The according to the criteria of functional
Thebreakdown of European cities that haveoccurred over the last forty years can be blamed on the ideology of cityplanning derived from functional architecture. The organization of cities isseen as zoning, planning regulation and general schemes of development (Morales, 1987),to the extent of rejecting any rational basis for the organization of cities asmistaken or counter-productive this gave birth to functional city planning. Theprinciples of the functional city emerged in Germany in the twenties with thebasic of organize cities according to the criteria of functionalspecialization, the importance of road traffic, open spaces in both buildingsand public highways with the illusion that it would be possible to completelyeradicate the existing city in order to develop a completely new urbanstructure, valid for the whole world. Fortunately, this was not the onlyattempt taken by the architect to changethe city but bring about changes in the urban fabric with the works of WillemDudok and J.J.
P Oud in the Netherlands gave the impression of being a newpenetration into an existing context. Other works by Carl Peterson, Giuseppe De Finetti and the likes treat the cityas an open field for the new architecture without losing its own connotation asan instrument of urban structuring. Thisform of city planning set great store by the conditionof each part of the city, its perspective as a complex artifact with this, onecan recognize the true tradition of a moderncity without any doubt. The models that were to advocate functionalismnever set out to reduce its complexity by simplifying its problems. Thepotential for city planning inherent in the idea of the metropolis has resulted in the cultural assimilation of themes andthe new aspect of the cities that takes on the characteristics of a newnaturalness and enrich the debate over it. In this way, the idea of complexityand superimposition is reduced and the urban project is born, shows itself tobe most suitable, rich, varied and effective opportunity for the planning ofthe modern city. Tounderstand the ideology of urban design, three principle themes became thesubject of urban design in the twenties.
The most important was the housingproject, taking the dwelling as an urbanmaterial which became the instrument of urban growth on a new scale.Another source of the urban project wasthe reformulation in modern terms of classic themes of civil architecture, nowviewed as the architecture of the urban center which became a primary and specificproject. The scheme for road systems continued to perform the function as a means of organizing medium sizesector in places like Britain, Belgium and France and in the area where thegarden city movement had taken root. Recognizing these themes as subjects ofplanning meant, finally accepting the idea of intervention as neitherarchitecture nor planning but as urban design. Also, urbanism’s majorcontribution has perhaps been to recognize abstract rules in the existing cityalong with the ability to define abstractactions in new projects or plans for the city, particularly in the 1960-1980 periods (Joan, 2000).
An Urban Master-plan is an approach tooffer a future vision of the city as awhole with regards to the past plans which have to be reconsidered from thepoint of view of new urban phenomena. It is with this that we study the crisesthat moved away from the condition of urban planning that has often led to professional paranoia andpublic incompetence. Hence we find it interesting to study an urban project in Nigeria”The Abuja Master Plan” since its implementation in 1979.
The resultant Master Plan was prepared in a way that land use,infrastructure, housing, transportation, recreation,economic and social services are coordinated and inter-related (Abba, 2003). Today, theprinciples have been neglected by the successivegovernment in Abuja causing distortions to the concept, direction, and implementation of the master plan as seenfrom the comprehensive literature review.Even though, the plan was never reviewed not until 21 January 2017, announcedby the Minister of Federal Capital Territory Administration. FCTA MalamMuhammad Musa Bello moved to review 38year old Abuja master plan (Henry, 2017) The aim of the research is to analyze theconceptual break that functionalism as brought about in city planning, the shift in the urban project using AbujaMaster Plan as a case study.