Tectona Grandis In Perhutani Background Biology Essay
The clime alteration is presently considered by planetary community as a large issue. It threatens every individual life person in the universe. Since 1980, planetary society has already cognizant that the lessening of the forest influences the sum of C dioxide CO2 in the ambiance ( Liski et al. , 2000 ) .Forest is of import because it ‘s ability in hive awaying CO2 and release O2. The IPCC said that around 17.3 % of universe ‘s emanation is coming from deforestation ( IPCC, 2007 ) .
In Asia, forest debasement reaches 49.5 % of the entire C release to the ambiance ( Houghton, 2003 ) . Furthermore, sing the land usage and forestry direction, Indonesia is the largest emitters. The most instances for deforestation were illegal logging, forest direction, land usage and agribusiness ( Wertz-Kanounnikoff and Kongphan-Apirak, 2008 ) .There have been many forest researches which gauging the sum of Carbon that forest could capture. The research revealed that forest particularly tropical wood could hive away more C than any other wood type.
However, to include the forest plantation in the Carbon trading mechanism, proficient instruments and Carbon accounting standard demand to be design. Furthermore, the forest direction demand to be monitored all the clip in ( Carle et al. , 2002 ) .Teak wood is one type of the tropical woods in the universe. In Indonesia teak wood is a plantation wood which located in Java island and managed largely by province endeavor named Perum Perhutani[ 1 ]. Together with Ministry of Forestry of Indonesia, through its research bureau FORDA ( Forestry Research and Development Agency ) Perum Perhutani designated a teak plantation research wood name Forest Area for Special Purpose ( FASP )[ 2 ]. FASP has a long history in teak plantation forest in Java Indonesia.
It is portion of the monolithic teak plantation established by the Dutch colonialism since 18 century.This essay is seeking to suggest a Carbon appraisal in the FASP Cemoro Modang, Cepu, Central Java Province, Indonesia as a representative wood for the whole teak forest country in Java Island. This essay will foremost depict the country and demo the of import information to measure the Carbon in the propose country.
Tectona Grandis Plantation in Indonesia
Tectona Grandis is a big deciduous tree, a member of the Verbenance household. Well known for its good quality of lumber and one of the celebrated exported merchandises from Asia. Teak plantation is allegedly doing the natural resources decline both in quality and measure particularly in India, Myanmar, Thailand and Laos ( Hadi and Masami, 2005, Pandey and Brown, 2002 ) .
Teak base is interesting many people because it ‘s fast growth and high giving up tree. It besides has been use in many re-afforestation and plantation plans all around the universe, particularly in Central America and Asia ( Kraenzel et al. , 2003 ) .Picture 1: Plantation Areas by Genus in Asia ( Japan is non included in 1980 and 1990 )Beginning: ( Carle et al. , 2002 )In Indonesia teak wood is located in Java Island and little country of Madura Island ( Pandey and Brown, 2002 ) . The Dutch started the teak plantation since 1950 with approximately 30.00 Ha. Since so Numberss of teak plantation addition in Asia and some African states.
Presently, Myanmar and Indonesia are the two biggest exporter teak forests.For the past two hundred old ages, Teak trees has been dominated the construction of plantation in Java. The production of Teak so used as the beginning of sawn lumber, furniture made from wood and firewood. In order to sustainably reaping the lumber, the procedure of regeneration had been conducted through agroforestry systems utilizing traditional and modern method of taungya and intensive back street cropping. Despite the monolithic graduated table of teak plantation of teak, the exact information on the biomass of teak in Java is non sufficiently available ( Bailey and Harjanto, 2005, Grossman, 2007, Pandey and Brown, 2002 ) .Kaiser ( 1989 ) explains that Teak is one of natural floras in SouthEast Asia. It can turn of course in that part with the lifts around 100 to 700 M above sea degrees.
In Indonesia, most of Teak workss can be found in the country of Java. The favourable tallness which can necessitate to be achieved by this type of plantation is around 39-45 metre at the age of 60 old ages ( Bailey and Harjanto, 2005, Pandey and Brown, 2002 ) .Table 1: Perum Perhutani direction country
Company Class Type
Area ( Ha )
Percentage ( % )
1234567891011Jati ( Tectona grandis )Pinus ( Pinus merkusii )Mahoni ( Mahagony sp )Damar ( Agathis sp )Kayu Putih ( Cajuput sp )Sengon ( Paraserianthes falcataria )Meranti ( Shorea sp )Akasia ( Acacia mangium )Sonokeling ( Dalbergia latifolia )Kesambi/Indian lactree ( Schleicera oleosa )Payau/brackish tree1.240.588859.
44350.68451,7335,144,214,130,760,410,570,920,940,142,07A Beginning: ( Perum Perhutani, 2010 )Perum Perhutani, the state-owned endeavor in Indonesia which manages most of Teak production in Java, in 1995 described that the Teak production in Java represents around 44 % of the entire wood production in Java with 38 % of that sum exported. Perum Perhutani direction country is 2.426.206 Ha, on four state in Java island, Banten, West Java, Central Java and East Java ( Perum Perhutani, 2010 ) . The entire direction country of Perum Perhutani is shown in the tabular array above.
Perum Perhutani and Teak FASP ( Forest Area for Special Purposes )
Perum Perhutani and Ministry of Forestry designated some of the province teak plantations which used to be managed by Perum Perhutani go FASP to better the research and development public presentation, particularly in Teak. FASP Cemoro Modang is one of the FASP that presently managed by the Forestry Research Institute of Solo. It is located in Central Java Province, Cepu Regency.FASP Cemoro Modang is located between Sub Watershed Cemoro dan and Sub Watershed Modang and has entire country of 1.311,6 Ha. Administratively these two water partings located in the Ngawenan Village, Country of Sambongrejo, Sub-district Sambong, Blora Regency, Central Java Province.
Since FASP is portion of teak plantation forest managed by Perum Perhutani, it is besides under Perum Perhutani Cepu Regency disposal, Unit I, Central Java Province. Geographically, FASP Cemoro Modang located in 111A° 32 ‘ – 111A° 33 ‘ East Longitude, and 7A° 03 ‘ – 7A° 05 ‘ South Latitude.The clime status of this teak plantation wood is: air temperature 20.0 i‚°C – 27.5i‚°C ; humidness is about 67.0 – 81.0 % ; Annual rainfall 1.676 mm/year ( 1985-2008 ) and the scope is between 863 to 3.
427 mm/year. The normal rainfall is between 1.000 to 2.250 mm/year. Dry season is between June and November and rainy season is between December and May ( Forestry Research Institute of Solo, 2010b ) .The clime in FASP is categorised in the type D whish is a medium type ( monsoon ) . This type has important differences between dry and showery season.
Teak base is one of the most adaptative tree for this season because they fallen their foliages easy to accommodate to the conditions. The FASP Cemoro Modang is located in the lowland ecological wood zone and Randublatung geological zone. It has plain to wavy morphological status.
The country is located between 95 and 310 above sea degree. The Cemoro River is flow through the wood and terminal in the Modang River ( Forestry Research Institute of Solo, 2010b ) . The image below shows the map or the FASP Cemoro Modang divided into several secret plans based on different age category.
Picture 2: Map of FASP Cemoro Modang, Cepu, Central Java, IndonesiaBeginning: Ministry of Forestry, FORDA, Forestry Research Institute of SoloFASP Cemoro-Modang was a production forest country managed by Perum Perhutani and the chief merchandise was teak. Forest screen is dominated by teak bases in around 1.171.9 Ha country. The graph below shows the distribution of the teak base in the FASP Cemoro Modang divided into several age categories ( Bailey and Harjanto, 2005, Forestry Research Institute of Solo, 2010b, Perum Perhutani, 2010 ) . There are others land usage in the FSAP every bit good, nevertheless, in this essay their part in the C stock is non included.Tabel 2.
Land Cover Composition in the FASP Cemoro Modang
Age Class and other land usage
Area ( Ha )
12345678ITwoThreeFourVoltSixSevenEight198,3184,6108,5152,2185,884,4204,860,1Beginning: Perum Perhutani 2002 ( Forestry Research Institute of Solo, 2010b )
Measuring Carbon and Biomass in Teak Stand Forest Plantation.
The Kyoto Protocol as consequence of the conference held by United Nation encourages the increasing Numberss of new plantations and maintaining the bing forest plantations as Carbon pool due to their ability to storage Carbon ( Carle et al. , 2002 ) .
Carbon presently considered as forestry merchandises besides wood. Even though the trading mechanism is non established yet, many states have taken many schemes to maintain and or increase their forest plantation ( Peskett et al. , 2008 ) .In forest country, there are cleavage of C pools, which consist of: above land biomass ( AGB ) , litter and coarse woody ( Brown, 1997 ) . Among those three cleavages, AGB has the most recorded since it is the easiest manner to step. In add-on, following destructive trying method, can besides find the biomass of the tellurian flora. Carbon in forest normally name Above Ground Biomass ( AGB )Carbon measuring in this essay could be done in two different graduated tables, tree graduated tables and plantation graduated tables.
Measurement of tree biomass and Carbon in each tree shows the relationship between DGH and Carbon. Furthermore, in the plantation graduated table, utilizing informations on the figure of tree in one secret plan and DBH, the entire Carbon in one secret plan can be estimated. Measuring the diameter in one secret plan is easy since this forest country has a good monitoring plan that step every tree diameter and this monitoring besides let us cognize how many tree are in each secret plan ( Kraenzel et al. , 2003, Muukkonen and Heiskanen, 2007 ) .In order to obtain informations on biomass and Carbon in tree tissue, we will necessitate to cut down some tree as sample that can stand for the other trees in the secret plan as a entire population. Approximately 10 % sample from the entire population is the minimal appropriate sample since the wood is monoculture and has the same age and about the same diameter ( Forestry Research Institute of Solo, 2010a, Pearson et al. , 2007, Kraenzel et al.
, 2003 ) .The measuring was started by delving the roots and weights them to so utilize the wet mass and dry mass to gauge the C content. This besides applied to the other portion of the tree. The wet mass of all the stuffs from the sample trees need to be measured and every bit good as the dry mass. The dry mass is needed to gauge the tissue C storage by multiplying the mass by Numberss of tree and C concentration ( Kraenzel et al. , 2003, Hadi and Masami, 2005 ) .
It is non hard to obtain informations on below land biomass for monoculture plantation wood, and the expression of “ root-to-shoot ratio ” for tropical deciduous workss from Jackson et Al can be used to assist in gauging the entire below land biomass ( Kraenzel et al. , 2003 ) . Furthermore, C in dirt is besides of import in Carbon stock measuring. Approximately 10 centimeters from two to three 2 m deepness dirt was taken as samples to mensurate bulk denseness, pH, dirt texture and organic affair content.Measuring Carbon in one country started with the computation of tree entire biomass.
Harmonizing to IPCC, the transition of biomass to C is:Carbon = biomass ten 0.5 ( 1 ) ( Hadi and Masami, 2005 )For this method, the samples are weighted after its being harvested and dried. The intent is to analyze the dry biomass weight of the sample. In order to accomplish the exact informations, a proper sampling design will assist in replying the inquiry with more certainty degree ( IPCC, 2001, Brown et al. , Brown, 1997 ) . The method of allometric arrested development can be widely usage in mensurating biomass and C for many trees and species for assorted types of wood with a high certainty degree.In this essay the entire country for each age category and Numberss of tree in each age category is already measured. It makes the Carbon appraisal easier.
To do it easier, each age group is consider as one secret plan. From the informations collected late, the consequences are as seen in the tabular array below. Due to clip restriction, informations collected from every secret plan that represent each age category except for age category I ( three secret plans ) and age category V ( two secret plans ) .Table 3. Datas from Plots
Numbers of Tree
( Plot )
( Ha )
in one secret plan
Entire ( m )
TBC ( m )
( centimeter )
59Beginning: ( Forestry Research Institute of Solo, 2010a )The procedure of measurement and analyzing size or growing rate of teak trees, particularly related to the full being of the tree itself, is capable to the procedure of allometry ( Brown, 1997 ) . Allometry can qualify the harmonious growing of the trees, in conformity with altering proportion based on exponential or logarithmic relationship. The procedure of roll uping informations conducted by puting samples of trees and cut down before being intensively measured. In the procedure of analysis, the dependant variables which consist of biomass production and other dimensions of the trees can be related to the independent variables, such as diameter of the trees in a logarithmic arrested development theoretical account ( Pearson et al. , 2007, Luyssaert et al. , 2008, Hadi and Masami, 2005 ) .Following appropriate equations for each relative relationship or each constituent of the trees with antecedently determined or developed biomass can be non-destructively estimated the sum of dry weight for above the land constituents of the standing trees ( Laurance and Venter, 2010 ) . Pearson et Al, suggest that the best manner to mensurate Carbon from tree is to mensurate it straight ( Pearson et al.
, 2007 ) . Tree biomass is calculated from the allometric equation relate to diameter of the tree ( Kraenzel et al. , 2003 ) .Picture 3: The FASP Cemoro Modang and its age categoriesBeginning: Forestry Research Institute of SoloIn the informations aggregation procedure, mensurating the samples by contracting the beginning from the diameter of 130 centimeters above the land, they can simplify the procedure of of the appraisal ( Grossman, 2007 ) .
In most tropical wood, C is majorly sequestered in aboveground unrecorded tissues ( like in trees ) , while some others are located in dirts and woody dust ( Grossman, 2007, Muukkonen and Heiskanen, 2007 ) .The image below shows the consequence in doing relationship between DBH and biomass. This sort of consequence is besides expected from the measuring in the FASP teak plantation.Picture 4: Linear arrested developments of DBH versus entire tree dry biomassBeginning: ( Kraenzel et al. , 2003 )Since the Numberss of teak base is knows in this plantation, the measuring of the entire Carbon stock in the FSAP is merely by multiplying the entire sum of Carbon in one tree by the figure of braid in each secret plan.
One secret plan in one age category is representative of the other secret plans that has same age. Hence, the entire Carbon in this country could be obtain by ciphering each secret plan Carbon stock and sum all the Carbon stock in every secret plan in the FSAP.The distant detection will be utile to mensurate Carbon is the larger country and the country that has no monitoring informations on figure of trees, species and land usage ( Muukkonen and Heiskanen, 2007 ) .
In this instance, we do n’t necessitate the distant detection, nevertheless in the hereafter ; distant detection is besides a valuable tool for forest monitoring and any sort of measuring in the forest country. The Forestry Research Institute of Solo has data on Numberss of trees in the FASP Cemoro Modang and the allometric equation on teak and remote detection can be used to gauge the entire Carbon and biomass in the whole teak in the larger country. The IPCC says that remote detection is the best manner to gauge entire Carbon in one country ( Muukkonen and Heiskanen, 2007 ) .
In mensurating the sum of C in the wood or contrasting the fact to a C loss, the computation of biomass is practically of import for tropical clime. Information sing biomass content enables anticipation on current and future C stock. The FSAP is a good managed bluish green plantation and mensurating the Carbon from this sort of wood is of import.Finally, this essay argues that direct measuring to the forest country is needed to good gauge the entire Carbon in this country.
The information from supervising database is utile to do the computation easier since they provide the information on age category, secret plans based on age category and the mean diameter on each secret plans or age category.