The Effect Of Caffeine Biology Essay

Consequences of chronic caffeine disposal on airing and schedule-controlled behaviour were studied in different people. In sitting topics trained with a caput plethysmograph, airing was measured by the impact of air and elevated degrees of CO2 in the assorted air ( Richard J, pp 65-72 ) . Marked acute disposal of caffeine, a dose-dependent addition in airing provided normocapnia and hypercarbia. Nevertheless, in a day-to-day dosage of caffeine for back-to-back yearss resulted in tolerance to its respiratory-stimulant effects, which were overcome at higher doses. Caffeine-tolerant topics were besides cross-tolerant to theophylline, an active metabolite of caffeine, every bit good as rolipram, selective inhibitors of phosphodiesterase.

When chronic disposal was terminated and was destined to acute effects of caffeine sensitiveness returned to degrees obtained before chronic disposal for several yearss ( Charles, pp 12-15 ) . Acute disposal of caffeine produced a important addition in the rate impact on fixed interval steps, but chronic disposal resulted in tolerance, which was resistless, such that does non run into the dosage increased control over the gait. Although the clip class for development and the loss of opposition to the behavioural effects of caffeine corresponded closely with the breath, cross-tolerance does non widen to the behavioural effects of rolipram. Chronic disposal of caffeine has small consequence on caffeine metamorphosis or clearance, which indicated that caffeine tolerance, pharmacodynamic. Consequences indicate that different neurochemical mechanisms mediate the action of caffeine on respiration and behaviour, and that suppression of phosphodiesterase type IV plays an of import function in caffeine-induced respiratory stimulation ( Charles, pp 12-15 ) .IntroductionCaffeine is a methylxanthine alkaloid, which can be found of course or unnaturally in a broad scope of nutrient merchandises such as java, tea, cocoa and Cola drinks. As a regulation, are recognized for different acrimonious gustatory sensation and for its belongingss as a stimulation of the cardinal nervous system, bosom and respiration.

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In America, 240mg of caffeine consumed per individual per twenty-four hours from all beginnings ( Charles, pp 12-15 ) . Caffeine in its pure signifier it has no odor, but really acrimonious white pulverization. Medically it is merely recognized trimethylxanthine. Caffeine is sometimes called Theine ( found in green tea ) , as is about indistinguishable to the caffeine in java.In connexion with the widespread usage of caffeine and related xanthines as constituents of nutrient and drinks and as a medical specialty, the definition of the mechanisms that mediate its pharmacological effects has considerable relevancy to the development of drugs and interventions. Numerous surveies have shown that caffeine can hold a important influence on assorted behavioural steps, including the schedule-controlled behaviour, drug self-delayed lucifer to try, and perennial acquisition ( Sumner J, pp 456-465 ) . In the scope of doses, xanthines have important behavioral-stimulant effects suggests cardinal nervous system stimulation, whereas higher doses can stamp down behavioural activity and behavioural public presentation related to interrupt acquisition and memory. Xanthines besides expressed the respiratory stimulating effects, which were used for the intervention of respiratory diseases and experimental informations indicate that the xanthines may move by impacting the cardinal mechanisms commanding external respiration.

Both caffeine and Elixophyllin increased minute volume and sensitiveness to elevated degrees of inspired CO2 ( Laurel, pp 31-36 ) . These effects were attributed to take down the threshold of the cardinal chemo receptors sensitive to CO2, but non in the peripheral effects in the lung ( Samantha J, pp 654-666 ) .MethodStudy of pharmacological tolerance during chronic drug disposal has been effectual attack to qualify the drug mechanism of action. A direct comparing between the gait of development and loss of tolerance, and altered sensitiveness to drugs with selective action of neurochemical, can function as a footing for comparing the mechanisms that mediate respiratory and behavioural effects of caffeine. Human and animate being surveies have reported the development of tolerance to CNS effects of caffeine, which include behavioural effects, and shoulder and cardiovascular effects ( Laurel, pp 31-36 ) . However, the mechanisms involved in caffeine tolerance ill understood, and specific neurochemical substrates were non identified. Therefore, the survey established primate theoretical account of caffeine tolerance to look into neurochemical mechanisms that mediate caffeine-induced alterations in respiration and behaviour.

Effectss of caffeine, compared with those of Elixophyllin, xanthine with nonselective PDE inhibitory effects and the primary metabolites of caffeine in different people ( Laurel, pp 31-36 ) . In add-on, caffeine pharmacokinetics was assessed before and after chronic disposal of caffeine.SubjectsFive grownups male and seven grownups female were considered. Between investigational assemblage, subjects lived in single place and were presented every twenty-four hours entree to nutrient and unrestricted entree to H2O.

Weight limitations were non imposed. Subjects had been researched earlier under the common steps defined below and had established medical specialties.Apparatus Respiration experimentsDuring the survey aggregation, the topics sat in a chair and Primatess, concluded in ventilated, sound-attenuating chamber. Ventilation was observed at changeless force per unit area plethysmograph caput motion, as described above. Sealed, Rectangular helmet is made of 1/16-inch Lexan with a spread for the neckband was positioned over his caput, and served as a force dislodgement plethysmograph. Continuous flow of gas is controlled by the flow metre, came into the helmet through the port in the face of the topic and was removed by a vacuity pump through the port for the caput of the topic.

Second flow metre supervising the flow of gas produced by the pump. Alterations in the plethysmograph due to fluctuations in airing considered emphasis detector are connected to a polygraph. Polygraph planimeter is converted to a flow signal that step. Microcomputer involves a polygraph planimeter and a polygraph examined and accumulated information.

Respiratory rate ( F ) was resulted directly through including the alterations of the optimistic class of pessimistic classs ( Laurel, pp 31-36 ) . Infinitesimal airing ( VE ) is firmed through incorporating the force compensated plethysmograph mark after standardization prepossession for prejudice flow, and tidal volume ( VT ) was calculated as the quotient of the VE, M, T = VE / F. Continuous fumes fan and white noise masked inappropriate sounds throughout every session.

Behavioral experiments

Under experimental assemblages, topics sat in a chair and Primatess, concluded in ventilated, sound-attenuating chamber. A saloon is mounted on the forepart of the chair was equipped with a response lever and a twosome of 5-W AC ruddy and white visible radiation. The tail of the subject was held in the still little turnups, and two brass home bases resting on a shaven portion near the terminal.

Electrode paste a lower limit of alterations in opposition from the tail and brass home bases at 10 mA electrical stimulation 200 MS continuance was delivered ( Laurel, pp 31-36 ) . The personal computer controlled experimental events and entering and hive awaying informations on floppies. Continuous exhaust fan masked and white noise inappropriate sounds throughout every session.

Pharmacokinetic experiments

Drug plasma degrees were analyzed by a reverse-phase HPLC analytical system with a variable wavelength UV soaking up sensor and C-18, Spherisorb ODS-2 analytical column. Chemresearch personal computer and system direction package bundles commanded HPLC system, supervising brace for the soaking up and determined the peak country ( Robertson, pp 132-136 ) .

Procedure Respiration experiments

Patients were adapted to the conditions of the experiment and the stable theoretical accounts of airing systems were installed prior to this survey. Ventilation was recorded in stray, undisturbed topics take a breathing air for the initial 25 to 30 proceedingss.

Subsequently, topics were subjected to hypercapnia conditions under which the saline and drug injections were given to them in the thigh or calf musculuss 30 proceedingss of each other, with the undermentioned sequence of Exposure Time: 10 proceedingss of air, 5 min 3 % of CO2 in the air 5 proceedingss of 4 % CO2 in the air 5 min of 5 % CO2 in the air, and 5 min of air. The injection was given at the beginning of 10-min in the air, so that for the soaking up and distribution of the drug before topics were exposed to elevated CO2 concentration in the assorted air. Typically, two doses of the drug was studied during day-to-day Sessionss enduring 2 to 3 hours, and drug experiments were conducted no more often than twice a hebdomad for each topic.

Behavioral experiments

Patients were trained to press a response lever under the FI 300 sec agenda of stimulus expiration with 10-sec limited clasp. A ruddy visible radiation illuminated the experimental chamber during the interval and the limited clasp.

If a inquiry is answered in a limited to 300 seconds after the interval has expired, the white visible radiation illuminated for 2 seconds, followed by a 60-sec timeout during which the House was overshadowed by the responses and was non scheduled effects. If no response within a limited Hold, electrical stimulation was delivered, and so 60 seconds timeout. Daily experimental session consisted of five consecutive constituents of the graph FI, and each constituent is included drawn-out waiting period, after which three back-to-back FIS. The entire clip session is about 140 proceedingss, and meetings are held 5 yearss a hebdomad.

The effects of drugs on behaviour were determined by the cumulative-dosing process similar to that described by research workers. Full dose-effect curve was established in the class of one session for each shooting drug consecutive high-dose in the thigh or calf musculus. Saline and drug injections were administered at the beginning of the drawn-out time-out periods. Typically, drugs, experiments were conducted on Tuesdays and Fridays, and saline ( control ) were administered on Thursdays.

The impact of the full scope of doses of each drug was determined at least twice in each topic. To forestall inordinate presentation of stimulus presentation in connexion with drug-induced misdemeanor of the reply, 10 ma beginning stimulation was turned off in the yearss when they were used cumulative-dosing processs. Subjects received a rare presentation of a stimulation when linking incentive units and responses were maintained when the stimulation was turned off the unit.

Pharmacokinetic experiments

Subjects were trained to widen a leg through the forepart of the place for repeated blood backdowns. After disposal of 10.

0 mg/kg caffeine, 1.0 milliliter of blood was withdrawn from the saphenous vena at 0.5, 1.

0, 2.0, 6.0 and 24.0 hour station injection.

Caffeine and two primary metabolites, Elixophyllin and paraxanthine, were extracted and assayed by a process described antecedently ( Ayala, pp 27-33 ) . Whole blood was collected in vacutainer tubings and centrifuged at 3,000 revolutions per minute for 10 min. Serum was so aspirated into aggregation tubings, and 40 I?l of distilled H2O and 10 I?l of 60 % per choleric acid were added to the sample. After the sample was vortexed and placed in the deep-freeze for 10 min, an extra 350 I?l of distilled H2O was added, and the sample was centrifuged once more. The supernatant was transferred to micro filtration tubings incorporating 0.45 I?m membranes and centrifuged a 3rd clip.

The filtered merchandise was so injected into the HPLC system with a nomadic stage consisting 65 % 50 millimeter Na phosphate buffer and 35 % methyl alcohol at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The eluate was monitored for optical density at 280 nanometer, and the bound of sensing for caffeine and its metabolites was 200 ng/ml serums ( Ayala, pp 27-33 ) .

Drug-free samples of blood were spiked with known measures of drug and carried through the extraction process to graduate the procedure and to find the per centum output of recovery.

Drug disposal

On multiple occasions, caffeine was administered i.m. on a chronic, day-to-day footing with each juncture separated by at least 4 hebdomads of drug abstention. During the behavior of experiments, the day-to-day dosage of caffeine was administered 10 min pre session. To measure caffeine tolerance and drug cross-tolerance, the acute effects of caffeine and several other drugs were determined earlier and during chronic caffeine disposal.

When the acute effects of a drug were determined in caffeine-tolerant topics, the day-to-day dosage of caffeine was non administered on that twenty-four hours. In respiration surveies, the first series of experiments characterized the development and clip class of caffeine tolerance. The 2nd and 3rd series of experiments determined whether caffeine tolerance was surmountable and investigated cross-tolerance to rolipram, severally. The 4th series of experiments investigated cross-tolerance to theophylline during the 2nd and 3rd hebdomads of chronic caffeine disposal, severally. The last series of experiments investigated possible alterations in base-line sensitiveness to CO2 during chronic disposal of caffeine.

The day-to-day dosage of caffeine was administered station session in the latter experiments to prevent acute drug effects during CO2 findings ( Ayala, pp 27-33 ) . Hence, subjects received chronic disposal of caffeine on five separate occasions runing from 8 to 21 yearss each ( Ayala, pp 27-33 ) .

In behavioural surveies, the first series of experiments characterized the development and clip class of caffeine tolerance, and the 2nd series determined whether caffeine tolerance was surmountable. The 3rd series of experiments investigated cross-tolerance to theophylline during the 2nd hebdomad of chronic caffeine disposal. The 4th series of experiments investigated cross-tolerance to rolipram and cocaine during the 2nd and 3rd hebdomads of chronic caffeine disposal, severally. In all cross-tolerance surveies, the acute effects of each drug were determined instantly before chronic disposal of caffeine to command for the influence of drug history. Hence, subjects received chronic disposal of caffeine on four separate occasions runing from 14 to 21 yearss each.

Datas Analysis

Consequences were calculated for single topics and combined to deduce the mean for the group. In respiration surveies, the last 3 min of each 5-min exposure to CO2 were used for information examine to allow clip for airing to make a steady place. In behavioural experiments, response rates were computed individually for each constituent by spliting the entire figure of responses in a constituent by the entire clip the ruddy visible radiation was present. Average control rates were determined for each individual by averaging response rates for all saline control Sessionss. The effects of drugs on reacting were expressed as a per centum of control rate obtained when saline was administered. In pharmacokinetic experiments, caffeine half life was calculated by least-squares linear-regression analysis of ln as a map of clip where Ct = concentration at clip T, Cpeak = peak concentration and ln.

In some figures, the S.E.M. or 95 % assurance bounds were presented merely for the control data to avoid figures that appeared littered and hard to construe.

Drugs

The drugs studied were caffeine and Elixophyllin, cocaine hydrochloride, rolipram and Ro 20-1724. Caffeine and Elixophyllin were dissolved in 0.

9 % saline incorporating Na benzoate, and doses are expressed in footings of the free base of the drugs. Ro 20-1724 was dissolved in 45 % aqueous 2-hydroxypropyl-I?-cyclodextrin. Cocaine and rolipram were dissolved in 0.9 % saline. Injection volumes were 0.

5 to 3.0 milliliters.

Consequences

Respiration Experiments

During control conditions when topics breathed air entirely, f averaged 19.0 A± 1.

5 breaths/min, VT averaged 78.9 A± 9.8 milliliter and VE averaged 1.

5 A± .2 l/min for the group of three individuals. Exposure to elevated degrees of CO2 in air produced pronounced additions in airing above degrees recorded during exposure to air entirely. There was a concentration-dependent addition in f, VT and VE as inspired CO2increased to a upper limit of 5 % ( Tondo, pp 494-503 ) .

During the first 2 to 3 min of subsequent exposure to air, airing decreased and returned to prior values. Polygraph tracings besides illustrate caffeine-induced alterations in airing. On the first twenty-four hours of chronic, day-to-day disposal of 10.0 mg/kg caffeine, there was a pronounced addition in airing during exposure both to air entirely and to elevated degrees of CO2 in air ( Tondo, pp 494-503 ) . However, caffeine had small consequence on airing by twenty-four hours 8 of chronic disposal.

Behavioral Experiments

Reacting during the FI 300-sec agenda was characteristic of public presentation maintained under FI agendas of stimulus expiration.

Little or no responding occurred early in the interval, and the response rate increased as the interval elapsed ( Barry, pp 355-361 ) . Average response rates during control Sessionss were 0.89 A± 0.34, 0.

40 A± 0.14 and 0.37 A± 0.10 response/sec for topics. Caffeine produced important additions in response rate to more than 200 % of control values for the group of three individuals during the first twenty-four hours of chronic disposal ( Barry, pp 355-361 ) . However, the behavioral-stimulant effects of caffeine bit by bit diminished during 5 back-to-back yearss, and by twenty-four hours 5, caffeine had no important consequence on FI reacting.

When chronic disposal of caffeine was terminated on twenty-four hours 20, there was no obvious behavioural break feature of drug backdown.

Pharmacokinetic Experiments

Standard curves for caffeine and its metabolites were linearly related to top out countries over a scope of 1.0 to 50.0 I?g/ml ( Calamaro, pp 1005-1010 ) . Chromatograms were completed in less than 10 min with dependable separation of extremum keeping times for caffeine, Elixophyllin and paraxanthine at about 7.9, 5.3 and 4.9 min, severally.

The per centum output obtained during extractions of criterions varied small among xanthines and ranged from 86.9 % to 95.6 % with a average value of 92.4 % A± 1.7 % . Before chronic disposal, 10.0 mg/kg caffeine resulted in a peak plasma concentration of 8.

6 A± 0.6 I?g/ml at 30 min station injection for the group of six individuals ( Calamaro, pp 1005-1010 ) . The deliberate half life of caffeine was 10.8 A± 0.6 hour, and as caffeine plasma degrees decreased, there was a corresponding addition in theophylline degrees. No important sum of paraxanthine was detected.

At 24 hour station injection, merely little sums of caffeine were detected, whereas important sums of Elixophyllin were still present. When caffeine pharmacokinetics was redetermined during the 2nd hebdomad of chronic, day-to-day disposal of 10.0 mg/kg caffeine, neither the peak plasma concentration nor the deliberate half life of caffeine differed significantly from pre chronic conditions. However, theophylline degrees were significantly greater throughout the 24-hr station injection period because of accretion of Elixophyllin from anterior day-to-day injections of caffeine. The consequences indicate that chronic caffeine disposal had small consequence on caffeine metamorphosis or clearance ( Curt von, pp 148-154 ) .

Discussion and Decision

The present survey established a human archpriest theoretical account of caffeine tolerance to look into neurochemical mechanisms that mediate the physiological and behavioural effects of caffeine. Chronic day-to-day disposal of caffeine resulted in tolerance to its respiratory- and behavioral-stimulant effects that developed bit by bit over several yearss, and was reversible when chronic disposal was terminated ( Robertson, pp 132-136 ) .

Caffeine tolerance appeared to be pharmacodynamic because no important alterations in caffeine metamorphosis or clearance were apparent in caffeine-tolerant topics. Although the clip class for the development and loss of tolerance was similar for the respiratory and behavioural effects of caffeine, of import features of caffeine tolerance differed for respiration and behaviour. Tolerance to the respiratory-stimulant effects of caffeine was surmountable and extended to the type IV PDE inhibitors, rolipram and Ro 20-1724. A high dosage of caffeine produced important additions in airing in caffeine-tolerant topics, and the acute effects of rolipram and Ro 20-1724 were less marked during chronic caffeine disposal ( Hagen, pp 153-159 ) . In contrast, tolerance to the behavioral-stimulant effects of caffeine was unsurmountable and did non widen to rolipram. No dosage of caffeine increased reacting above control rates in caffeine-tolerant topics, and the acute effects of rolipram were unchanged during chronic caffeine disposal. The consequences indicate that different neurochemical mechanisms mediate the effects of caffeine on respiration and behaviour, and that suppression of type IV PDE plays a outstanding function in caffeine-induced respiratory stimulation ( Calamaro, pp 1005-1010 ) .

Caffeine had pronounced effects on airing during conditions of normocapnia, and produced dose-dependent additions in degree Fahrenheit and VE during exposure to elevated degrees of CO2 mixed in air such that the CO2 response curve was shifted upward in a parallel mode ( Hagen, pp 153-159 ) .

The effects observed during hypercarbia are consistent with old surveies describing that xanthines act by impacting cardinal mechanisms commanding respiration. For illustration, caffeine increases the ventilatory response to CO2 in cats at degrees of CO2 equal to or below the scope, and Elixophyllin increases the ventilatory response to CO2 in Canis familiariss during hypercarbia. Consequently, a series of experiments investigated possible alterations in baseline sensitiveness to CO2 during chronic disposal of caffeine to find whether physiological version resulted from repeated exposure to hypercapnia. When the chronic day-to-day dosage of caffeine was administered station session to prevent acute drug effects during CO2 findings, caffeine-tolerant topics exhibited CO2-induced additions in airing that were similar to those obtained in no tolerant topics. The latter consequences indicate that caffeine tolerance was pharmacological and did non ensue from alterations in baseline reactivity to CO2.

In contrast to the respiratory-stimulant effects of caffeine and related xanthines, the behavioral-stimulant effects have been linked more closely to adenosine receptor hostility than to PDE suppression. In old surveies conducted in nonhuman Primatess, merely xanthines with outstanding adenosine-antagonist actions had important behavioral-stimulant effects, and at that place was a close correspondence between the drug authorities for increasing response rate and for antagonising the behavioral-suppressant effects of the adenosine receptor agonist, NECA. Selective PDE inhibitors that lacked adenosine-antagonist effects either suppressed behaviour or had no behavioural consequence.

Consistent with these findings, rolipram merely reduced response rate in the present survey, and topics tolerant to the behavioral-stimulant effects of caffeine were non cross-tolerant to rolipram. The pharmacological specificity of caffeine tolerance was exemplified farther by the deficiency of cross-tolerance to the nonxanthine psychomotor stimulation, cocaine ( Estevez, pp 164-173 ) . In contrast to rolipram, acute disposal of Elixophyllin, a xanthine with adenosine-antagonist effects, had modest behavioral-stimulant effects similar to those of caffeine.

Although there was no important chief consequence of chronic caffeine intervention on the acute effects of Elixophyllin, no dosage of Elixophyllin increased reacting above control rates during chronic caffeine disposal. Hence, there was some indicant of cross-tolerance to theophylline in caffeine-tolerant topics. However, the function of adenosine hostility as a mechanism underlying tolerance to caffeine-induced stimulation of behaviour remains vague ( Estevez, pp 164-173 ) .

Some research workers have reported an addition in the figure of adenosine adhering sites in encephalon during chronic disposal of caffeine, whereas others have found no appreciable alterations in the authority of caffeine as an adenosine adversary in caffeine-tolerant animate beings.

In drumhead, chronic disposal of caffeine resulted in tolerance to its respiratory- and behavioral-stimulant effects which developed bit by bit and was reversible. Caffeine pharmacokinetics was unchanged during chronic disposal, which indicated that caffeine tolerance was pharmacodynamic.

Tolerance to the respiratory-stimulant effects of caffeine was surmountable and extended to the type IV PDE inhibitors and rolipram, whereas tolerance to the behavioral-stimulant effects was unsurmountable and did non widen to rolipram. The results describe that assorted neurochemical mechanisms mediate the consequences of caffeine on behaviour and respiration and that suppression of type IV PDE plays a chief function in caffeine-induced respiratory stimulation.

Work Cited

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Sumner J, Yaffe ; 2005 pp 456-465 ; Neonatal and paediatric pharmacological medicine: curative rules in pattern ; Publisher Lippincott Williams & A ; Wilkins ; ISBN 0781741858, 9780781741859. ( article from book )

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Samantha J, Venable ; 2008 pp 654-666 ; Drug Therapy in Nursing ; Publisher Lippincott Williams & A ; Wilkins ; ISBN 0781765870, 9780781765879. ( book )

Laurel, A ; 2008 pp 31-36 ; The pharmacologic footing of patient attention ; Publisher Saunders ; Original from the University of Michigan ; ISBN 072161437X, 9780721614373. ( 1977 )

Robertson, Cushny ; 2007 pp 132-136 ; A text-book of pharmacological medicine and therapeutics ; Publisher Lea & A ; Febiger ; Original from Harvard University.

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Charles, Edward ; 2006 pp 12-15 ; Journal of bacteriology ; Society of American Bacteriologists ; Publisher American Society for Microbiology ; Original from the University of Michigan.

Ayala, J ; 2009 ; Quantitative finding of caffeine and intoxicant in energy drinks and the possible to bring forth positive transdermic intoxicant concentrations in human topics. Journal of Analytical Toxicology 27-33. ( article )

Tondo, L ; 2009 pp 494-503 ; Coffee and coffin nail usage: Association with self-destructive Acts of the Apostless in 352 Sardinian bipolar upset patients ; Bipolar Disorders.

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Barry, RJ ; 2009 pp 355-361 ; Caffeine effects on resting-state rousing in kids. International Journal of Psychophysiology. ( article, saved )

Calamaro CJ ; 2009 pp 1005-1010 ; Adolescents populating the 24/7 life style: Effectss of caffeine and engineering on sleep continuance and daytime operation ; Pediatricss 123 ( 6 ) .

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Estevez, E ; 2009 pp 164-173 ; Caffeine during exercising in the heat: Thermoregulation and fluid-electrolyte balance ; Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 41. ( article )

Hagen, K ; 2009 pp 153-159 ; High dietetic caffeine ingestion is associated with a modest addition in headache prevalence ; consequences from the Head-HUNT Study ; Journal of Headache and Pain. ( article )

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