The ARP functions under the network layer

The ARP functions under the network layer protocol (OSI model which ison layer 3) and is between the OSInetwork and OSI data link layer (layer 2OSI model). ARP is used to map an IP network address towards the systems hardwareaddresses utilized by a data link protocol. This protocol is used by theinternet protocol RFC826, specifically IPv4. A computer user or host wanting togather a physical address broadcast a ARP request onto the network, then thehost on the network that holds that IP address answers with its physicalhardware address. An alternative function utilizing ARP is called reverse ARP.In this case where the host wants to determine its IP address sends orbroadcast is physicals address and RARP server replies with the host IPaddress.

IPv6 is similarly known as IPng (internetprotocol succeeding generation) utilized in Layer 3 of the OSI model where thelogical address, path determination and route packets exist. This is the newest version of what we know as the internetprotocol and it is used as a replacement of IPv4 (Internet Protocol Version 4). IPv6 was design for the future as theinternet grows steadily as in numbers of users and the amount of data traffictransmitted. The biggest improvement over IPv4 is the IP addresses lengthenfrom 32 bits to 128 bits. It provides features as allowing the host to sendfragments packets but not routers, requires IPsec support, does not includechecksum in the header, and offers simpler auto configuration of addresses. An open standard to help and ensure private and secure communicationsover the internet.

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Secures communications via the use of cryptography secureservices and supports network data integrity, data confidentiality, data originauthentication and replay protection. The IPSec is integrated at the internetlayer (OSI model layer 3) and sinceit provides security for almost all protocols, there is no need configureseparate securities for each application that uses TCP/IP. Provides securityagainst attacks from unknown or untrusted computers, data theft, usercredential theft and helps to administrate controls of servers.

Approved in 2006, BGP-4, the existing version of BGP, supports both IPv6and classless interdomain routing (CIDR), which permits the continued viabilityof IPv4. Use of the CIDR is a method to have additional addresses within thenetwork than with the current IP address assignment scheme. BGP is currently inversion 4 and is a protocol that manages how data and packets are routedthroughout the internet.

It offers stability that guarantees routers canquickly adapt and change connection if one internet path breaks. BGP makesdecisions based on network policies configured by a network admin. Each BGP hasa standard router table used to direct information in transit. BGP is based onTCP/IP and uses the client’s server topology to communicate routinginformation. BGP is a layer 4 protocol that is the transport layer on the OSImodel.

 Is an alternative method of communication protocol to TransmissionControl Protocol (TCP). UDP in on layer 4 which is the transport layer on theOSI model and is used primarily to stablish low latency and the loss oftolerating connections between applications on the internet. Both UDP and TCPrun on the very top of the internet protocols. We know it and referrer it asUDP/IP and TCP/IP, both protocols send small packets of data known asdatagrams. UDP have two services that provides a port number- to distinguishdifferent user request. Also, a checksum to verify the data has arrived intact.We use UDP when we need an application to run with low latency such as onlinevideo games, video chatting and voice transmissions.POP3 is the most up-to-date version of receiving e-mail.

Is in theapplication layer of the OSI model, which is layer 7. Is a client and serverprotocol in which when receiving email is held by your internet server. Whenchecking your mail box, you are downloading the e-mail using POP3. With POP3 isnot possible to synchronize emails between difference devices. it might not bea suitable used for companies that requires client to be able to login frommany different devices. A different protocol is Internet Message AccessProtocol (IMAP). IMAP offers the user extra capabilities for recollectinge-mail on the server and for organizing it in folders on the server.

IMAP canbe assumed of as a remote file server. POP and IMAP dealwith the receiving of e-mail and are not to be confused with the Simple MailTransfer Protocol (SMTP), a protocol for transferring e-mail across theInternet. You send e-mail with SMTP and a mail handler receives it on your recipient’sbehalf.

Then the mail is read using POP or IMAP.Is the secure version of HTTP, is the protocol which the user is sendingdata between browser and the website you are connected to. Strictly speaking isin the session layer of the OSI model, which is layer 5. The ‘S’ at the end isfor secure which means is that all communication is encrypted and highlyprotected. This is what allows user to be able to put their Credit card informationand shop online more secure and less vulnerable.

 is a client and server protocol that automatically provides an IP hostwith its IP address and other configurations such as subnets mask and defaultgateway. Every device used on the network specifically using TCP/IP must have aunique IP address to access it and use its resources. Without a DHCP, newcomputers that are moved from one to another subnet must be configuredmanually.

Using DHCP this process is entirely automated and managed withservers that contains a pool of IP addresses. A DHCP enable client IP’s are automatically assigned and released whenno longer in used. The benefits of DHCP is that minimizes configurations errorscaused by manually assigning IP addresses and the ability to centralizedautomated TCP/IP configurations. Is in the application layer of the OSI model,which is layer 7.A protocol used for the necessity to data link over serial used veryearly in the progress of TCP/IP. Is a method of sending IP datagrams throughoutserial connections joining computers to one another.

SLIP never made it tointernet standards since it had no support for error detection, errorcompression, system authentication and no standard way to define IP addressingbetween two host. SLIP functions in the data link layer of the OSI model, whichis layer 2.An error reporting protocol that devices such as routers send back errormessages to the source of the IP address when network problems are developed oroccur. While ICMP is not use by end-user applications, it is widely use bySystems Admins to troubleshoot connections and as diagnostic utilizes such aspinging or tracerouting.

ICMP has been used to execute Dos attacks and known asping of death, where sending IP packet larger than what’s allow by the IPprotocol. Doing this form of attack will prevent the use from using theinternet properly since the IP address is being overloaded by incoming packets.Located in the layer 3 of the OSI model, which is network layer.


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