TABLE OF CONTENT 1. Introduction 1.1 General

   TABLE OF CONTENT 1.     Introduction 1.1    General Introduction 4Galso known as fourth generation communication technology is a wireless mobilephone communication system. It is a development over older generation ofcommunication system like the 3G and 2G mobile communication technology. 4G offersall the features provided by 3G and 4G and is five to seven times faster than3G and provides speeds up to 150mbps. 4G is actually a development of 3G or anadvanced version of 3G but not actually a real 4G technology, which is, usedlike a label over 3G development by the network companies to improve themarketing of communications as well as to make the costumers feel that they aregetting the 4G network experience. The newly arising 4G mobile communicationsystems are developed targeting to solve the remaining problems of 3G systems aswell as to provide a new services such as high-definition video transfer,high-quality voice exchange, high-data-rate wireless channels transmission andsoon.  (4g., 2006) (SearchMobileComputing, 2010) (SUMAN, 2008) 1.2    Current ScenarioEarlierversions of 4G networks did not meet the standards set out by the ITU.Generally, these networks set out for use until new versions of existingtechnology are ready to be deployed, but were still advertised as being 4G. Thesesystems are based on new radio-interface models, use different frequency bandsthan existing networks and are not backwards compatible with 3G solutions.Currently 4G is in the full stage of development as there are two technologies thathave been provided to ITU as 4G applicants. LTE and WiMAX, the rolled outversions of these technologies are nearly the True 4G communication system.

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Both applicants, LTE and WiMAX are constantly working on developing True 4G service,which will one day provide speeds exceeding 100mbps for downloading. However,the recently gained changes in 4G service is removing of IP addresslimitations, smooth transfer of data to the clients through challenging networktraffic as well as increase rate of data transfer to the clients. Nevertheless,the service, which will provide the True 4G experience, which meets therequirements provided by ITU, will not arrive until some several years and evenmore in less developed countries or rural areas.(whatsag, 2017) 2.   Background 4G often called, as thefourth generation of evolution over earlier generations of network service isthe technology for mobile networks. It has the ability to transfer data tovarious parts of the world with great Speed and Power more than 10 times thatof previous generation or successor 3G.

it is developed in order to providefaster and reliable networking experience to the client than that of 3G as wellas to replace it. Some of the major targeted field of improvement of 4G are receivinglarge amount of information, data, images and so on as well as accessing ofinformation from anywhere at any time. (Stringfellow, 2017) 2.1.  Technology Used The 4G service has been developed on two main technologies,which are LTE and WiMAX. These two technologies have been developed separatelyby different technical organizations.

IEEE (The Institute of Electrical andElectronics Engineers) is the developer of WiMAX whereas the development of LTEis done by 3GPP. These both technologies are highly developed technology over4G service. These main technologies are based on the use of antenna technologyto improve the performance. The service not only rely on these maintechnologies as well as other hardware and wireless technologies. Some of themare:2.1.1.

 OFDM1.2.1   MIMO2.1.2. UWB2.1.


1.5. IPv62.

1.6. SOFTWARE DEFINEDRADIO (SDR) SYSTEM2.1.7. VoIP (Kapustka, 2010) (Seminarsonly, 2016) 2.2.  Working Mechanism 4G Network is IP (Internet Protocol)based networking service.

It uses various protocols in order to send andreceive data as well as voice data in the form of packets in order to reducetime and increase efficiency. The mechanism developed over 4G from 3G is thatWireless LANs are integrated into total mobile network but Circuit switchingcapabilities are removed in 4G. The architecture of 4G network is more or lesssimilar to 3G architecture, as both of them are IP based and both of them usemethods like air interfaces to establish link between the mobile device and thebase station. Different technologies are based on different interface but allthe interference have the same method of coordinating network traffic andacknowledging device when to send and receive data. However, the only thing theydiffer is the way the complete their task.

Various technologies of 4G likeWiMAX use interface similar to WIFI protocol to communicate whereas LTE useOFDM and MIMO interfaces to communicate. (Chandler, 2018) 2.3.  Current Scenario in Nepal  Nepal is still new to 4Gtechnology as it has not been even over a year since it has was launched. Thefirst company to receive permission to launch 4G network in Nepal from theNepal Telecommunications Authority (NTA) was Nepal Telecom. Nepal Telecom launched4G networks for postpaid users in Kathmandu and Pokhara city since January 1,2017 and later made available to prepaid subscribers. Ncell also had beenapplying for 4G licenses from a long time but recently, Ncell also got the license to launch 4G network in Nepal. Due tounsolved dispute over Tax issues, NTA had hold license of Ncell to launch 4Gservice in Nepal.

NTA has decided to provide 4G license to Ncell under someconditions. Ncell has to upgrade its all 3G networksto 4G of all remote areas. It later launched4G in Kathmandu from June 1. Beside Nepal Telecom and Ncell, variousother telecom operators like United Telecom Limited (UTL), Smart Telecom, Smartcell, have also been applying for the license to NTA for approval to operate 4Gservice.(indianexpress, 2017) (nepalitelecom, 2017) (Pranishs, 2017)         3.  Implementation The main future implementationover 4G service will be to replace current networking services and reduce itsproblems.

The objective of development of 4G is to provide smooth and variousmultimedia services to the clients using common IP based interfaces in order tomake networking for efficient and cheaper as well as providing vast dataservices like voice, video data’s and soon. Other implementation over 4Gservices is to reduce the bandwidth consumption in the time of no use as wellas merge various data such as audio, video, applications and soon into a singlepackage while transferring. Various other field where 4G is to be implementedare providing more faster communication, providing wide range of data’s,maintaining secured online business, estimating accurate data prediction,providing wider area coverage of services, providing detailed data and so on.

 The above-mentionedimplementation plans must be accomplished in order to develop the communicationsector and can be achieved through numerous ways. Some of the ways to obtainthe plans are by expanding the service area of 4G network providers orupgrading the 3G network to 4G network in order to replace the currentnetworking service, which will help in developing the future of communicating.Other ways are like making the use of same IP interface on all the 4Gtechnologies, which will contribute in easier communication between differentnetwork among the clients as well as wider data transmission. The problem ofcontinuous use of bandwidth can also be reduced by developing certain IP, whichwill lessen the use of bandwidth in unwanted time such as updating current timeprovided by the network, which then will reduce spending money of clients.Using of common IP interface will also help in transmitting of various data inthe same package in the same time.

Providing wider area coverage of 4G servicescan also be solved by increasing the hardware resources of the networkingcompany like base stations, towers, gateways and soon on various differentrural and urban areas. Other problems such as providing wide range of data,maintaining secured online business, estimating accurate data prediction, providingdetailed data can also be solved by developing different protocol for differentuse.4.    CONCLUSION Therefore, 4G is one of themost important communication service in today’s digital world as it helps tocommunicate faster as well as convert the communication system into the nextlevel. Therefore, we should constantly develop the communication service sothat we can achieve even better communication system.Tosum up, 4G services can be further developed to provide many other features andfacilities. Such as virtual presence, Tele-Medicine where it would help tocreate a platform for doctors for remotely inspecting the health of thepatients, Virtual Navigation where it would provide the high-speed, which isrequired to transmit the data necessary for visualization of structure of thesurrounding environment.

Some other fields such as Geographical PositioningApplications where 4G would provide the current location of the client to theclient anywhere and anytime, it would provide the people online educationservice in an efficient and effective way and mostly in the field of multimediawhere 4G would help to deliver high data rates effectively with lower cost.


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