The Impact Of The 2010 Open Championship Tourism Essay
Major featuring event is one of the most of import sections of the touristry industry, which has been turning at unprecedented gait over the past few decennaries. A big figure of metropoliss and states ferociously compete to host a tourney for the possible benefits that come with the event ( Booth, 1999 ; Brown, 2000 ) . The host uses the featuring event as a agency to pull more tourers and hike the local economic system.
This survey aims to look into the impact of the 2010 Open Championship on its hosting metropolis of St. Andrews in which both direct and indirect economic impacts are considered. In footings of the indirect economic impact, the survey looks at the impact of the Open Championship on local image consciousness and sweetening. Specifically, the survey reflects and farther elaborates on the determination from our group thesis that the 2010 Open Championship has no important impact on the finish image of St. Andrews. Finally, the deduction of this survey is discussed, which would help the local governments in maximising the economic impact of future golf tourneies and optimising golf touristry selling scheme.
An of import sporting event can excite the host metropolis ‘s economic system through hiking touristry industry every bit good as other sectors ( Blake et al. , 1979 ) . The possible benefits to the host include direct economic results and indirect economic benefits which are normally intangible ( Goeldner and Ritchie 2000: p.234-237 ) .
In the bing literature, the direct impact of featuring event consists of tourers ‘ outgo, local multiplier effects and satellite part effects ( Gelan, 2001 ) . Gelan ( 2001 ) quantifies the economic impact of the 1999 Open Championship and estimates that about $ 20.1m tourers ‘ outgo was injected into the local economic system. The outgo of the tourers is largely estimated through tourer studies and local busienss turnover ( Burgan and Mules, 1992 ) . Faulkner and Raybould ( XXXX ) argue that studies of tourer outgo are unsatisfactory because of the trouble of insulating purchases specifically attributed to tourers and local occupants, every bit good as the tourers come for the event and those who do non. Hence, to avoid such prejudice, this survey chiefly considers the statistics released by the responsible authorities organisations.
Despite the income generated by the major tourney in the signifier of tourer outgo, there are farther economic stimulators. One of which is named “ multipliers consequence ” . This consequence normally realised through the addition in employability and betterment of local substructure ( Burgan and Mules, 1992 ; and Crompton, 1999 ) . By taking the multiplier effects into history, the awaited consequence of the 1999 Open on the regional economic system was about $ 20.8m ( www.visitscotland.org ) . Another economic stimulator is called neighbouring zone consequence ( Gelan, 2003 ) . A major sporting tourney could be organized in a nucleus host metropolis that cooperates with the adjacent 1s as satellite parts. Therefore, the influence zone may profit depending on the distribution of locales and installations. Additionally, events besides influence entry and going points every bit good as step ining attractive forces along chief travel corridors ( Gelan, 2003 ) .
To measure the results brought by a major featuring event, the mensurable economic impacts should non be the lone force under consideration ; the indirect economic impacts besides take a big proportion.
When authorities or organisations enters into sport event hosting, two of the intangible motives are considered: ( 1 ) to increase local consciousness, and ( 2 ) to set up, beef up, or alter local image ( Cornwell and Maignan, 1998 ) . The intangible results are generated through media exposures and gross revenues publicities ( Goeldner and Ritchie, 2000:234-237 ) . A major tourney provides important promotional benefits to the host community ( Brown, 2000 ) . Promotional schemes aimed at increasing local consciousness usage a battalion of promotional media to assist the host exposed to as many possible consumers as possible. Through media coverage, the host part would be able to make 1000000s of audience around the universe. Promotional consequence besides improves concern assurance and community satisfaction or consumer assurance ( Garnham, 1996 ; Mules, 1998 ) .
Although the raised consciousness is believed to be good for the future touristry concern in the host community, Mules ( 1998: p.33-34 ) suggests that no conclusive grounds exists in the literature to back up this proposition in long-run. Previous research tends to analyze the issue from either quantifiable or qualitative facets, nevertheless, the short-term and long-term impacts normally are non specified ( Gibson, 1998 and Mules, 1998 ) . For case, the ensuing employment of a particular event may be confined to a instead impermanent encouragement that reverts back to the initial degree prior to the event. The economic impact can be sustained through increased fight in tourer markets ( Teigland, 1999: p.307 ) .
Indeed, research workers have suggested that small is understood about how to measure the indirect economic impacts brought by a clean event, peculiarly with respect to local image edifice in a long term ( Javalgi et al. , 1994 ; Lee et al. , 1997 ) . In the undermentioned subdivisions, a particular instance of the 2010 Open Championship is presented in which both direct and indirect economic impacts of the event to the local economic system are discussed. In peculiar, the indirect impact is examined in concurrence with the determination from our group thesis, followed by a figure of suggestions on how local governments could maximise the possible indirect impact from the Open Championship.
Direct Economic Impact
The outgo consumed by tourers during the 2010 Open provides the major index of economic impact for St. Andrews. Harmonizing to official statistics, the Open Championship well increases regional activity by pulling 650,000 golf players to St. Andrews, which is worth over ?200 million to the local economic system ( www.visitscotland.org, 2010 ) . One thing needs to be mentioned is that the entryway fees of the Open are non recorded in the figure above, because this gross will travel to the tourney organizer – the R & A ; A. The benefits to the local economic system brought by The Open are chiefly through adjustments, transits and shopping. As the elaborate statistics of the 2010 Open has yet become available, the figures from the 2007 Open Championship ( held in Carnoustie, Scotland ) are good estimate to show the dislocation of entire outgos. For the 2009 Open, of the outgos generated by the witnesss, a gaining control rate of 65 % was applied to tourers passing on gasoline and shopping excepting the tourney entryway fees ( Scots Input-Output Database, 2009 ) .
Furthermore, the 2010 Open, for the first clip calls for five parts across Scotland ( Scots Borders, Dumfries & A ; Galloway, Ayrshire & A ; Arran, Perthshire, and Aberdeenshire ) to jointly advance the golf tourney on a combined platform ( www.visitscotland.org ) . This run allows better synergy-sharing which would be impossible to accomplish on a stand-alone regional footing ( www.visitscotland.org ) .
Indirect Economic Impact
When authorities or organisations enters into sport event to increase local consciousness and image, the media exposure is extended ( Cornwell and Maignan, 1998 ) . The BBC is the sole unrecorded telecasting ( besides wireless and online ) broadcaster for the Open Championship in the UK. To convey the title to its widest audience, the R & A ; A has signed coverage trade with several other internationally celebrated media webs. The combined audience is estimated to be more than 650,000 worldwide ( www.visitscotland.org ) . While airing the game, media coverage has besides made considerable mention to the local scenery, nearby golf locales, the criterion of adjustment, local people, and conveyance webs. This high degree of exposure would evidently take to an increased consciousness of St. Andrews.
Discussion of the Empirical Finding
In the group thesis, we impose the hypothesis that the 2010 Open title can better the image of St. Andrews. This hypothesis is nevertheless rejected by out statistical analysis. This determination is contradictory to literature which suggests that major featuring event can better the local image by event attending, post-event gross revenues, and media exposure. There are several accounts for the ascertained phenomenon:
Lack of tourer substructure
From both the questionnaire consequences and interview feedbacks, we learn that deficiency of adjustment was the top concern of golf tourers. This job was farther compounded by the hyperbolic monetary values of available adjustment within the part. Consequently, many tourers decide to shorten the length of their trip. Merely 27.8 % of the questionnaire respondents indicate they were willing to remain in St. Andrews more than one hebdomad. Golf tourers traveled to St. Andrews by auto during the Open were baffled by restricted entree to parking infinite. 20 % of the respondents in our sample had to park their autos several stat mis off from St. Andrews and took the coach to spectate the game. Lack of tourer substructure is the major hindrance to bettering the finish image of St. Andrews during the hebdomad of the Open Championship.
High outlook to the Open Championship
The high outlook of golf tourers is another account to the low satisfaction of the tourers. Due to the high repute of St. Andrews as the Home of Golf and the of import position of the Open in golf universe, golf tourers by and large have a comparatively high outlook about their trip to St. Andrews which give rise to the spread between perceptual experience and existent experience.
Opportunity cost of the Open Championship
The Open Championship is organized and administrated by the R & A ; A – 1 of the two opinion governments of golf. The successful organisation of the Open would necessitate tremendous support from the local authorities. The R & A ; A and the local authorities do non hold indistinguishable bets in event purchase. Any income straight generated from the golf tourney will travel to R & A ; A, while local governments benefit from the indirect beginnings of income, such as increased concern chances brought by the event. The indirect income is capable to great uncertainness whereas the net income to R & A ; A is comparatively more predictable. In this position, local governments carry more hazard than the R & A ; A. St. Andrews is in a five-year rotary motion to keep the Open Championship, which means the Open comes to St. Andrews every five old ages. The hebdomad of the Open in July consequences in dramatic addition in tourer volume that is frequently beyond the normal tourer capacity of St. Andrews. Many local tourer substructure and installations have to be altered in order to suit the demand of the Open. For case, the Old Course Hotel is merely available to professional golf players during that hebdomad ; the local rugger and football pitches turn to impermanent auto park, local golf classs and driving scope are closed for the readying of the Open, etc. Many of these substructure and installations may necessitate important sum of clip to be restored into their original scene after the tourney. This evidently has caused great incommodiousness to the local occupants. More significantly, July is the peak month for tourers even without the event of the Open. Crompton ( 1999: p.33 ) discusses the possibility that such event may displace other tourers who will either postpone or call off their program to see the host part due to the evident trouble in obtaining adjustment, inaccessibility of some other tourer activities, and impermanent addition in monetary values of goods and services. While hosting the esteemed Open Championship is moneymaking, the chance cost that comes with it is besides really big. The negativeness of hosting a major athletics event is frequently neglected by the host part. The negativeness may last longer than one expects. St. Andrews would hold to give up the chance of fulfilling other types of visitants every five old ages. If the Open Championship does non lend to the finish image of St. Andrews as evident in our research, it may damage the long-run prosperity of the local touristry industry. Such loss is possibly more marked in the non-Open Championship old ages.
There are utile policy deductions to be drawn from this research. While the touchable economic impact of the Open Championship is unquestionable, the determination that the Open Championship does non lend to the finish image of St. Andrews would press the cautiousness of local authorities and tourer bureaus, in that they should take the Open Championship as an chance to construct up the finish image of St. Andrews. Better image of St. Andrews encourages positive behavior of tourers, such as greater length of stay and revisit inducement. Since the tourers during the hebdomad of the Open are chiefly golf witnesss, the selling schemes should aim on this peculiar tourer population. Among the golf witnesss, many come to St. Andrews because of its heritage as the ‘Home of Golf ‘ . Compared to other eight Open locales[ 1 ], St. Andrews has its ain entreaty to golf fans. Golf witnesss have great desire to play golf during the clip they are in St. Andrews. However, since six out of the eight golf classs in St. Andrews are closed in readying for the Open Championship, many golf tourers who come to St. Andrews during this period may non be able to prosecute in any golf-related activities which may be a immense letdown. The letdown and trouble they encountered are unparallel to their high outlooks and are really likely to be remembered as their first feeling of St. Andrews. Consequently, St. Andrews would be perceived as a one time in a life-time finish for those unsated golf tourers. There is a demand to concentrate on ways of keeping on to reiterate concern and “ The Home of Golf ” is non plenty to guarantee repetition concern. The St. Andrews Links Trust ( the proprietor of the seven golf classs in St. Andrews ) needs to develop excess capacity on perchance available golf installations or loosen the limitations to some bing installations during the Open Championship. They may necessitate to give more selling attempts on the manque available golf classs ( e.g. the Castle Course ) to avoid the signature golf class ( i.e. the Old Course ) visited by a big figure of first-time visitants. Getz ( 1997 ) suggests that particular events are powerful tools to aim coveted sections of touristry markets every bit good as distributing the touristry industry geographically and seasonally. In order to be successfully promoted in the targeted markets, a finish must be favourably differentiated from its rivals, or positively positioned, in the heads of the consumers. All the Open locales face similar jobs to those of St. Andrews. Should St. Andrews be able to supply self-participation chance to golf witnesss, it certainly can separate itself from other viing Open locales and derive its competitory border, which would better client keeping in the competitory market place. Alternatively, local tourer bureaus could actively promote golf tourers to research other signifiers of non-golf related activities by publicizing alternate tourer attractive forces. St. Andrews is non merely celebrated for being the ‘Home of Golf ‘ but besides for its history and natural beauty. The travel experience in add-on to golf would let golf tourers to detect the other dimensions of St. Andrews.
Another job associated with hosting the Open Championship is the deficiency of tourer substructure to absorb the sudden addition of demand as the consequence of the Open. Whilst the local governments have made many necessary agreements to relieve the job, there is still room for bettering operational efficiency. For case, the impermanent auto Parkss in town were non to the full utilized while many golf witnesss were parking stat mis off from St. Andrews. The deficiency of substructure is non merely confined to golf tourers. Around the period of the Open Championship, local occupants and other types of tourers may experience being excluded from utilizing local services because of monetary value rising prices or deficiency of entree to installations. Olds ( 1998 ) observes that event-induced evictions are inevitable results of urban reclamation through a clean event. Under this state of affairs, the local authorization should do appropriate local touristry developing scheme which support the event hosting program while non upset the normal order of the execution of the local touristry developing scheme. Much of the golf touristry selling run relies on the coaction between the R & A ; A and local organisations. The local governments should non passively support R & A ; A in doing the tourney a success, but more significantly, take the Open Championship as a alone chance to construct up its finish image by exhibiting St. Andrews to a huge figure of golf tourers.
The chief aim of this survey is to measure both direct and indirect economic impact of the 2010 Open Championship to the local economic system of the hosting town – St. Andrews. This survey attempts to cast visible radiation on how the host could utilize the Open Championship as an chance to trade name its finish image for tourers, therefore serve the involvements of local authorities, tourer bureaus, and the services industries associated with touristry.
The extant literature suggests that the impact brought by a major featuring event can be broken down into direct and indirect economic impacts. In regard to direct economic impact, the survey focuses on three elements, viz. , tourers ‘ outgo, the multiplay consequence and satellite regional benefit. For the indirect economic impact, image consciousness and betterment are discussed, and the maps of media coverage and promotional activities are besides highlighted. There is no exact grounds point to the long-term effectivity of hosting a major athletics event on local image. Combined this position with the determination from our group thesis that the Open Championship can non better the image of St. Andrews, the survey investigates the possible causes of this anomalousness which can be summarized into three headers:
Lack of touristry substructure
High outlook of the tourers.
Opportunity cost of the Open Championship
The survey so discusses their deductions and proposes ways on how the hosting town St. Andrews could to the full capitalise on the intangible economic impact of the Open Championship. Better coaction between the event organiser and local governments is called for every bit good as the demand to develop selling schemes that are specific to the Open Championship. The successful execution of such selling schemes is expected to heighten the finish image of St. Andrews and prolong the prosperity of its tourer industry.