The Changing Face Of Contemporary Business Environments Business Essay

The modern-day concern environment everyone facing is invariably altering, but leading accomplishment is invariable. The success of developing superb leaders is of great importance for every company and accordingly impacting on a company ‘s hereafter.

This paper is explaining what is modern leading, conveying out the key properties and constituents of leading from IT genius – Bill Gates and media titan- Oprah Winfrey, two different individuals but harnessing top leaders in their darling concerns individually.

The writer is representing leading manner in Chapter 3 & A ; 4, following a comparing of each leading similarity and difference to further research the two great concern gurus.

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Based on extended work with research and instance surveies on the leading manner done by the writer, reader would acquire to cognize more about Bill Gates & A ; Oprah Winfrey in different angles of position, along with some interesting findings and anecdotes of Bill Gates & A ; Oprah Winfrey ‘s concern universe.

2. BACKGROUND OF BILL GATES AND OPRAH WINFREY

BILL GATES

Bill Gates is one of the most successful and richest man of affairs in the universe, he has been ranked top figure one among the billionaires for many old ages which posted on Forbes magazine.

Bill Gates was born in an ordinary American household in Seattle, although his life was reasonably comfy as his parents are knowing with steady work to convey him up good.

Small Gates in his childhood was intelligent and ambitious, he is good at mathematics so his male parent decided to reassign him to private school for better instruction. When he was teenager, he already has a great impression which is computing machine would impact to everyone ‘s day-to-day life in close hereafter, computing machine would come to every place and office desk upon revolution, while he ne’er know the sailing master of such revolutionising computing machine epoch is non others but himself. With this in head, although he studied at Harvard University in 1973, he unfalteringly dropped out from Harvard University, later he conceptualized and set up the Microsoft Corporation with his spouse Paul Allen in 1975. The name of Micro-soft, is an abbreviation for personal computer package.

His great commercial success started from the MS-DOS ( computing machine runing system ) and sold to IBM as licensee merchandise, it ‘s an icon for the developed package protection from buccaneering, which served a strong foundation of ruling the markets whenever they go to and now 90 % computing machine Microsoft package come ining into each household and office.

When the office was traveling to Seattle, there were merely approximately 16 people worked for him, but with rapidly gross revenues growing, larger merchandise scope and strong client service support, their client base now is around Earth, until 2009 Microsoft employed 93,000 in over 100 states. ( Microsoft 2010 )

OPRAH WINFREY

Oprah Gail Winfrey, was born bastard on January 29, 1954 in Mississippi, USA. Oprah had risen from low beginnings to accumulate huge wealth, she influences and wise mans 1000000s of people worldwide from her shows and books, became the first black African American wealthy adult female and most successful leader in Journalism and Media land.

Oprah was remaining with her grandma in a really hapless status till six old ages old as her parents separated, most of clip she spent was in the farm but every Sundays she would travel church with her grandma, her first public talk was in this church for Easter clip narration, from there she was frequently invited to declaim verse forms and poetries at church and became celebrated in speech production in the town she lived. Peoples were funny and asked this small miss what she wanted to be when grew up? She answered without thought: “ I want to be paid to speak ” . After returning male parent ‘s place at age of 14, her male parent ‘s strict and high criterion has a great impact on her, he taught her to reject fright of failure, compelled her disciplined, reading and memory, he could n’t accept anything if she ne’er try her best. Although she was accordingly rebellious and wild behaviour but these purely regulations made her taking high and accomplishing ends every bit much as she can. “ Use what you have to run toward your best – that ‘s how I now live my life. ( Oprah Winfrey, O Magazine, August 2003 ) . Finally she overcome all obstructions and life mystifiers and received scholarship from University. Winfrey graduated from Tennessee State University majoring in Speech and Performing Arts.

Oprah found herself strength and involvements in field of communications and media, thenceforth started first occupation as intelligence reader for a telecasting station in Nashville, where she was the first black African adult female working as intelligence ground tackle and newsman for this station. After continuously difficult working, she moved up rapidly and realized her dream by different successful functions – talk show host, manufacturer, actress, magazine and media laminitis every bit good as sympathetic altruist.

3. THEORIES ON LEADERSHIP – CRITICAL LITERATURE SURVEY

3.1 What is Leadership?

Leadership is an influence relationship among leaders and followings who intend existent alterations and results that reflect their shared intents. ( Daft 2008, p.4 )

To further deepening of leading knowledge, the leading undertakings a vision to believe and influences people to accomplish consequences, inspires and energizes people to better and work fruitfully, creates chances to do things go on thereupon important alterations for the organisation, empowers people to take enterprises, builds trust and coherence among followings.

3.2 Theory History

Theories on Leadership has been studied since 19th century, below chart listed most of cardinal theories in which germinating procedure is seen from old paradigm to new paradigm:

Time period

Leadership Theory

Up to mid-1900s

1900-1948

1930s

1945-60s

1957-70s

1967- Present Day

1970s-Present Day

1970s-Present Day

1970s-Present Day

1978-Present Day

1982-Present Day

Great Man Theory

Traits Theory

Lewin ‘s research into bossy, democratic & A ; individualistic manners

Behavioural Theory ( particularly Ohio, Michigan, Texas )

Situational Theory

Contingency Theory

Charismatic Leadership

Team Leadership

Servant Leadership

Transformational Leadership

In hunt of Excellence & A ; 1000s of direction books on leading

Table 4.1 Beginning: Time-line figure from The Leadership Styles by Tony Kippenberger ( 2002 )

3.3. Great Man Approach

Great Man attack is the earliest theory which believe that good leaders are inherited non made and those are frequently from aristocracy, leaders ought to be possessed distinguished traits that come from natural, the bulk of successful leaders are male. But seemingly this attack is indefensible.

3.4 Trait Approach

Leadership trait attack was generated from “ Great Man theory ” . It is associated with certain character traits or qualities which could be identified from the leaders. Followings are attracted by leader ‘s personal features, but the personality traits are congenital and can non be changed are inaccurate construct about leading. It can merely be portion of benchmark of leading to use because all of the leaders were neither born with the traits nor the traits belong to them.

Below chart is the chief leading traits and accomplishments identified by Stogdill in 1974.

Traits

Skills

Adaptable to state of affairss

Alert to societal environment

Ambitious and achievement-oriented

Assertive

Concerted

Decisive

Reliable

Dominant

Energetic

Persistent

Self-assured

Tolerant of emphasis

Willing to presume duty

Clever ( intelligent )

Conceptually skilled

Creative

Diplomatic and tactful

Fluent in speech production

Knowing about group undertaking

Organised

Persuasive

Socially skilled

3.5 Behavioural Theory

In 1964, Robert Blake and Jane Mouton ( 1985 ) both analyzed employees and production the two countries for managerial behaviours, it is besides known as Leadership Grid.

The grid taken leading in two dimensions and drawn into two axes, score runing from 0- 9. The perpendicular axis concerns of people, horizontal axis concerns of undertaking and consequences.

Authoritarian – Task-orientation, low relationship

State Club – People-orientation, low undertaking

Impoverished – Low undertaking & A ; relationship

Team Leader – High undertaking & A ; relationship

Above four types of leading come out from the index, it is felt that most people stay in Middle of the Road but finally end is to switch up to Team Leader ideally.

3.5 Lewin ‘s Leadership Theory

Kurt Lewin, a research worker from University of Lowa, identified three types of leading as below:

a ) Autocratic ( Authoritarian Leadership ) : Autocratic leaders provide clearly instructions on who, when, what and how to be done with work. Decision shaper is the leader itself. Research workers found that it ‘s much harder to alter bossy type to democratic zone than frailty versa. Overused this manner could go autocratic and commanding individual.

B ) Democratic ( Participative Leadership ) : Democratic leaders encourage subordinates to take part the treatment, subordinates accordingly are originative and motivated by prosecuting in the procedure. occupation satisfactory

degree Celsiuss ) Laissez-Faire ( Delegative ) : Hands-off direction. Leaderships seldom provide instructions or counsel to squad members, empower people to do determination. This applies most to the squad member who has expertness in certain country driving the effectivity of leading.

3.6 Situational Theory

3.6.1 Fiedler ‘s Contingency Model

This theory was proposed by an Austrian psychologist Fred

Edward Fiedler. His theoretical account stress to “ predict leader effectivity and to delegate leaders to specific undertaking state of affairss ” ( Miller 362 ) . He concluded that leaders ‘ features and state of affairs are related to effectual leading. The state of affairs consists of three elements: leader-member dealingss, undertaking construction and place power. The quality of the three properties is directing leader to favorable or unfavourable state of affairss.

3.6.2 Hersey and Blanchard ‘s Situational Theory ( Daft 2008 )

Hersey and Blanchard viewed the followings vary in preparedness degree in footings of undertaking and relationship behaviour. They characterized leading manners into four manners which are Stating, Selling, Participating, Delegating. Leader can follow one of ways to the individual being led after naming the preparedness degree of follower, such as instruction degree, accomplishments, assurance, adulthood and experience.

3.6.3 The Path-Goal Theory ( Daft 2008 )

The chief duty of leader in this theory is to increase staff motive ( final payment ) to accomplish organisational ends and do clear on final payment waies and travel fast. It described four manners of leading: Supportive, Directive, Participative, Achievement-oriented leading. Leader should alter behaviours to allow methods to fit the state of affairs.

3.6.4 Charismatic Leadership

Leaderships who have the ability to animate and actuate people to make more than they would usually make, despite obstructions and personal forfeit ( Daft 2008 ) . Another translator put as “ A fire that ignites followings ‘ energy and committedness, bring forthing consequences above and beyond the call of responsibility. ” ( Klein and House, 1995, p.183-198 )

3.6.5 Transactional and Transformational Leadership

Transactional leaders focused on a system of wagess and penalty where staff are clear on what wagess ( such as wage additions and fillips ) they will acquire for following orders. This lone covers the lower order demands of the subsidiaries.

Transformational leading is based on the ability to convey about important alteration in both followings and the organisation ( Cited by Daft, 2008 ) . Harmonizing to Bass ( 1985 ) , transformational leaders inspire and motivate followings to endeavor beyond required outlooks by raising followings ‘ degree of consciousness about the importance and values of ends, acquiring followings to exceed their ain opportunism for the good of the organisation and promoting from lower-level physical demands to higher-level psychological demands ( such as self-pride ) .

Stephen Covey ( 1992 ) offers contrast between transactional and transformational leading as below:

Transactional Leadership

Transformational Leadership

Physiques on adult male ‘s demand to acquire a occupation done and do a life

Is preoccupied with power and place, political relations and fringe benefits

Is mired in day-to-day personal businesss

Is short-run and difficult informations oriented

Focuss on tactical issues

Relies on human dealingss to lubricate human interactions

Follows and fulfils function outlooks by endeavoring to work efficaciously within current systems

Supports constructions and systems that reinforce the bottom line, maximise efficiency, and warrant short-run net incomes

Physiques on a adult male ‘s demand for intending

Is preoccupied with intents and values, ethical motives and moralss

Transcends day-to-day personal businesss

Is oriented towards long-run ends without compromising human values and rules

Focuss on missions and schemes

Releases human possible – identifying and developing new endowment

Designs and redesigns occupations to do them meaningful and disputing

Aligns internal constructions and systems to reenforce overarching values and ends

Comparison of Transactional and Transformational Leadership ( Covey, 1992 )

4. BILL GATES AND OPRAH WINFREY LEADERSHIP QUALITIES

4.1. Bill Gates Leadership Qualities

From schooltimes, Bill Gates has already shown his intelligence and thirsty for cognition, these qualities helped him subsequently to maneuver Microsoft as one of Fortune 500 companies. Small Gates absorbed new things when he was bored with school undertakings. He scored 1590 out of 1600 on the college SAT trial ( A & A ; E TV web, 2009 ) , doing really good in all his topics, particularly Maths and Science, learnt fast and performed an first-class occupation in Microsoft as CEO and Chief Software Architect.

Bill Gates ‘ passion and energy seems eternal, people ever saw him at computing machine lab working on programming undertakings twenty-four hours and dark with lone really short interruptions for nutrient or sleeps. His continuity and hardworking besides emerged in Microsoft, one twenty-four hours Gates ‘ helper found person kiping under the tabular array in the early forenoon, she about called constabularies until discovered it was Bill Gates. ( A & A ; E TV web, 2009 )

Bill Gates ‘ ambitious, dominant and competitory traits secured Microsoft as IT leader in the universe. He made aggressive concern schemes in the involvement of ruling every market place, tactics for acquisition exerting its monopoly.

Gates is seemingly a hazard taker, from Harvard dropout to put up ain company. “ Bill Gates is the quintessential hazard taker, ” says Joshua Schuler, Executive Director of Massachusetts Institute of Technology ‘s Lemelson-M.I.T. Program, “ He understands that invention is all about taking hazards and being okay with the chance of failure. ” ( Scientific American, 2010 ) The game of monopoly is a good illustration, his strong finding and hazard taking liquors open up the door of wealth.

Assertiveness and assurance are seeable from how Bill Gates had done with occupation during adversity. In the early phase, he won many contracts from others rivals when Microsoft was merely an unknown company, his assurance and assertiveness about shuting the trade played a critical portion in concern development and dialogue with people.

The vision of computing machines everyplace is cogent evidence of Bill Gates ‘ presbyopia. Gates is airy leader who is assurance in his thoughts and vision. For case, Gates does non mind to wait for a long clip for Windows market demand picking up, Windows was bit by bit accepted by clients and acquiring really popular. His accurate anticipation kept Microsoft competitory and profitable with its cutting-edge engineering.

4.2. Oprah Winfrey Leadership Qualities

A good public speech production accomplishments and Passion – At the age of four, Oprah was clever in declaiming and executing others ‘ discourses in local churches, even she was a small miss, but her public speech production has drawn a great attending and love in her town. Oprah Winfrey realized that she has reasonably good public speech production accomplishments, that ‘s why she pursues her calling started with intelligence reader. Her passion drives her to make what she loves and she wants to be the best in her most capable sphere.

Influence – Oprah relocated to Chicago to host AM Chicago in 1984. Within merely one month, it had surpassed Donahue as the No.1 local talk show, and within a twelvemonth it was renamed The Oprah Winfrey Show. A twelvemonth subsequently, it entered national syndication and became the highest-rated talk show in Television history. It has remained No.1 talk show for 18 seasons, has won tonss of Emmys, and is seen by an estimated 30 million viewing audiences a hebdomad in the United States and is broadcast internationally in 111 states. ( Allen 2010 ) From her path records, it is revealed how astounding of influence and outstanding communicating accomplishments she has.

Hardworking – Oprah exhausted long hours to fix exhaustively earlier traveling on any camera. Her difficult work paid off, she move up fleetly to intelligence reader and newsman in Baltimore and was offered her ain talk show in 1977. She felt that fortune is nil to make with her success. “ I do n’t believe in fortune ” she said, “ I think luck is preparation meeting chance. ” ( O’Neil 2004, p.13 )

Perseverance – “ There is no such thing as failure in my life, I merely do n’t believe in it. ” ( O’Neil 2004, p.13 ) That ‘s what she absorbed attitude from her male parent.

5. COMPARISON OF BILL GATES AND OPRAH WINFREY LEADERSHIP QUALITIES AND WITH LEADERSHIP THEORIES/MODELS

5.1. Comparison of leading qualities

Below tabular array is a comparing between Gates and Oprah leading:

Leadership Qualities

Bill Gates

Oprah Winfrey

Similarities

Passion

Intelligence

Hardworking

Invention

Encourage

Resilience

Vision

Differences

Result- orientation

People- orientation

Invagination

Extraversion

Competitiveness

Cooperation

Make bolding ( Risk-taking )

Appreciation of paradox

Focus

Multi-tasking

5.2 Traits Approach

There are many similarities for the both successful leaders which were analyzed in the old chapter. The Traits Approach identified and measured their single personality features as per specified above tabular array.

Gates is result-oriented leader. In Microsoft, “ The civilization is really insouciant and relaxed and it does non count what you wear or how many hours you work every bit long as you deliver on your committednesss and contribute to the success of your squad. – Addy, Finance Rotation Analyst ” ( Microsoft.com ) .

Oprah, confident and personable, is considered a sister of many of her cardinal employees. ( Working Woman, p.52 ) This explained good that Oprah is good at edifice relationship and a people-oriented leader.

Harmonizing to Daft ( 2008, p.98 ) , Bill Gates is an introvert who does non like societal brushs. Bing a host, Oprah has a great sense of merriment, surpassing and vocal. Tinton Falls, NJ said on her manner out of the theatre. “ She ‘s really outgoing, highly personable, she ‘s fabulous. ” ( Daily News, 2007 )

Gates is competitory and hazard pickings as antecedently described, whereas Oprah is concerted and grasp of paradox. Oprah has been working with many writers to advance their books through her extremely influential telecasting book nine, even she does non gain from the gross revenues of the books she chooses. ( The New York Times, 2005 ) She ne’er made doubtful investings that put a strain on her nucleus concern ( The New York Times, 2009 ) .

Gates is focus on package development whereas Oprah plays diverse functions as host, actress, film manufacturer, laminitis of O Magazine and Book Club, Angel Network.

5.3 Transformational leading – Bill Gates

The vision of “ a computing machine on every desk at work and in every place ” ( Academy of Achievement, 2010 ) was articulated across all Microsoft employees.

Intellectual capital is top docket of Microsoft as Gates ever believe in prosecuting gifted people into his organisation. “ I ‘d hold to state my best concern determinations have to make with picking people, ” Gates one time said, “ Deciding to travel into concern with Paul Allen is likely at the top of the list, and later engaging a friend – Steve Ballmer, who has been my primary concern spouse of all time since. ” ( Kurtzman 2004, p.236 ) . Bill Gates knows how to honor in different ways for employees. Now Steve Ballmer has been developed and promoted as CEO of Microsoft. Because his employees are talented package developers, they portion the same vision and are easy inspired and motivated by Gates. Motivated employees can do all difference in company ‘s fight to non merely last but win.

Gates so brought important alteration in followings and Microsoft by holding a powerful vision, developing followings into leaders, promoting the concerns of followings from lower-level physical demands to higher-level psychological demands and bring forthing a actuating corporate spirit that kept the best people coming into Microsoft and making more than originally expected.

By Gates ‘ powerful transformational leading, Microsoft has been transformed and go what it is today.

5.4 Charismatic Leadership – Oprah Winfrey

Oprah has an inspirational vision: “ Originally our end was to elate, edify, promote, and entertain through the medium of telecasting, ” Winfrey explained, “ Now our missionaˆ¦is to utilize telecasting to transform people ‘s lives, to do viewing audiences see themselves otherwise, and to convey felicity and a sense of fulfilment into every place. ” ( Fitch, J.M. 2000 ) Oprah is strong airy adult female, she will ever convey this vision to others guaranting her receiving systems hold the same abiding religion. “ I will go on to utilize my voice and my life as a accelerator for alteration, inspiring and encouraging people to assist do a difference in the lives of others. ” ( Bloomberg Business Week, 2004 ) The fact is that she truly did it.

Oprah is 100 Most Influential Peoples in the World ( TIME Magazine 2010 ) . She has great powerful aura of pulling and stimulating audience around her. Such quality is known as personal appeal.

Oprah.com is created by her engines aiming adult females ‘s life style and supplying related information about her show, it is besides a place of her book nine. There are about 3 million users per month bring forthing 45 million page Click-through rate and with more than half a million members of Oprah ‘s Book Club. ( Allen 2010 ) These informations showed that Oprah processes fabulous personal appeal, accordingly generates incredible grosss consecutively.

Oprah follows magnetic leader manner, she is the fire lighting followings ‘ energy and committedness, empower and depute them to execute more and beyond.

“ Well, I ‘ll merely state it – without Oprah Winfrey, there would be no Barack Obama. Not because she endorsed him, but with her message of bootstrap answerability, she non merely sceptered black people, but empowered white people. ( The New York Times, 2009 ) . It is believed that Oprah ever transmitted energy to followings, heightening their assurance in accomplishing the ends by her personal personal appeal.

6. AUTHOR ‘S OPINION ABOUT BILL GATES AND OPRAH WINFREY

LEADERSHIP STYLES – A REASONED ANALYSIS AND APPROACH

The gender ‘s ( or instead masculine versus feminine ) difference seems to play an of import portion in the contrastive leading manner of Gates ( Aggressive, Competitive ) and Oprah ( Relationship, Intuitive ) . Interestingly, Microsoft employs 76 % ( Microsoft 2010 ) male employees worldwide whereas Oprah ‘s organisation is believed to hold more female than male employees. This may chiefly be due to the industry they are in since most work forces tend to prosecute in engineering development whereas most adult females prefer collaborative and relationship edifice working environment. However, one should larn from each other by bettering one ‘s failings and accommodate a manner that does non falsify excessively much from their personality. There must be a echt concern on both undertaking and people.

If Oprah and Gates were to exchange with each other the industry they were in, it is felt that they will hold trouble to suit or accommodate to the environment. Not merely because both may miss the passion and enthusiasm but besides their strengths and cognition of the concern are non in the freshly switched industry. Furthermore, their followings may non be convinced as they are smart to detect if their leaders lack passion or strengths in the country they lead.

Transformational and magnetic leading are all applicable for current concern universe. Transformational leader should besides necessitate personal appeals to appeal mass. As such, magnetic leader should be more task focal point but all still depend on what state of affairs the leader walk into.

An ideal leader with great affinity understand how to place varies fortunes and deploy people to carry through the undertakings. May following theory comes out from another great leader like Bill Gates or Oprah Winfrey.

7. Decision

Today ‘s leader has to possess the passion, honestness and unity, aware of ain strengths and failings, understand the features of undertakings, followings, organisations, and cultural differences, the demand for authorization, coaction and diverseness and to react to the world of alteration and crisis. It is decidedly non easy but disputing.

Bill Gates and Oprah Winfrey both possess key indispensable qualities of leading, these qualities foster and achieve trust, support and unexpected public presentation from followings. Thereafter, the gross and net income generated zoom.

Bill Gates is introducing and transformational leader who seeks chance, meet and transcend the gait of alteration both in the internal and external environment.

Oprah Winfrey uses her powerful and honorable voice to do the alteration in others ‘ lives and the remainder of universe. Although her magnetic leading manner is the other manner around derived from relationship, but both leaders realized finally ends and do a great alteration for employees and organisations.

As modern-day leader, should be transformational and magnetic maestro, to magnate employees and organisation together encompassing the immense challenges and eventuality. The game is at that place, be winner or loser, it ‘s all the leader ‘s call!

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