The Development of Romanian Architecture in the Late Nineteenth Century Essay
By the 2nd half of the 19th century, Romania`s cultural and architectural background was confronting one of the most important transmutations in its history until today, being clearly influenced by the Gallic theoretical account.Possibly the best known Gallic designer who worked in Romania at the clip was Paul Gottereau, his work still being representative today when mentioning to some of the most characteristic Modern Era architecture in our state. He created a huge public and residential architecture, reacting to both the private demands of the nobility, as to the 1s of the Royal Crown in the new Kingdom of Romania. This paper tries to portrait the lost image of the designer through some of his most of import plants, at the same clip as showing several unknown facets refering his life.The development of Rumanian architecture in the 2nd half of the 19th century remains an of import research subject. Against the background of a strong influence of Western civilization, the Rumanian metropolis, and particularly Bucharest as its capital metropolis, was confronting during this period with the greatest transmutation in its history until today.
“If in the Fieldss of literature and doctrine, the Gallic cultural domination is competed by a strong German influence, and if the first Rumanian painters studied in Munich and non in Paris, the architecture, alternatively, is clearly dominated by the Gallic model.” [ 1 ] Before the acceptance of the first coherent Bucharest edifice ordinance in 1878, the transmutation and upgrading of the old mediaeval urban constructions occurred bit by bit as a consequence of the new urban ordinances, partly inspired by Western jurisprudence. Merely later it took a more accelerated class with the great urban Hausmannian type operations. In Bucharest and, furthermore, in many European metropoliss, the direct influence of large-scale intercessions due to Baron Haussmann, the prefect of Paris, is manifested in the design and execution of the whole avenues system and in constructing a consistent architectural model, in a Gallic eclectic manner [ 2 ] .At a more single degree, things were, peculiarly, possible because of the academic environment of the clip. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, a immense moving ridge of Romanians, largely appertaining to the higher society, left to Paris for their surveies in the most esteemed school of architecture of that clip, Ecole diethylstilbestrols Beaux-Arts. Besides, the Rumanian State, taking over on the Western theoretical account, follows to accomplish major public undertakings in the capital, forming hence different international architectural competitions.
As a consequence, foreign designers, many of Gallic beginning, propose edifice designs or came to work in Romania. Some of them settled here planing, in add-on to these public edifices, an impressive residential architecture, largely for the Rumanian nobility.In the last century, a batch has been written on the topic, by and large showing a big position on the phenomenon. In mention, works such asArhitectura pe teritoriul Romaniei de-a lungul veacurilorwritten by Grigore Ionescu orIstoria BucureE™tilor: blare cele mai vechi timpuri panA? in zilele noastreby Constantin Giurescu, and in assorted articles published about the Gallic influence in our state, are mentioned merely the chief designers who contributed to the bringing of an eclectic Gallic manner to Rumanian architecture and their most noteworthy accomplishments. However, in add-on to several mention documents, these designers remain unknown to the literature, most of their undertakings non being uncovered and investigated, much less published.Possibly the best known Gallic designer who worked in Romania in the 2nd half of the 19th century is Paul Gottereau, his edifices still being representative today when mentioning to some of the most characteristic Modern Era architecture in our state. He created a huge public and residential architecture, reacting both to the private demands of the nobility, as to the 1s of the Royal Crown of Romania. This paper tries to portrait the lost image of the designer through some of his most of import plants, at the same clip as showing several unknown facets of his life.
Paul Gottereau was born in Perpignan, France, on 29 March 1843, as the boy of Alfred Gottereau and Marie Pauline Gottereau ( born Perrin ) . He came from a household of creative persons, particularly from his female parent side. One of his best known relations was his uncle, Emile Cesar Victor Perrin, a painter and an art critic, for many old ages in charge of the Paris Opera as its General Administrator, a service for which he was decorated with the Commander rank in the Gallic Legion of Honor [ 3 ] .Sing his artistic background, but likely most influenced by his male parent, himself an applied scientist and an designer, Paul Gottereau decided following a calling in architecture.
Therefore, in 1864, he was admitted in the 2nd class of the most esteemed school of architecture of the clip in France, Ecole des Beaux-Arts. In the pages of the publicationLes architectes de cubic decimeter ‘ Ecole eleves the Beaux-Arts, incorporating the names of all those who have studied at the Beaux-Arts from 1793-1907, we find the undermentioned concerning Paul Gottereau:„GOTTEREAU Alfred-Jules-Paul, ne 1843 Perpignan, prom. 1864, eleve Paccard, med. E.U. 1889,?I.a-™1898 C .a-™a-™Trav.
: Credit foncier.Agric. , Palais « Dacia Romana» , salles palais Royal, Ecole franc. Mon. Francais morts Dobrudja, Caisse depots et Consign. , agrand.
Palais royal, bibliotheque Universite , palais Cotroceni prince heritier. Arch. A Bucharest, Strada Combia, 7.”[ 4 ]The entryway test involved proving ( written and unwritten ) in mathematics, descriptive geometry, history [ 5 ] , study and architecture. As a pupil of Alexis Paccard, an old pensionary of the Gallic Academy in Rome, he participated in different classs and competitions presented in the course of study.
Paul Gottereau school transcript show us he obtained consequences at the four building subjects – rock, wood, metal and general buildings. [ 6 ] Certainly, the pleasance and easiness to analyze building, considered the hardest stuff in the 2nd class, was due to the influence that his male parent, himself an applied scientist by preparation, has had on the immature Paul. These undertakings involved a series of drawings in which pupils presented how the edifice was structurally designed with attending to the particularization of rock, wood and metal, and with mathematical computations to show the edifice wood base. Even though he besides enrolled in assorted architectural competitions at school during the twelvemonth 1865, his transcript doesn`t show him obtaining any consequences.The last record of him at the Beaux-Arts is in the beginning of 1866, the immature pupil ne’er acquiring beyond the 2nd category. However, non graduating wasn`t a job at the clip, since “in the 19th century they [ Beaux-Arts pupils ] had a higher position than that of many designers, for if a former pupil could truly name himself an designer and anancien eleve de l’Ecole diethylstilbestrols Beaux-Arts,likely the latter rubric meant more” [ 7 ] . Unfortunately we do n’t hold any record of him between 1866 and 1873 [ 8 ] .
He likely left school because, as many other Beaux-Arts pupils did, he decided to take a fulltime occupation as an designer.We know for certain that this is what he did subsequently on, after he came to Romania, a state where he has spent more than 30 old ages and he loved it, if non more, at least the same as his native France, as he declared in an interview given to thePrintre Hotare, aRumanian magazine, in 1909. Merely as he was influenced by his male parent in following an architecture calling, likely his male parent was besides the ground for his coming to Romania. Alfred Gottereau, after going to many European metropoliss, particularly in France, Spain and Italy, lending to their gas nutriment as an enterpriser and applied scientist, arrived in Romania in 1867 [ 9 ] , with the same intent. He remained here for at least five old ages, a period in which he helped construct the Bucharest Gas Plant on the Filaret Hill, „being in bend a Mason, a locksmith, a machinist and an architect” [ 10 ] .
Therefore, following his male parent stairss to Romania, Paul Gottereau arrived in our state, a state where he will happen a place, he will construct a superb calling and a name for the Rumanian people to retrieve and articulate so frequently presents, when passing by the metropolis oldest streets.The public edifice undertakings are the most representative for the work that Paul Gottereau has done in Romania during the old ages, many of which are still preserved. His attack to planing big graduated table of public edifices, largely in a neoclassical architectural linguistic communication, is non surprisingly given his distinguished instruction atEcole diethylstilbestrols Beaux-Arts.One of his best known undertakings is that for the CEC Bank [ 11 ] in Bucharest, construct on Calea Victoriei, on the same site where a old edifice holding the same finish, but much smaller, existed. [ 12 ] Still, his of import topographic point on the Rumanian architectural phase is strongly related with the undertakings he was commissioned to make by King Carol I himself: The Royal Palace on Calea Victoriei [ 13 ] , Cotroceni Palace and “Carol I” Central University Library [ 14 ] . Besides these major edifice undertakings, he took portion in planing other different public edifices, such as for the Financial Society of Romania, the Gallic Circle or for the Rumanian Bank.
His relation with the populace and academically phase of the Gallic architecture was ne’er interrupted, given his invariably contact he had with it. In 1889 he was portion of the squad that organized the Rumanian engagement at the Universal Exhibition in Paris, the same exhibition for which he was offered a bronze decoration for the plants he exposed at that place, dwelling in the dramatic insides he had designed earlier for the Royal Palace in Bucharest. [ 15 ]In add-on to the public edifice undertakings over the old ages, Paul Gottereau besides designed a great figure of private houses undertakings, built either in an urban or a rural environment. Commissioned largely by aristocracy households, these houses reflected, in such an obvious manner, the Rumanian society openness to the modern universe, and particularly, by the 2nd half of the 19th century, the followers of a much loved theoretical account, the Gallic 1.
To advert merely a few of them, but surely non the lone 1s of a great architectural value, we have to province here the houses he designed for the Cantacuzino, Lahovary, Marghiloman, VA?cA?rescu, Carp households, in Bucharest or on their state retreat sites.We found really interesting and most of all really representative an interview Paul Gottereau gave for the Romanian magazinePrintre Hotarein 1909 sing his work, but most of all foregrounding his part to the Rumanian architectural development in the 2nd half of the 19th century. His bequest is so of import, non merely for the brilliant edifices he left buttocks and which nowadays represent a great portion of our national cultural heritage, but particularly because he was one of the designers that have experienced the first demands and force per unit areas of his occupation in our state. With his attention and doggedness, different trades in the building field had developed greatly after him get downing working here. He found these trades into the most crude province: locksmiths and blacksmiths, carpenters and joiners, tinners, glass and rock cutters, sculpturers did non exists decently, so for all the objects with a more artistic visual aspect, which depended on these trades, designers were forced to turn to foreign states, frequently holding to wait for several months for the orders arrival. Slowly, through the advice given on the stuffs and theoretical accounts, Paul Gottereau managed to convert a batch of little merchandisers and craftsmen to surge in industrial endeavors which, given the turning demands of the state, could non neglect. Due to the tendency introduced by him at the clip, a great figure of new constitutions were able to bring forth all the necessary in the building field. Gottereau contributed greatly to the prosperity and development of industrial constitutions, such as the followers: B.
Gaiser, Weigel, Haug, August Zwoelfer, Storck, Schmiedigen, Oscar Spaethe, Lemaitre, Teirich, etc. [ 16 ]His more than 30 twelvemonth work in our state was recognized during his life-time, by both the Rumanian and the Gallic State. Thus, in 1881 he was offered the Crown of Romania Order in the Officer rang [ 17 ] and besides, by the decree given on 31 December 1897, Paul Gottereau was named “Chevalier” of the Gallic Legion of Honor. [ 18 ] Towards the terminal of the 1910I• s, he had moved back to France, where he lived with his household until his decease in 1924.For his great part to the Rumanian architecture in the 19th century and most significantly for go forthing us with such an astonishing bequest, a bequest that nowadays is considered portion of our national cultural heritage, Paul Gottereau stays remembered today us one of our greatest designers.Reference list:Printre hotare, Anul II, no.12 – BucureE™ti. – Februarie, 1909, Socec & A ; Co.
, BucureE™ti.Monitorul Oficial, no. 100, 16 August 1881.BIBESCU, George,1889 Exposition Universelle.La Roumanie – avant, pendent, apres, Paris, Imprimerie typographique J. Kugelmann, 1890.
DREXLER, Arthur,The Architecture of the Ecole Beaux-Arts,London, Secker and Warburg, 1977.CRITICOS, Mihaela, ZAHARIADE, Ana Maria, “Influences francaise dans l’architecture roumaine moderne ( 1800-1945 ) ” , in La memoire diethylstilbestrols murs. LI•esprit francais dans lI•architecture de Roumanie ( sous la way de Iulian Capsali ) , Bucharest, Institutul Cultural Roman, 2006.GIURESCU, Constantin C. ,Istoria BucureE™tilor: blare cele mai vechi timpuri panA? in zilele noastre, Editura pentru LiteraturA? , 1966.IONESCU, Grigore,Arhitectura pe teritoriul Romaniei de-a lungul veacurilor, BucureE™ti, Editura Academiei, 1982.
LASCU, Nicolae,LegislaE›ie E™i dezvoltare urbanA? BucurE™sti 1831-1952, tezA? de doctorat, Bucharest, Institutul de ArhitecturA? “ Ion Mincu ” , 1997.MARSILLAC,Ulysse de, BucureE™tiul in veacul Al XIX-lea,BucureE™ti, Editura Meridiane, 1999.MUCENIC, Cezara,BucureE™ti,Un veac de arhitecturA? civilA? , Secolul al XIX-lea, BucureE™ti, Editura Silex, 1997.PENANRUN,David de,ROUX et DELAIRE,1793-1907 Les Architectes Eleves de l’Ecole diethylstilbestrols Beaux-Arts,Paris, Librairie de la Construction Moderne, 1907.SOCOLESCU, Toma T. ,Fresca arhitecE›ilor attention au lucrat in Romania in epoca modernA? : 1800-1925, Bucharest, Caligraf Design, 2004.A.N.F.( Gallic National Archives ) , “Base de donnees Leonore: dossiers de titulaires de la Legion d’honneur, 1800-1976” , Dossier “Paul Gottereau” .A.N.F.( Gallic National Archives ) , “Base de donnees Leonore: dossiers de titulaires de la Legion d’honneur, 1800-1976” , Dossier “ Emile Cesar Victor Perrin” .A.N.F.( Gallic National Archives ) , “Ecole nationale superieure des Beaux-Arts” Collection, Dossier AJ52/367.