Teaching English Grammar Essay
ContentINTRODUCTION & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; 3Part 1 WHAT IS THE GRAMMAR & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; 41.1 The Importance of grammar & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; . & # 8230 ; .41.
2 The Psychological Characteristic of Grammar Skills & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; 41.3 The Content of Teaching grammar & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; . & # 8230 ; 6Part 2 MAJOR METHODS AND PRINCIPLES & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; … & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; .81.1 A Brief Review of the Major Methods of Foreign Language Teaching.
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& # 8230 ; 81.1.1 The Grammar Translation method & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; .. & # 8230 ; 81.1.
2 The Direct Method & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; ..91.1.3 The Audiolingual Method & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; .
& # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; 101.1.4 Grammar accounts as used in the major methods & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; ..
& # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; .101.2 Some General Principles of Grammar Teaching & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; .. & # 8230 ; .111.2.
1 Conscious attack & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; . & # 8230 ; ..
111.2.2 Practical attack & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; . & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; .121.
2.3 Structural attack & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; 121.2.4 Situational attack & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; .
& # 8230 ; . & # 8230 ; .131.
2.5 Different attack & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; .13Part 3 FURTHER POINTS FOR CONCIDERATION & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; … & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; .
141.1 Introduction of new Material & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; ..
141.1.1 Introducing new linguistic communication construction & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; . & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; ..141.1.2 Types of context.
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.151.1.3 The presentation of structural signifier & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; .
. & # 8230 ; ..151.1.
4 A general theoretical account for presenting new linguistic communication & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; .151.2 Teaching grammar forms & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; ..
. .161.3 Correction & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; …
& # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; 181.4 The Most Common Troubles in Assimilating English Grammar & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; … 20Part 4 TYPES OF EXERCISES FOR THE ASSIMILATION OF GRAMMAR & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; . & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; .
211.1 Recognition exercisings & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; 211.2 Drill exercises & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; .. & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; ..211.
3 Creative exercisings & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; ..231.4 Grammar trials & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; .. & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; ..
24CONCLUSION & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; .. & # 8230 ; . & # 8230 ; ..25LITERATURE & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; & # 8230 ; .
& # 8230 ; .26ITRODUCTIONLanguage is the main agencies by which the human personality expresses itself and carry through its basic demand for societal interaction with other individuals.Robert Lado wrote that linguistic communication maps owing to the linguistic communication accomplishments. A individual who knows a linguistic communication absolutely uses a 1000 and one grammar lexical, phonic regulations when he is talking.
Language skills assist us to take different words and theoretical accounts in our address.It is clear that the term & # 8220 ; grammar & # 8221 ; has meant assorted things at assorted times and sometimes several things at one clip. This plurality of significance is characteristic of the present clip and is the beginning of confusions in the treatment of grammar as portion of the instruction of kids. There have been taking topographic point violent differences on the topic of learning grammar at school.The ability to speak about the grammar of a linguistic communication, to declaim its regulations, is besides really different from ability to talk and understand a linguistic communication or to read and compose it. Those who can utilize a linguistic communication are frequently unable to declaim its regulations, and those who can declaim its regulations can be unable to utilize it.Grammar organizes the vocabulary and as a consequence we have sense units.
There is a system of stereotypes, which organizes words into sentences. But what accomplishment does grammar develop?First of all it gives the ability to do up sentences right, to reproduce the text adequately. ( The development of practical accomplishments and wonts )The cognition of the specific grammar construction helps pupils point out the differences between the female parent lingua and the mark linguistic communication.The cognition of grammar develops abilities to abstract systematise plural facts.The name of my work is & # 8220 ; Teaching Grammar & # 8221 ; . And the chief purpose is to clearly acknowledge how to learn grammar right.
Part 1 WHAT IS THE GRAMMAR1.1 The Importance of Grammar in Learning a Foreign LanguageTo justice by the manner some people speak, there is no topographic point for grammar in the linguistic communication class today ; yet it is, in world, every bit of import as it of all time was exercising of right grammar, if he is to achieve any accomplishment of effectual usage of the linguistic communication, but he need non cognize consciously formulated regulations to account to him for that he does unconsciously right.In order to understand a linguistic communication and to show oneself right one must absorb the grammar mechanism of the linguistic communication studied. Indeed, one may cognize all the words in a sentence and yet neglect to understand it, if one does non see the relation between the words in the given sentence. And frailty versa, a sentence may incorporate one, two, and more unknown words but if one has a good cognition of the construction of the linguistic communication one can easy think the significance of these words or at least happen them in a lexicon.No speech production is possible without the cognition of grammar, without the forming of a grammar mechanism.If scholar has acquired such a mechanism, he can bring forth right sentences in a foreign linguistic communication. Paul Roberts writes: & # 8220 ; Grammar is something that produces the sentences of a linguistic communication.
By something we mean a talker of English. If you speak English natively, you have built into you regulations of English grammar. In a sense, you are an English grammar. You possess, as an indispensable portion of your being, a really complicated setup which enables you to bring forth boundlessly many sentences, all English 1s, including many that you have ne’er specifically learned. Furthermore by using you rule you can easy state whether a sentence that you hear a grammatical English sentence or not. & # 8221 ;A bid of English as is envisaged by the school course of study can non be ensured without the survey of grammar.
Students need grammar to be able to aud, talk, read, and compose in the mark linguistic communication.1.2 The Psychological features of grammar accomplishmentsTo develop one & # 8217 ; s address means to get indispensable forms of address and grammar forms in peculiar. Children must utilize these points automatically during speech-practice. The automatic usage of grammar points in our address ( unwritten and written ) supposes get the hanging some peculiar accomplishments & # 8211 ; the accomplishments of utilizing grammar points to show one & # 8217 ; s ain ideas, in other words to do up your sentences.We must acquire alleged reproductive or active grammar accomplishments.
A accomplishment is treated as an automatic portion of consciousness. Automatization of the action is the chief characteristic of a accomplishment.The nature of Automatization is characterized by that psychological construction of the action which adopts to the conditions of executing the action owing frequent experience.
The action becomes more frequent, right and accurate and the figure of the operations is shortened while organizing the accomplishment the character of consciousness of the action is altering, i.e. comprehensiveness of apprehension is paid to the conditions and quality of executing to the control over it and ordinance.To organize some accomplishments is necessary to cognize that the procedure of the forming accomplishments has some stairss:- Merely some definite elements of the action are automatic.- The Automatization occurs under more hard conditions, when the kid can & # 8217 ; t concentrate his attending on one component of the action.- The whole construction of the action is improved and the automatization of its separate constituents is completed.What features do the productive grammar accomplishments have?During our address the generative grammar accomplishments are formed together with lexis and modulation, they must show the talker & # 8217 ; s purposes.
The actions in the structural scene of the lexis must be learnt.The characteristic characteristic of the generative grammar accomplishments is their flexibleness. It doesn & # 8217 ; t depend on the degree of Automatization, i.e.
on flawlessness of accomplishment here mean the original action: both the construction of sentence, and signifiers of the words are reproduced by the talker utilizing different lexical stuff. If the kid reproduces sentences and different words, which have been learnt by him as & # 8220 ; a ready-made thing & # 8221 ; he can state that there is no grammar accomplishment. Learning the ready-made signifiers, word combinations and sentences occurs in the same manner as larning lexis.The grammar accomplishment is based on the general decision. The grammar action can and must happen merely in the definite lexical bounds, on the definite lexical stuff. If the student can do up his sentence often, accurately and right from the grammatical point of position, he has got the grammar accomplishment.Teaching grammar at school utilizing the theoretical cognition brought some critical and led to confusion.
All the grammatical regulations were considered to be evil and there were some stairss to avoid utilizing them at school.But when we learn grammatical points in theoretical accounts we use substitution and such a type of developing gets rid of grammar or & # 8220 ; neutralizes & # 8221 ; it. By the manner, learning the accomplishments to do up sentences by analogy is a measure on the manner of organizing grammar accomplishments.
It isn & # 8217 ; t the lexical attack to grammar and it isn & # 8217 ; t neutralisation of grammar, but utilizing basic sentences in order to utilize exercisings by analogy and to cut down figure of grammar regulations when organizing the generative grammar accomplishments.To organize the generative grammar skills we must follow such stairss:- Choice the theoretical account of sentence.- Choice the signifier of the word and formation of wordforms.- Choice the subsidiary words-preposition, articles, and etc. and their combination with rule words.
The chief trouble of the generative ( active ) grammar accomplishments is to match the intents of the statement, communicative attack ( a question-an reply and so on ) , words, significances, expressed by the grammatical forms. In that instance we use basic sentences, in order to reply the definite state of affairs. The chief factor of the forming of the generative grammar accomplishment is that students need to larn the lexis of the linguistic communication. They need to larn the significances of the words and how they are used. We must be certain that our students are cognizant of the vocabulary they need at their degree and they can utilize the words in order to organize their ain sentence. Each sentence contains a grammar construction.
The get the hanging the grammar accomplishment lets students salvage clip and strength, energy, which can give chance to make. Learning a figure of sentences incorporating the same grammatical construction and a batch of words incorporating the same grammatical signifier International Relations and Security Network & # 8217 ; t rational. But the generalisation of the grammar point can alleviate the work of the mental activity and allow the instructor velocity up the work and the kids realize originative activities.The procedure of creative activity is connected with the mastering of some address stereotypes the grammatical substrat is hidden in basic sentences. Grammar is presented as itself. Such a presentation of grammar has its advantage: the grammar forms of the basic sentences are connected with each other. But this attack gives pupils the chance to recognize the grammar point better.
The instruction must be based on grammar accounts and grammar regulations. Grammar regulations are to be understood as a particular manner of showing communicative activity. The generative grammar accomplishments suppose to get the hang the grammar actions which are necessary for showing ideas in unwritten and written signifiers.
The automatic perceptual experience of the text supposes the reader to place the grammar signifier harmonizing to the formal characteristics of words, word combinations, sentences which must be combined with the definite significance. One must larn the regulations in order to place different grammatical signifiers. Students should acquire to cognize their characteristics, the ways of showing them in the linguistic communication. We teach kids to read and aud by agencies of grammar. It reveals the relation between words in the sentence. Grammar is of great of import when one teaches reading and auding.The forming of the perceptive grammar and generative accomplishments is rather different. The stairss of the work is get the hanging the generative accomplishments differ from the stairss in get the hanging the perceptive accomplishments.
To get the hang the generative grammar accomplishments one should analyze the basic sentences or theoretical accounts. To get the hang the perceptive grammar accomplishments one should place and analyse the grammar point. Though preparation is of great importance to recognize the grammar point.
1.3 The Content of Teaching GrammarBefore talking about the choice of grammar stuff it is necessary to see the construct & # 8220 ; grammar & # 8221 ; , i.e. , what it meant by & # 8220 ; grammar & # 8221 ; .
By grammar one can intend equal comprehension and right use of words in the act of communicating, that is, intuitive cognition of the grammar of the linguistic communication. It is a set of physiological reactions enabling a individual to pass on with his associates. Such cognition is acquired by a kid in the female parent lingua before he goes to schools.This & # 8220 ; grammar & # 8221 ; maps without the person & # 8217 ; s consciousness of proficient terminology ; in other words, he has no thought of the system of the linguistic communication, and to utilize all the word-endings for remarkable and plural, for tense, and all the other grammar regulations without particular grammar lessons merely due to the copiousness of auding and talking. His immature head grasps the facts and & # 8220 ; makes simple grammar regulations & # 8221 ; for set uping the words to show carious ideas and feelings. This is true because sometimes small kids make errors by utilizing a common regulation for words to which that regulation can non be applied. For illustration, a small English kid might be heard to stateTwo adult males comedalternatively ofTwo work forces come, because the kid is utilizing the plural& # 8220 ; s & # 8221 ;regulation foradult maleto which the regulation does non use, and the past tenseerectile dysfunctionregulation forcomewhich does non obey the ordinary regulation for the past tense formation. A small Russian kid can state& # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ;alternatively of& # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1081 ;utilizing the case-ending& # 8220 ;& # 1086 ; & # 1074 ;& # 8221 ;for& # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1080 ;to which it does non use.
Such errors are corrected as the kid grows older and learns more of his linguistic communication.By & # 8220 ; grammar & # 8221 ; we besides mean the system of the linguistic communication, the find and description of the nature of linguistic communication itself. It is non a natural grammar, but a constructed one. There are several constructed grammars: traditional, structural, and transformational grammars. Traditional grammar surveies the signifiers of words ( morphology ) and how they are put together in sentences ( sentence structure ) ; structural grammar surveies constructions of assorted degrees of the linguistic communication ( morpheme degree ) and syntactic degree ; transformational grammar surveies basic constructions and transmutation regulations.
What we need is simplest and shortest grammar that meets the demands of the school course of study in foreign linguistic communications. This grammar must be simple adequate to be grasped and held by any student. We can non state that this job has been solved.Since alumnuss are expected to get linguistic communication proficiency in aural comprehension, speech production and reading grammar stuff should be selected for the intent. There exist rules of choosing grammar stuff both for learning talking cognition ( active lower limit ) and for learning reading cognition ( inactive lower limit ) , the chief 1 is the rule of frequence, i.e. , how often this or that grammar point occurs. For illustration, the Present Simple ( Indefinite ) is often used both in conversation and in assorted texts.
Therefore it should be included in the grammar lower limit.For choosing grammar stuff for reading the rule of polysemia, for case, is of great importance.Students should be taught to separate such grammar points which serve to show different significances.
For illustration, For illustration,-s ( Es )& # 237 ; iThe choice of grammar stuff involves taking the appropriate sort of lingual description, i.
e. , the grammar which constitutes the best base for developing speech wonts. Thus the school course of study reflect a traditional attack to finding grammar stuff for foreign linguistic communication instruction, students are given sentences forms or constructions, and through these constructions they assimilate the English linguistic communication, get grammar mechanisms of addressThe content of grammar instruction is debatable among instructors and methodologists, and there are assorted attacks to the job, students should, whatever the content of the class, assimilate the ways of adjustment words together to organize sentences and be able to easy acknowledge grammar signifiers and constructions while hearing and reading, to reproduce phrases and sentences stored up in their memory and state or compose sentences of their ain, utilizing grammar points appropriate to the state of affairs.Part 2 MAJOR METHODS AND PRINCIPLES1.1A Brief Review of the Major Methods of Foreign Language TeachingThe grammatical systems of Russian and English are basically different. English is an analytical linguistic communication, in which grammatical significance in mostly expressed through the usage of extra words and by alterations in word order. Russian is a man-made linguistic communication, in which the bulk of grammatical signifiers are created through alterations in the construction of words, by agencies of a developed system of prefixes, postfixs and stoping.
( p. 121, Brown C. and Jule & # 8220 ; Teaching the spoken linguistic communication & # 8221 ; , Cambridge, 1983 )No 1 knows precisely how people learn languages although a great trade of research has been done into the topic.Many methods have been proposed for the instruction of foreign linguistic communication. And they have met with changing grades of success and failure.We should cognize that the method by which kids are taught must hold some consequence on their motive.
If they find it lifelessly tiring they will likely go de-motivated, whereas if they have assurance in the method they will happen it actuating. Child scholars differ from grownup scholars in many ways. Children are funny, their attending is of a shorter continuance, they are rather otherwise motivated in, and their involvements are less specialized. They need frequent of activity ; they need activities which are exciting and exciting their wonder ; they need to be involved in something active.We shall analyze such methods as & # 8220 ; The Grammar & # 8211 ; Translation Method & # 8221 ; , & # 8221 ; The Direct Method & # 8221 ; , & # 8220 ; The Audio-lingual Method & # 8221 ; . And we pay attending to the learning grammar of the foreign linguistic communication. We shall notice those methods, which have had a long history.
1.1.1 The Grammar Translation method will be discussedThis method was widely used in learning the classics, viz. Latin, and it was transferred to the instruction of modern linguistic communications when they were introduced into schools.In the grammar-translation manner, the books begin with definitions of the parts of address, declensions, junctions, regulations to be memorized, examples exemplifying the regulations, and exclusions. Often each unit has a paragraph to be translated into the mark linguistic communication and one to be translated into native one. These paragraphs illustrate the grammar regulations studied in the unit.
The pupil is expected to use the regulations on his ain. This involves a complicated mental use of the junctions and declensions in the order memorized, down to the signifier that might suit the interlingual rendition. As a consequence, pupils are unable to utilize the linguistic communication, and they sometimes develop an lower status composite about linguistic communications in general. Exceptionally bright and persevering pupils do larn linguistic communications by this method, or in malice of it, but they would larn with any method. ( R. Lado )We list the major features of Grammar Translation.- Classs are taught in the female parent lingua, with small active usage of the mark linguistic communication.- Much vocabulary is taught in the signifier of lists of stray words.
– Long luxuriant accounts of the elaboratenesss of grammar are given.- Grammar provides the regulations for seting words together, and direction frequently focuses on the signifier and inflexion of word.- Reading of hard classical texts is begun early.- Small attending is paid to the content of texts, which are treated as exercisings in grammatical analysis.- Often the lone drills are exercisings in interpreting staccato sentences from the mark linguistic communication into the female parent lingua.- Little or no attending is given to pronunciation.
( Brown H. , Douglas & # 8216 ; Principles of linguistic communication learning & # 8217 ; , N.Y. , 1987 )The grammar-translation method is mostly discredited today. With greater involvement in modern linguistic communications for communicating the insufficiency of grammar-translation methods became apparent.1.1.2 The Direct MethodThe Direct Method appeared as a reaction against the grammar-translation method.
There was a motion in Europe that emphasized linguistic communication acquisition by direct contact with the foreign linguistic communication in meaningful state of affairss. This motion resulted in assorted single methods with assorted names, such as new method, natural method, and even unwritten method, but they can all be referred to as direct methods or the direct method. In add-on to stressing direct contact with the foreign linguistic communication, the direct method normally deemphasized or eliminated interlingual rendition and the memorisation of junctions, declensions, and regulations, and in some instances it introduced phonetics and phonic written text.The direct method assumed that larning a foreign linguistic communication is the same as larning the female parent lingua, that is, that exposing the pupil straight to the foreign linguistic communication impresses it absolutely upon his head. This is true merely up to a point, since the psychological science of larning a 2nd linguistic communication differs from that of larning the first.
The kid is forced to larn the first linguistic communication because he has no other effectual manner to show his wants. In larning a 2nd linguistic communication this irresistible impulse is mostly missing, since the pupil knows that he can pass on through his native linguistic communication when necessary.The basic premiss of Direct Method was that 2nd linguistic communication acquisition should be more like first linguistic communication acquisition: tonss of active unwritten interaction, self-generated usage of the linguistic communication, no interlingual rendition between first and 2nd linguistic communications, and small or no analysis of grammatical regulations. We can sum up the rules of the DirectMethod:- Classroom direction was conducted entirely in the mark linguistic communication.- Merely mundane vocabulary and sentences were taught.
– Oral communicating accomplishments were built up in a carefully graded patterned advance organized around question-and-answer exchanges between instructors and pupil in little, intensive categories.- Grammar was taught inductively, i.e. the scholar may detect the regulations of grammar for himself after he has become acquainted with many illustrations.- New learning points were introduced orally.- Concrete vocabulary was taught through presentation, objects, and images ; abstract vocabulary was taught by association of thoughts.- Both address and listening comprehension were taught.- Correct pronunciation and grammar were emphasized.
1.1.3 The Audiolingual MethodThe Audiolingual Method ( It is besides called Mimicry-memorization method ) was the method developed in the Intensive Language Program. It was successful because of high motive, intensive pattern, little categories, and good theoretical accounts, in add-on to linguistically sophisticated descriptions of the foreign linguistic communication and its grammar.Grammar is taught basically as follows: Some basic sentences are memorized by imitation. Their significance is given in normal looks in the native linguistic communication, and the pupils are non expected to interpret word for word. When the basic sentences have been overlearned ( wholly memorized so that the pupil can rattle them off without attempt ) , the pupil reads reasonably extended descriptive grammar statements in his native linguistic communication, with illustrations in the mark linguistic communication and native linguistic communication equivalents.
He so listens to further colloquial sentences for pattern in listening. Finally, patterns the duologues utilizing the basic sentences and combinations of their parts. When he can, he varies the duologues within the stuff hour has already learned.
The features of ALM may be summed up in the undermentioned list:- New stuff is presented in duologue signifier.- There is dependance on apery, memorisation of set phrases and overlearning.- Structures are sequenced by agencies of incompatible analysis and taught one at a clip.- Structural forms are taught utilizing insistent drills.- There is a small or no grammatical account: grammar is taught by inductive analogy instead than deductive account.- Vocabulary is purely limited and learned in context.
– There is much usage of tapes, linguistic communication labs, and ocular AIDSs.- Great importance is attached to pronunciation.- really small usage of the female parent lingua by instructors is permitted.- Successful responses are instantly reinforced.- There is a great attempt to acquire pupils to bring forth error-free vocalizations.
– There is a inclination to pull strings linguistic communication and neglect content.1.1.4 Grammar accounts as used in the major methodsWe shall briefly reexamine the intervention of grammatical accounts by some of the major methods.
This is non meant to be an thorough survey of all available methods ; instead it is an effort to demo the assortment of ways in which different methods trade with grammar accounts and may assist instructors in measuring available stuffs.Grammar translationis associated with formal regulation statement. Learning returns, deductively, and the regulation is by and large stated by the instructor, in a text edition, or both.
Traditional abstract grammatical nomenclature is used. Drills include interlingual rendition into native linguistic communication.The direct methodis characterized by meaningful pattern and exclusion of the female parent lingua.
This method has had many readings, some of which include an analysis of construction, but by and large without the usage of abstract grammatical nomenclature.The audio-lingual methodstresses an inductive presentation with extended form pattern. Writing is discouraged in the early phases of larning a construction.
Here once more, there has bee considerable fluctuation in the realisation of this attack. In some instances, no grammatical account of any sort is offered. In other, the instructor might concentrate on a peculiar construction by insulating an illustration on the board, or through contrast. When grammatical account is offered it is normally done at the terminal of the lesson as a sum-up of behaviour ( Politzer, 1965 ) , or in ulterior versions of this method the regulation might be stated in the center of the lesson and followed by extra drills.Each method is realized in techniques.
By a technique we mean an single manner in making something, in deriving a certain end in learning learning procedure. The method and techniques the instructor should utilize in learning kids of the primary school is the direct method, and assorted techniques which can develop pupils` listening comprehension and speech production. Students are given assorted exercisings, connected with the situational usage of words and sentence forms.
1.2 Some General Principles of Grammar Teaching1.2.1 Conscious attackThis means that in sentence forms learning points are determined so that students can concentrate their attending on some elements of the form to be able to utilize them as pointing points when speech production or composing the mark linguistic communication. For illustration, I can see a book.
I can see many books.The instructor draws pupils & # 8217 ; attending to the new component in the signifier of a regulation, a really short 1. Itisusuallydoneinthemothertongue. Forexample: & # 1055 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; , & # 1095 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1097 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1091 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1073 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1082 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1095 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1077 ; & # 8211 ; s [ s, z ] & # 1080 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1080 ; & # 8211 ; es [ IZ ] . Or: & # 1055 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; , & # 1095 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1094 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1088 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1076 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1078 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1093 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1080 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1103 ; & # 1074 ; & # 1089 ; & # 1087 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1084 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1090 ; & # 1077 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1100 ; & # 1085 ; & # 1099 ; & # 1081 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1083 ; & # 1072 ; & # 1075 ; & # 1086 ; & # 1083 ; & # 8220 ; make non & # 8221 ; ( & # 8220 ; does non & # 8221 ; ) .The regulation helps the scholar to understand and to absorb the structural significance of the elements.
It ensures a witting attack to larning. This attack provides favorable conditions for the speedy development of correct and more flexible linguistic communication usage. However it does non intend that the instructor should inquire students to state this or that regulation, Rules do non guarantee the command of the linguistic communication. They merely help to achieve the practical end. If a student can acknowledge and use right the signifiers that are appropriate, that is sufficient. When the scholar can give ample cogent evidence of these abilities we may state that he has fulfilled the course of study demands.
Conscious acquisition is besides ensured when a grammar point is contrasted with another grammar point which is normally confused. The contrast is brought out through resistances. For illustration:
I get up at 7 O & # 8217 ; clock.It & # 8217 ; s 7 O & # 8217 ; clock. I am acquiring up.
He has come.He came an hr ago.
Give me a book ( to read into the train ) . Give me a book ( to read into the train ) .Give me the book ( you have promised ) ,
I like soup ( more than any other nutrient ) . I like soup ( more than any other nutrient ) .I like the soup ( you have cooked ) .Rule for the instructor:The instructor should recognize troubles the sentence form nowadayss for his students.
Comparative analysis of the grammar point in English and in Russian or within the English linguistic communication may be helpful. He should believe of the shortest and simplest manner for presentation of the new grammar point. The instructor should retrieve the more he speaks about the linguistic communication the less clip is left to pattern. The more the instructor explains the less his students understand what he is seeking to explicate, this leads to the instructor giving more information than is necessary, which does non assist the students in the use of this peculiar grammar point, merely hinders them.1.
2.2 Practical attackIt means that students learn those grammar points which they need for immediate usage either in unwritten or written linguistic communication. For illustration, from the first stairss of linguistic communication acquisition students need the Possessive Case for objects which belong to different people, viz. , Mike & # 8217 ; s textbook, Ann & # 8217 ; s female parent, the miss & # 8217 ; s doll, the male childs & # 8217 ; room, etc. The instructor Masterss grammar through executing assorted exercisings in utilizing a given grammar point.1.2.3 Structural attackGrammar points are introduced and drilled in constructions or sentence forms.
It has been proved and accepted by the bulk of instructors and methodologists that whenever the purpose to learn pupils the bid of the linguistic communication, and talking in peculiar, the structural attack meets the demands.Students are taught to understand English when spoken to and to talk it from the really get downing. This is possible provided they have learned sentence forms and words as a form and they know how to set them to them to the state of affairss they are given.In our state the structural attack to the instruction of grammar attracted the attending of many instructors. As a consequence structural attack to grammar instruction has been adopted by our schools since it allows the student to do up sentences by analogy, to utilize the same form for assorted state of affairss. Pupils learn sentence forms and how to utilize them in unwritten and written linguistic communication.
Rule for the instructor:The instructor should supply students with words to alter the lexical ( semantic ) significance of the sentence form so that students will be able to utilize it in different state of affairss. He should absorb the grammar mechanism involved in sentence form and non the sentence itself.1.2.4 Situational attackStudents learn a grammar point used in state of affairss. For illustration, the Possessive Case may be efficaciously introduced in schoolroom state of affairss. The instructor takes or merely touches assorted things and says This is Nina & # 8217 ; s write ; That is Sasha & # 8217 ; s exercise-book, and so on.Rule for the instructor:The instructor should choose the state of affairss for the peculiar grammar point he is traveling to show.
He should look through the text edition and other instruction stuffs and find those state of affairss which can guarantee comprehension and the use of the point.1.2.
5 Different attackGrammar points students need for conversation are taught by the unwritten attack, i.e. , students aud them, perform assorted unwritten exercisings, eventually see them printed, and write sentences utilizing them.For illustration, students need the Present Progressive for conversation. They listen to sentences with the verbs in the Present Progressive spoken by the instructor or the talker ( when a tape recording equipment is used ) and associate them to the state of affairss suggested. Then pupils use the verbs in the Present Progressive in assorted unwritten sentences in which the Present Progressive is used.
Grammar points necessary for reading are taught through reading.Rule for the instructors:If the grammar point the instructor is traveling to show belongs to those students need for conversation, he should choose the unwritten attack method for learning.If students need the grammar point for reading, the instructor should get down with reading and composing sentences in which the grammar point occurs.While fixing for the lesson at which a new grammar point should be introduced, the instructor must recognize the troubles pupils will run into in absorbing this new component of the English grammar. They may be of three sorts: troubles in signifier, significance, and use.
The teacher thinks of the ways to get the better of these troubles: how to convey the significance of the grammar point either through state of affairss or with the aid of the female parent lingua ; what regulation should be used ; what exercises should be done ; their types and figure. Then he thinks of the sequence in which students should work to get the better of these troubles, i.e. , , from observation and comprehension through witting imitation to usage in conversation ( communicative exercisings ) . Then the instructor considers the signifier in which he presents the grammar point & # 8211 ; orally, in authorship, or in reading. And, eventually, the instructor plans pupils & # 8217 ; activity while they are larning this grammar point ( point ) : their single work, mass work, work in unison, and work in braces, ever bearing in head that for assimilation students need illustrations of the sentence form in which this grammar point occurs.
Part 3 FURTHER POINTS FOR CONCIDERATION1.1 Introduction of new Material1.1.1 Introducing new linguistic communication constructionWe will see ways in which kids can be introduced to new linguistic communication construction.When we present grammar through structural forms we tend to give pupils tidy pieces of linguistic communication to work withWe introduce grammar, which can easy be explained and presented. There are many different ways of making this, which do non ( merely ) involve the transmittal of grammar regulations.It is surely possible to learn facets of grammar – so that is what linguistic communication instructors have been making for centuries – but linguistic communication is a hard concern and it is frequently used really inventively by its talkers, In other words existent linguistic communication usage is frequently really untidy and can non be automatically reduced to simple grammar forms. Students need to be cognizant of this, justas they need to be cognizant of all linguistic communication possibilities.
Such consciousness does non intend that they have to be taught each fluctuation and lingual turn, nevertheless. It merely means that they have to be cognizant of linguistic communication and how it is used. That is why reading and hearing are so of import, and that is why discovery activities are so valuable since by inquiring pupils to detect ways in which linguistic communication is used we help to raise their consciousness about the originative usage of grammar – amongst other things.As instructors we should be prepared to utilize a assortment of techniques to assist our pupils learn and get grammar. Sometimes this involves learning grammar regulations ; sometimes it means leting pupils to detect the regulations for themselves.What do we present? Our occupation at this phase of the lesson is to show the students with clear information about the linguistic communication they are larning. We must besides demo them what the linguistic communication means and how it is used ; we must besides demo them what the grammatical signifier of the new linguistic communication is, and how it is said and/or written.
What we are proposing here is that pupils need to acquire an thought of how his new linguistic communication is used by native talkers and the best manner of making this is to present linguistic communication in context.The context for presenting new linguistic communication should hold a figure of characteristics.It should demo what the new linguistic communication agencies and how it is used, for illustration. That is why many utile contexts have the new linguistic communication being used in a written text or duologue.A good context should be interesting for the kids.
This does n’t intend that all the capable affair we use for presentation should be wildly amusing or imaginative all of the clip. But the students should at least want to see or hear the information.Last, a good context will supply the background for a batch of linguistic communication usage so that pupils can utilize the information non merely for the repeat of theoretical account sentences but besides for doing their ain sentences.Frequently the text edition will hold all the features mentioned here and the instructor can confidently trust on the stuff for the presentation. But the text edition is non ever so appropriate: for a figure of grounds the information in the book may non be right for our pupils in such instances we will desire to make our ain contexts for linguistic communication usage.
1.1.2 Types of context 1.1.2 Types of contextContext means the state of affairs or organic structure of information, which causes linguistic communication to be used. There are a figure of different context types, but for our intents we will concentrate on three, the pupils ‘ universe, the outside universeand formulated information.
The pupils ‘ universe can be a major beginning of contexts for linguistic communication presentation. There are two sorts of pupils ‘ universe. Clearly we can utilize the physical milieusthat the pupils are in – the schoolroom, school or establishment. But schoolrooms and their physical belongingss ( tabular arraies, chairs, Windowss, etc. ) are limited. The pupils ‘ livesare non constrained in the same manner, nevertheless, and we can utilize facts about them, their households, friends and experiences.The outside universe provides us with rich contexts for presentation For illustration, there is an about infinite figure of narrativeswe can utilize to show different lenses. We can besides make state of affairsswhere people speak because they are in those state of affairss, or where the author describes some particular information. This is particularly utile for the pattern of functional linguistic communication, for illustration.We can inquire pupils to look at illustrations of linguistic communicationwhich show the new linguistic communication in operation, though this last class can sometimes hold no context. These three sub-categories, narrative, state of affairs or linguistic communication, can be simulatedor existent.Most instructors are familiar with ‘made-up ‘ rocks which arc frequently utile for classwork: existent narratives work good excessively, of class. In the same manner we can make the simulation of an invitation duologue, for illustration. But here once more we could besides demo pupils a existent invitation duologue. In general we can state that existent contexts are better merely because they are existent, but they may hold complexnesss of linguistic communication and understandability which can be avoided by fake contexts – life-like but clearly mode-up to some extent.Formulated informationrefers to all that information which is presented in the signifier of timetables, notes, charts etc. Once once more we can utilize existent charts and timetables, growing statistics, etc. or we can plan our ain which will be merely right for our pupils.1.1.3 The presentation of structural signifierOne of the instructor ‘s occupations is to demo how the new linguistic communication is formed – how the grammar plants and how it is put together.One manner of making this is to explicate the grammar in item, utilizing grammatical nomenclature and giving a mini-lecture on the topic. This seems debatable, though, for two grounds ; foremost many students may happen grammatical constructs hard, secondly- such accounts for novices will be about impossible.A more effectual – and less scaring – manner of showing signifier is to allow the pupils see and/or hear the new linguistic communication, pulling their attending in a figure of different ways to the grammatical elements of which it is made. For whilst advanced pupils may gain from grammatical accounts to a certain extent, at lower degrees we must normally happen simpler and more crystalline ways of giving pupils grammatical information.1.1.4 A general theoretical account for presenting new linguistic communicationThe theoretical account has five constituents: lead-in, evocation, account,accurate reproduction,and immediate creativeness.During the lead-inthe context is introduced and the significance or usage of the new linguistic communication is demonstrated. This is the phase at which pupils may hear or see some linguistic communication ( including the new linguistic communication ) and during which pupils may go cognizant of certain cardinal constructs.The cardinal constructs are those pieces of information about the context that are critical if pupils are to understand the context and therefore the significance and usage of the new linguistic communication.During the lead-in phase, so, we introduce our context ( doing certain that cardinal constructs are understood ) and demo the new linguistic communication in usage.During the evocationphase the instructor tries to see if the pupils can bring forth the new linguistic communication. If they can it would clearly be uneconomical and de-motivating for them if a batch of clip was spent practising the linguistic communication that they already know. At the evocation phase – depending on how good ( and if ) the pupils can bring forth the new linguistic communication – the instructor can make up one’s mind which of the phases to travel to next. If the pupils ca n’t bring forth the new linguistic communication at all, for illustration, we will travel to the account phase. If they can, hut with minor errors, we may travel to the accurate reproduction phase to unclutter up those jobs. If they know the new linguistic communication but need a spot more controlled pattern in bring forthing it we may travel straight to the immediate creativeness phase Elicitation is vitally of import for it gives the instructor information upon which to move: it is besides actuating for the pupils and actively involves their acquisition abilities.During the accountphase the instructor shows how the new linguistic communication is formed. It is here that we may give a hearing drill or explicate something in the pupils ‘ ain linguistic communication ; we may show grammatical signifier on the chalkboard. In other words, this is where the pupils learn how the new linguistic communication is constructed.During the accurate reproductionphase pupils are asked to reiterate and rehearse a certain figure of theoretical accounts. The accent here will be on the truth of what the pupils say instead than intending or usage. Here the instructor makes certain that the pupils can organize the new linguistic communication right, acquiring the grammar right and honing their pronunciation every bit far as is necessary.1.2 Teaching grammar formsWe & # 8217 ; ll analyze “ Teaching Grammatical Patterns ” by Robert Lado ( Chapter 10 “ From Sentences to Patterns ” )Robert Lado thinks that even kids who have ne’er studied the regulations grammar make usage of the grammar of the linguistic communication. This is seen in the errors they make. When a kid says, He goed,he is organizing a “ regular ” preterite on the form: showed, weighed, served: “ goed. ”His mistake reveals the fact that he has been using the form even though he is non able to depict it.- Forms and SentencesA grammatical form is an agreement of parts holding lingual significance beyond the amount of its parts. The parts of a form are expressed by words or categories of words so that different sentences frequently express the same form. All the sentences of a linguistic communication are cast in its forms.John telephoned, The male child studied.We understood different sentences are showing the same statement form in English.A form is non a sentence, nevertheless. Sentences express forms. Each sentence illustrates a form. To memorise a sentence does non connote that a form has been memorized. There can be infinite sentences, each unique, yet all constructed on the same form.- Forms and GrammarChildren learn the grammatical forms of their linguistic communication before they study grammar in school. When a kid says goedalternatively of wentor cognizealternatively of knew,he is using the regular preterite form on the analogy,unfastened: opened = spell: goedForms are learned in childhood. Adults no longer hold to larn new forms ; they learn new words that are used in old forms. That the old forms are alive is shown by seting unknown words and phrases into them.And what is the function of the native linguistic communication in larning the forms of a foreign linguistic communication?- Native Language Factor – Native Language FactorThe most of import factor finding easiness and trouble in larning the forms of a foreign linguistic communication is their similarity to or difference from the forms of the native linguistic communication. When the form in the mark linguistic communication is parallel to one in the native linguistic communication, the pupil simply learns new words which he puts into what sums to an extended usage of his native form. Since his word acquisition capacity is non lost, he makes rapid advancement. When, nevertheless, the native linguistic communication form does non parallel that of the mark linguistic communication, the pupil tends to return to his native linguistic communication forms through wont.- Rating the PatternsThere is no individual rating graduated table for learning the forms of a foreign linguistic communication. Any systematic cumulative patterned advance, taking into history the constructions that are hard, would be satisfactory from a lingual point of position.- Pattern-practiceApproach The mimicry-memorization exercising tends to give the same sums of pattern to easy every bit good as hard jobs. It besides concentrates unduly on the memorisation of specific sentences, and non plenty on the use of the forms of sentences in a assortment of content state of affairss. For those forms that are functionally parallel to the native linguistic communication, really small work demands to be done, and really small or no account is necessary. On the other manus, for those forms that are non parallel in the two linguistic communications, more specific apprehension of the grammatical construction points at issue is needed whilethe sentences are learned and non before or after. And more pattern with the form is necessary before it is learned, that is, used without attending to its construction.- Basic sentencesThe memorisation of sample sentences that con & # 173 ; tain the grammatical jobs to he mastered is common to both pattern pattern and mimicry-memorization. For this pattern there is ample justification in linguistics and in psychological science. The vocalizations have to go readily available if the pupil is to utilize them in the rapid sequence of conversation.- Teaching the formsA sentence can be learned as a individual unstructured unit like a word, but this is merely the beginning. The stu & # 173 ; dent must get the wont of building sentences in the forms of the mark linguistic communication. For this he must be able to set words about automatically into a form without altering it, or to alter it by doing the necessary accommodations.Teaching a job form begins with learning the specific struc & # 173 ; ture points where a formal alteration in the form is important and where the pupil is non able to pull strings the needed alterations. The stairss in learning job forms are ( 1 ) attending arrow,normally a individual sentence naming the pupils ‘ attending to the point at issue ; ( 2 ) ex & # 173 ; amples,normally minimally incompatible illustrations demoing a brace of sen & # 173 ; tences that differ merely on the point or points being made ; ( 3 ) repeatby the category and presentation of extra illustrations ofthe same contrast ; ( 4 ) remarksor generalisationelicited inductively from the pupils and confirmed by the instructor ; ( 5 ) pattern,with attending on the job being taught.These stairss an intended to clear up the important point of contrast at the clip when sentences are being learned. They should take merely a little part of the category clip & # 8212 ; no more than 15 per cent.Robert Lado speech patterns that many instructors make the error of seeking to explicate everything at length while the category listens passively. Long accounts without active pattern are a waste of clip, and even with pattern they are inefficient. Most of the category should be devoted to pattern.1.3 CorrectionDuring the accurate reproduction stage there are two basic rectification phases: screening incorrectness ( bespeaking to the pupil that something is incorrect ) and utilizing rectification techniques.- Screening incorrectnessThis means that we will bespeak to the pupil that a error has been made. If the pupil understands this feedback he or she will be able to rectify the error and this self-correction will be helpful to him or her as portion of the acquisition procedure.There are a figure of techniques for demoing incorrectness:- Repetition:Here we merely inquire the pupil to reiterate what he or she has merely said by utilizing the word ‘again ‘ . This, said with a oppugning modulation, will normally bespeak that the response was unsatisfactory ( although it could be misunderstood as merely bespeaking that the instructor has non heard the pupil ‘s response ) .- Echoing:We will be even clearer if we repeat what the pupil has merely said, utilizing a oppugning modulation since this will clearly bespeak that we are doubting the truth or content of what is being said.Sometimes we can repeat the complete pupil response, likely emphasizing the pan of the vocalization that was wrong, for illustration:She goto school?Another possibility is to repeat the pupil ‘s response, but merely up to the point where the error was made, ftor illustration: She go & # 8230 ; ?Echoing, in its assorted signifiers, is likely the most efficient manner of demoing incorrectness.- Denial:We can merely state the pupil that the response was unsatisfactory and inquire for it to be repeated. This seems slightly drier than the techniques so far discussed ; it may be a spot more discouraging.- Questioning:We can state ‘Is that correct? ‘ inquiring any pupil in the category to reply our inquiry. This has the advantage of concentrating everybody ‘s head on the job, though it may do the pupil who made the error seem slightly exposed.- Expression:Many instructors indicate that a response was wrong by their look or by some gesture. This is really economical ( and can be rather amusing ) but can be unsafe if the pupil thinks that the look or gesture is a signifier of jeer.In general, demoing incorrectness should be handled with tact and consideration. The procedure of pupil self-correction, which it provokes, is an of import and utile portion of the acquisition procedure. Showing incorrectness should be seen as a positive act, in other words, non as a rebuke.Frequently, nevertheless, we find that demoing incorrectness is non plenty for the rectification of a error or an mistake and the instructor may hence hold to utilize some rectification techniques.- Exploitation rectifi