The in Section 4.5 was to be

The objectives of this study were to investigate how Thai EFL university teachers conceptualised critical thinking, perceived their students’ critical thinking development, and examine the degree to which critical thinking pedagogies were applied in their authentic classroom practices. As demonstrated in Chapter One, this study was to fulfil the research gap in literature as well as provide an insight into a phenomenon of critical thinking in Thai educational contexts given by Thai EFL university teachers. The teachers’ conceptions, perceptions and practices were assumed to attest their understanding, beliefs, and attitudes towards critical thinking which apparently influenced their teaching, and in turn affected their students’ learning and development of criticality.  This chapter details the research methodology used in this study. The justifications of the decisions made for selecting research approach, research design, research strategy, and research methods were based on the research questions of this study. In Section 4.

1, philosophical assumptions in terms of ontology and epistemology will be first discussed as these shape research paradigm and research methodology (Guba 1990). Section 4.2 describes both approaches, deductive and inductive used in the study. The embraced research design in Section 4.3 was a qualitative research design with the research strategy of linguistic ethnography as expounded in Section 4.4.

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 In this qualitative study with the researcher as the central instrument for data collection (Denzin and Lincoln 2000), her own views were unavoidably located within the study (Holloway 1997; Frey et al. 1999). Because of this, the researcher role as elaborated in Section 4.5 was to be made apparent to ensure that it would not threaten the rigour of the study (Charmaz 2008). The research methods planned to be used were piloted twice as discussed in Section 4.6. They were proved workable and could potentially be applied in the main study.



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