Tallen assignment american history Essay

1.    The Neutrality Act-  Actually a series of Acts from 1935-1939.  The U.S. believed that World War I was caused by excessive foreign entanglements among European nations and sought to ensure that the U.

S. would not get pulled into another global conflict.  Precipitated by tensions and encroachments again in central and eastern Europe.  These acts were widely criticized because they included embargoes against hostile nations without regard to was the aggressor and did not apply to nations involved in Civil War (such as Spain).2.    The Enola Gay-  This was the B-29 airplane that dropped the first ever atomic bomb- this one over Hiroshima in 1945.  So named after the mother of the pilot, Paul Tibbets.

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  The plane was accompanied by two other planes on August 5, as it delivered “Little Boy,” the name of the atomic bomb.  The bombing killed some 80,000 people that day and eventually over 100,000 people died as a result of the bombing.3.    Hundred Days- Refers to the first hundred days of FDR’s administration in which he met directly with Congress every day.  FDR and Congress passed piece after piece of landmark legislation designed to rescue the U.S.

from the largest, most severe financial depression it had ever known.  FDR sent the Emergency Banking Act (Banks re-opened under government supervision), the Economy Act (to balance the regular budget), the New Deal work programs (to stimulate economy and create jobs) and legalized alcohol by statute (months before the 21st Amendment was passed).4.    The Manchurian Incident- An explosion which destroyed part of the Japanese controlled railroad in southern Manchuria.  The Japanese blamed the Chinese dissidents and as result invaded Manchuria.  The Chinese (and many historians) believe that Japan staged the attack as a pretext for invasion. The League of Nations condemned the invasion and passed a resolution requiring the immediate evacuation of Japanese forces from Manchuria.

  The Japanese refused and resigned from the league.  This eventually precipitated the 2nd Sino-Japanese War in 1937.5.    D-Day- Invasion by allied forces (June 6, 1944) on the beaches of France as first part of offensive to free continental Europe from Nazi regime.  The June 6, 1944 invasion was nicknamed Operation Neptune.

  The invasion took place at several beaches at Normandy, France (Sword, Juno, Gold, Omaha, Utah).  Area was heavily fortified by German forces and artillery.  Over 150,000 allied troops landed and marched through bullets and hedgerows to take the beach and start the liberation of Europe (Operation Overlord).6.    The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)- One for the work relief programs of FDR’s New Deal.  The intended effect was to put millions of young men to work in areas that tended to conserve and harness our nation’s natural resources.  The unintended effect was to foster an appreciation and an interactive relationship between the nation’s youth and the outdoors.  Major accomplishments include building thousands of miles of roads, hundreds of parks, planting trees (Forest Construction) and building/maintaining bridges and dams.

  African Americans and American Indians had separate divisions.7.    Eleanor Roosevelt- First lady of the U.S. from 1933-1944 who remained politically active until the 1960s, including serving as delegate to the U.

N. under President Truman.  Staunch advocate of civil rights and women’s issues.  FDR was her father’s 5th cousin and President Roosevelt was her uncle.

  She routinely made public appearances for her husband when he was governor and president, after he was stricken by Polio.  Used the media and frequent women only press conferences to champion humanitarian issues.8.    Pearl Harbor- Naval port in Honolulu, Hawaii (then a U.S.

possession) that was attacked by Japanese bombers at 6 am on December 7, 1941- ushering the U.S. into WWII.  FDR declared war that same day.  Nine U.S. naval ships were sunk and over 2300 died, about half from the USS Arizona Battleship.  US intelligence had intercept messages alerting us to an attack by the Japanese, but the War Dept.

claims they could determine where the attack would take place.9.    “Rosie the Riveter”- The embodiment of the female work force during WWII in the U.S.  Rosie represents the millions of American women who picked up the factory tools laid down by the men who went overseas to fight the war.  Women proved they could ably perform “man’s work.”  Many women stayed in the workforce, though between WWII and 1970 women’s presence in the workforce declined significantly.

10.  General Douglas MacArthur-  High ranking Army General who is considered to be one of, if not the, most accomplished and decorated soldier in U.S. history.  Best known for making good on his promise to return to the Philippines when he liberated the island nation in 1945 from the Japanese.  Commanded the allied forces in the Pacific and during occupation of Japan following the war.  Also commanded the UN forces during the Korean conflict.

1.    Describe the gains made by labor during the New Deal.  One of the most significant gains made by labor came as a result of the 1933 National Industrial Relations Act, which guaranteed the right to collective bargaining for unions.  However, it was the 1935 Wagner Act (aka the National Labor Relations Act) which had the by the largest overall impact.  This Act prohibited employers from interfering with or taking retaliatory action on employees who wish to join unions and refusing to engage in collective bargaining with a union.  The Wagner Act also established the National Labor Relations Board whose function it was to enforce the Wagner Act.

  The New Deal also used programs like the Works Progress Administration, the Civilian Conservation Corps and the National Youth Alliance to lower unemployment, especially in rural areas.  The more creative attempts at creating jobs were the people paid by the government to paint murals, write state-specific guide books and in the southern states, document oral histories of living ex-slaves.  The cumulative effect was that the federal government greatly expanded its role as the protector of labor.2.    Describe the major steps in America’s move away from neutrality between 1935 and 1941.  In 1936, the U.S. began advancing arms to Franco’s regime in Spain.

  In 1937, Roosevelt persuaded congress to pass the ‘cash and carry” provision which would enable the US to supply weapons and material to Britain and France, its allies, because they presumably would control the seas when war broke out.  After Japan invaded China in 1937, President Roosevelt did not invoke the Neutrality Acts because there was no formal declaration of war by either country.  Roosevelt essentially showed his support for China by refusing to institute the embargo, this allowing China to receive imported war supplies from the U.S. (Roosevelt actually allowed British vessels to ship American arms to China).  In October 1937, Roosevelt shifted away from neutrality and stated a new policy of “quarantining” all aggressors, which he used to justify an embargo on exports of aircraft to Japan. After the September 1939 German invasion of Poland, Congress passed the Neutrality Act of 1939 which allowed for “cash and carry” arms trade with all belligerent nations, in effect ending the arms embargo and the Neutrality Acts.

  In response to multiple attacks on U.S. ships by German submarines, the President Roosevelt ordered the U.S. Navy to attack German and Italian war ships in the waters necessary for U.S. and repealed the Neutrality Acts in November, 1941.

  Of course, the attack by the Japanese at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 brought the U.S. into the war.3.     What were the effects of the war on American women and African Americans?  World War II thrust women into the national domestic spotlight for their efforts in producing the war machinery needed to ensure success abroad.  Women were empowered with the knowledge that they were capable of ably performing physical labor.  This experience led to calls for equal pay throughout the women’s workforce.

  Women also saw a sharp increase in marriage and childbearing after the war which lasted through the end of the 1950’s.  African American’s fought with valor and in great numbers during the war, so they felt that they had finally “earned” their civil rights.   Many African American’s abandoned their rural southern homes for the opportunities in larger northern cities like Chicago, Detroit and Philadelphia.  Both African Americans and women benefitted from wartime executive orders (FEPC) forbidding discrimination in the awarding of government contracts on the basis of race or gender, as well as country of origin and religion. 


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