastline is 7268. and 68 % of the population lives in an country of 100 kilometer from the seashore, where the corresponding figure for the full universe population is 39 % . Urbanization is so widespread that 85 % of the population the Mediterranean seashore lives in metropoliss with populations over 10,000 dwellers ( Kirkby 1996:240 ) .
In general, in recent old ages, there has been recorded a important impairment of the
coastal countries of Spain despite the being of comparative specific statute law.
The state of affairs in some coastal countries is as follows ( Casado – Diaz 2001:77 ) :
In the part of Catalonia, about 50 % of one kilometer lane from the seashore is built. 59 % of the coastline has already been built. It is estimated that 70 % of the seashore will be built within the following old ages.
Specific parts of the seashores of Malaga have been built 100 % and this tendency is distributing to the shores of Granada, Almeria, Kadid and Huelva. 90 % of the Andalusian seashore faces already jobs of environmental debasement. Even natural country Parkss, such as the Cabo de Gata-Nijar in Almeria, have become an country of lodging development plans and undertakings.
The rapid urbanisation and population growing of the part of Murcia has led to an addition of population growing in two old ages ( 1999 – 2000 ) by 15 % conveying a important force per unit area for farther residential development and decrease of free and public infinites.
Many coastal parts of Valencia have been built. 33 % of the entire coastal country shows residential development. Specific countries such as Alicante have been built at a rate transcending 40 % of its seashores. The urban development programs of the part have on occasion been the topic of survey and ailments from the European Commission ( Bramwell 1996:453 ) . Indeed, the latter has proposed the infliction of a moratorium on the urban development to turn to the related lacks in design and guarantee the protection of the environmental conditions of the development procedure ( Casado – Diaz et Al. 2004:363 ) .
Spain remains a state of great beauty and high tourer involvement. The theoretical account, nevertheless, of mass touristry that has followed does non look to be every bit successful as it was in the yesteryear and the state should follow modern touristry patterns that will assist it stay competitory in the hereafter. A basic requirement for a successful redefined touristry scheme should be the concern for the environment and the decrease of residential development ( Hunter – Jones et al.1997:291 ) .