Table 2 gene and induce apoptosis. Ehrlich
Table 1: representsanticancer plants with their mechanism of action and cell lines used for studies. S.No Plant Plant part Mode of action Cell lines 1 Acorus calamus (sweet flag, calamus, sweet cane, sweet grass) Rhizome Phytochemicals extracted from plant extracts caused death in MCF 7 Cell Human breast cancer cell line (MCF 7) 2 Sophora interrupta (Edwaria madarasapatna) Whole plant Phytochemicals of the plant formed 6 hydrogen bonds with Arg 202,Gln 207,Gly 227,Gly 229,Thr 231,Ala 232 human DEAD box and RNA helicase Dalton’s lymphoma ascites(MCF7 and PC 3 Cell lines) 3 Solanum trilobatum (Thai night shade) Whole plant Plant extracts contain phenolic compounds.
These compounds bind with BCL 2 gene and induce apoptosis. Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells 4 Catharanthus roseus (Vinca rosea) Leaf, seed, stem Extracts contain vincristine, vinblastine, and vindesine alkaloid group of compounds. These disrupt mitotic spindle assembly through interaction with tubulin. Hep2 cell lines(lung cancer) 5 Eclipta alba (False daisy) Roots, seeds, oil Produce secondary metabolites like polypeptide, polyacetylenes, flavanoids, and triterpenes. Inhibit cell proliferation and down regulate expression level of matrix metalloproteases (MMP 2and MMP 9) C6 glioma,A498, human lung epithelial adenocarcinoma cell lines HLC 827 6 Juniperus communalis (Dwarf juniper) Fruit Produces diapterene, isocupressic acid, aryltetralin lignin deoxypodophyllotoxin.These are the potent inducers of caspase dependent programmed cell death in malignant and breast cancer cells.
MB 231 breast cancer cell lines 7 Myrica cerifera (Bayberry) Leaf, stem, seed The diarylhepatanoid named rubanol I has shown to exhibit cytotoxicity against Lun 06, Neu 04, Brc 04. Lun 06,Neu 04,Brc 04, A549, human colon adenocarcinoma DCD 1 8 Withania somnifera (Indian ginseng) Fruits and flowers Withaferin A binds to tubulin and interferes with mitotic spindle formation thereby regulates cell cycle. PC 3,DU 145,HCT 15,A549,IMR 32 cell lines 9 Curcuma longa (Turmeric) Rhizome Curcumin suppresses the activation of NF-Kb regulated genes involved in tumorigenesis including TNF, COX 2, Cyclin D, MMP 9 and interleukins.
Also involved in cell cycle control and stimulates apoptosis. In addition to that Curcumin is a modulator of autophagy and suppresses a variety of growth factors such as VEGF, COX 2, MMP and ICAMs. MCF 7,Hep 2, U937(human monocytic leukemia cell line), Molt 4(human lymphoblastic cell line) 10 Taxus brevifolia (Pacific yew, western yew) Dried leaves, bark, root Taxol inhibits cell proliferation by stabilizing the microtubules at G2-M phase of cell cycle resulting in which the depolymerization of microtubules to soluble tubulin is blocked. Effective in treating epithelial ovarian cell cancer, lung cancer and colon cancer. MX 1mammarycell line models, LX 1 lung and CX 1 colon cell line models were used. 11 Tinospora cardifolia (Guduchi) Root, stem It induces proliferation and myeloid differentiation of bone marrow precursor cells in tumor bearing host.
It also activated tumor-associated macrophages-derived dendritic cells. Stimulates macrophage functions like phagocytosis, antigen-presenting ability and secretion of IL-1, TNF. Dichloromethane extracts showed cytotoxic effects. Erlich’s ascites carcinoma cells, melanoma cells, HeLa cells.
12 Zingiber officinalis (Ginger) Rhizome Capsaicin, a phytochemical compound extracted from the plant affects the metabolism of carcinogens. It also possesses apoptotic activity. Plant extracts repressed the growth of HeLa, ovarian carcinoma, mammary, adenocarcinoma cells. CCA cell line(CL-6), HepG2(hepatocarcinoma),HRE (normal human renal epithelium cell lines) 13 Crocus sativus (saffron) Stigma The plant extract contains alpha-crocetin, safranal, picrocrocetin, beta carotene. The extract caused stimulation of apoptosis-caspase dependent pathway. Crocetin inhibited cell proliferation and also arrested cell cycle progression in case of prostate cancer. EAC, DLA (Dalton’s lymphoma ascites), S-180, Hep G2 cell lines. 14 Aloe barbadensis (Aloe Vera, medicinal aloe) Leaves Aloe-emodin, the active component of aloe vera along with calligonum comosum extract altered gene and protein expressions of P53 and Bcl 2.
Also induced G2/M arrest and apoptosis. Hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2), human bladder(T24) 15 Terminalia chebula (yellow or chebulic myrobalan) Fruit The plant extract contains flavanoids, tannins, ellagic acid. Flavanoids like Quercetin, rutin possess anti mutagenic and anti tumor properties. Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell lines. 16 Moringa oleifera (Moringa, Drumstick tree) Leaves Leaves contain high amounts of polyphenols and flavanoids. Major polyphenols are gallic acid, Quercetin and kaempferol. The extract was found to contain anti oxidant, cytotoxic and anti proliferative activity. Colorectal adenocarcinoma,HepG2, CaCo-2, MCF-7, Hepa-CIC7 and fibroblast cell lines.
17 Cassia Fistula (Golden shower, pudding pipe tree) Pulp and seeds Ethyl acetate extract of pulp and seeds contained anti cancer compounds like 2(3H) furanone, rhein, and thymoland oleic acid. These compounds mediated the up regulation of p53 and Bax genes and down regulation of Bcl-2 gene expression. It enhanced the enzyme activities of caspase-3 and 9. MCF-7,human cervical cancer cell lines(SiHa), prostate cancer cell lines(PC-3) 18 Annona atemoya (atemoya, chirimorinon) Leaves and seeds The Ethanolic extract of plant material has shown anti angiogenic property. Angiogenesis promotes the growth of tumor cells. Human umbilical endothelial cells, NCI-H460 (Non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line) 19 Andrographis paniculata (creat, kariyat, Indian Echinacea) leaves Andrographolide, a compound extracted from the plant induced apoptosis.
It also enhanced the expression of P53, bax& caspase3 genes. Decreased the bcl2 gene expression thereby controlling the tumor growth. HeLa, colon(HT-29)cell lines, MCF 7, human peripheral blood lymphocytes (HPBLs).
20 Phyllanthus amarus (Gale of wind) Whole plant The phyllanthus aqueous extract contained polyphenols. These include gallic acid, gallolyl glucopyronoside, rutin, Quercetin, corilagen, geranin. Gallic acid& Quercetin inhibited G1phase of cell cycle. A549, MCF7 (human breast cancer cell lines), NL20 (human bronchus epithelium), human breast epithelium (184B5). 21 Bacopa monnieri (Brahmi) Whole plant The anticancer activity of the plant extract might be due to the presence of saponins and flavonoid content.
Of all the cell lines tested, the extract has shown high efficiency on human breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-468). Cervix (ME 180, SiHa), leukemia (HL60, K562), Breast (MCF 7, MDA MB468), Prostate, colon, lung (A549), HEPG2 and oral (AW13516). 22 Vitex trifolia (simple leaf chaste tree) leaf Methanol and petroleum ether extracts of leaf was cytotoxic to the MCF 7 cells and resulted in cell death. MCF7 and Vero cell lines. 23 Alocasia cucullata (Chinese Taro) Tuber The extract had apoptotic and cytotoxic properties and also interfered with the expression of Rb, caspase 3, Bax, cyclin D1 and Bcl2 genes.
MGC 803(Gastric cell line), K 562(myelogenous leukemia cells), HeLa (cervical cancer cells), MDA-MB 435(breast cancer cell lines.) 24 Erythrina variegata (LINN) (Indian coral tree, tiger claw) Leaves, roots, stem bark The ethyl acetate fraction of stem bark extract contained four different compounds which belong to flavanoids and alkaloids and are found to possess properties of inhibiting cell proliferation, protease inhibitors and cytotoxicity. Leaves extract of the plant has shown efficiency against breast cancer cell line. HeLa (human cervical cancer), DLA, T47D (breast cancer), NIH3T3 (Normal mouse embryonic fibroblast) cell lines. 25 Plumbago zeylanica (Chitrak, Plumbago) Leaves Different phytochemicals had been extracted from the plant namely-beta sitosterol, beta-sitosteryl-3-beta-glucopyranoside-61-opalmitate, lupenone, plumbagin, trilinolein. Plumbagin was found to possess apoptotic G2/M phase cell cycle arrest and DNA fragmentation activities. MCF7, APL cell line, NB4 cells, Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell lines. 26 Abrus precatorius (Crab’s eye, Rosary pea) Seeds The petroleum ether extract of the plant contained many phytochemicals-flavanoids, alkaloids, tannins, phenolic, saponin and triterpenoid groups.
These flavanoids inhibited cell proliferation thereby the growth of tumor is controlled. Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell lines 27 Adhatoda vasica (Malabar nut tree) Leaves Vasicine, an alkaloid extracted from the leaves of Adhatoda vasica showed cytotoxic activities and thus acted as a potent anticancer agent. A549 (Lung adenocarcinoma) cell line. 28 Alanginum salvifolium (Ankolah, Sage leaved alangium) Flowers, bark, roots, fruits The crude extract of the flowers had flavanoids, phenols, alkaloids, steroids and tannins. Quercetin and kaempferol, main flavanoids present in the plant extract has shown antimalignant activity. In addition to antitumor effect, it also showed hematopoietic protecting activity. Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cell lines 29 Phaleria macrocarpa (God’s crown) Seeds The seed extract of the plant contain high amounts of phenolic and flavanoid compounds.
These phytochemicals might be responsible to induce cytotoxic effects on cancer cell lines. MCF7, HT29,MDA-MB231, SKOV-3, MRC-5(normal human fibroblast lung) cell lines 30 Rubia cordifolia (Indian madder) Root The phytochemicals present in the root extract of the plant – epoxy mollugin, furomollugin, ruberythric acid, 2-carbomethoxy-2, 3-epoxy-3-prenyl-1, 4-napthoquinone, alizarin, soranjidol exhibited cytotoxic activities and also inhibited DNA topoisomerase I activities. Besides this, the extract did not affect normal healthy cell growth. HepG2 (human hepatocellular carcinoma), HT29, MCF7.
31 Camptotheca acuminata (Happy tree, cancer tree, tree of joy) Fruits, leaves Camptothecin, an alkaloid isolated from the extract blocked the action of topoisomerase I and it also caused a nick in the double strand of DNA which finally resulted in apoptosis thereby inhibiting the cell proliferation. Human endometrial carcinoma Cell line (HEC-1A), HEC-1B, KLE. 32 Azadirachta indica (Neem) Leaves The expression of cyclin D, a cell cycle regulator is high in human cancers (breast, cervical) but, when MCF-7 cells were treated with ethanolic leaf extract of Azadirachta indica, the expression of cyclin D was down regulated. Bax, an apoptotic gene, causes the cell to undergo apoptosis. In case of untreated MCF7 cells the Bax gene expression is low. But, when the cells are treated with leaf extract, the Bax gene expression increased in a time dependent manner. The extract did not interfere with the viability of normal lymphocytes.
MCF7, HeLa cell lines. 33 Beta vulgaris (common beet, sugar beet) Roots The root extract of beta vulgaris possess different phytochemicals such as flavonoids, polyphenols, vitamins, betalains, betaxanthins, and minerals. The presence of folic acid in higher quantities also might be a reason for antiproliferative property. These Phytochemicals suppressed the cell growth and induced cell death.
MCF-7. 34 Emblica officinalis (Indian gooseberry) Fruit The fruit extract of Emblica officinalis contains 18 phytochemical compounds that are responsible in curing a disease. Polyphenols, alkaloids and flavonoids are reported to be present in the fruit extract. Polyphenols might be responsible for the suppression of DNA topoisomerase I and also induced apoptosis. In addition to the cytotoxic properties, the plant extract had immunomodulatory effect by intensifying natural killer cell activity. MCF 7, K 562, Erythroleukemic HEL cell lines. 35 Asparagus racemosa (Shatavari) Roots Many phytochemicals which are known to possess anticancer activity were isolated from the root extract.
Some of them include rutin, Quercetin, shatavaroside A, shatavaroside B, Shatavari IV. These Phytoconstituents induced cytotoxic effects on tumor cells. MCF-7, HT-29, A-498, MDA-MB-231. 36 Fagonia cretica (AjabhakshyaAnanto) Flower The aqueous extract of the plant induced DNA damage, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by the regulation of P53 gene expression. MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 37 Solanum nigrum (Black night shade, Black- berry night shade) Leaves, fruit Studies have shown that eight active compounds were extracted from the plant. Out of which a compound called trilinolein showed anticancer activity. It has exhibited the properties of inducing apoptosis and growth inhibition.
Regulated Bcl-2 family and caspase-3 genes. Hep G2, HT-29, HCT-119, MCF-7, HeLa-27, U1424 38 Bauhinia variegate ( kachnar, orchid tree) leaves The bioactive constituents isolated from the plant has shown cell cycle arrest and also induced apoptosis of colon cancer cells. COLO 320 DM (human colon cancer cell line).
39 Podophyllum hexandrum (Indian Podophyllum) Root, rhizome The derivatives of podophyllotoxin, (etoposide and teniposide) have shown their anticancerous properties by blocking the metaphase of mitosis, inhibiting the proliferation of microtubules. VP-16 etoposide and VM-26 teniposide are being widely used in chemotherapeutic drugs. HL-60, SMMC-7721, A549, MCF7, SW480, HeLa, 40 Prosopis cineraria (khejri tree) Leaves The Phytoconstituents extracted from the plant material has shown its apoptotic effects on cancer cell lines. The extract did not induce toxicity on normal cells.
The flavonoid compound named- Quercetin-3? Undecyloxy-3-galloyl trimethyl ether had shown cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines MCF-7, HeLa 41 Euphorbia hirta (Garden spurge, hairy spurge, asthma plant) Leaves The compound 2,3 dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-Pyran-4-one (DDMP) reported from the ethanolic extract of the plant induced apoptosis by suppressing anti apoptotic genes and had contributed a major part in curing cancer. HL-60, Hep 2, EAC, 42 Annona muricata (Graviola, Prickly custard apple) Leaves, twigs and roots The extracts of the plant resulted in cell cycle arrest at G0/ G1 phase by up regulating the expression of p21and it is also responsible for disrupting the membrane of mitochondria thereby inhibiting cell proliferation. MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, 4T-1, HL-60. 43 Cannabis sativa (Marijuana, Hemp, Gallow grass) Leaves Cannabinoids, the bioactive constituents isolated from the leaf extract of the plant induced apoptosis. HT29, MCF7 and SF-26 cell lines 44 Centella asiatica (Indian pennywort, Coinwort) Leaves The terpenes (Asiatic acid), phenols and flavanoids present in the extract would be responsible for causing apoptosis. B6F10, MDA-MB-231.
45 Saussrea lappa (Costus) Roots Costunolide along with other terpenoids group of compounds isolated from the plant down regulated CDK-2 kinase activity which led to cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and resulted in apoptosis. HL-60, KB (human oral cancer cells), A549, MCF7, MBA-MB-453, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL 2, HCT15. 46 Nigella sativa (Black cumin) Seeds The Phytoconstituents of the plant material has shown anti metastasis, apoptotic, anti oxidant and anti proliferative properties by enhancing NK cytotoxic activity and also by regulating P53, caspase activities. HepG2, MCF-7, Vero, P815, MOLT-4 47 Picrorhiza kurroa ( Kutki) Rhizome The hydro alcoholic extracts of the plant contained cucurbitacins B and E, Picrosides 1&2, betulinic acid and apocynin. These bioactive compounds would be responsible for exhibiting anticancerous properties. MCF-7, SiHa, HeLa, MDA-MB-231. 48 Ageratum conyzoides (chick weed, Goat weed, White weed) Leaf, stem, flower and whole plant The flavonoids reported from the plant exhibited anticancerous activity. Jurkat, LNCap, MCF-7, PNT2 49 Papaver somniferum (opium poppy) Stem, capsule, root and leaf The alkaloids isolated from the plant material exhibited anticancerous properties.
Noscapine, codeinone, morphine, papaverine are responsible for its anticancer activity. HT 29, HeLa, C6 cells 50 Alstonia scholaris (Devil tree, blackboard tree, ditabark, milk wood- pine, white cheesewood) Bark Alcoholic extract of the plant possessed many classes of secondary metabolites like alkaloids, terpenoids, lignans, and flavonoids. The alkaloids -Echitamine chloride, and alstonine has shown significant anticancer activity. Human cervix cancer cell line(ME180, SiHa), Human leukemia cell lines( HL60, K562), Human ovarian cancer cell lines (A2780, Ovkar-3) 51 Carthamus tinctorius ( Safflower) Seeds Several phenolic and flavanoid compounds were reported from the extract such as epigallocatechin, serotonin derivatives, serotonin glycosides, and lignin.
Flavanoid compounds like kaempferol, rutin hydrate, luteolin, baringin and Quercetin hydrate. The presence of these compounds might be responsible for inhibiting cell proliferation by reducing the level of cyclin D1. Human colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT 116, SW480, LoVo and HT-29), MDA-MB-231, MCF-7. 52 Murrayya koenigii ( Curry leaf) Leaves Studies on the plant have reported that the leaf extract has higher amounts of phenol and flavonoid contents (Gallic acid, Myricetin, Epicatechin, Quercetin). Mahenine, an alkaloid isolated from the leaf inhibited cell cycle progression by suppressing cell survival factors. HT-29, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, HL-60 53 Momocardia charantia (Bitter gourd) Seeds and aerial parts Cucurbitane, a triterpenoid and alpha- eleostearic acid isolated from the plant extract blocked the cell transition from G2 to M Phase of cell cycle, induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines, leukemia and colon cancer cell lines.
?- Eleostearic acid and its derivatives had shown a strong marked inhibition of growth on HL-60 leukemia and HT-29 Colon cancer cell lines. HCT-116, Hep G2, MCF-7, HeLa, MDA-MB-231, HL-60, HT-29. 54 Triticum aestivum (Wheat grass) Wheat grain The dichloromethane fraction of the plant extract inhibited the growth of cancer cell by inducing alterations in cellular morphology thereby leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Besides this it controlled the expression of mitochondrial apoptosis-linked proteins and caused caspase-dependent cell death.
HeLa, Hep-2 55 Allium sativum (Garlic) Bulb Allyl sulfides and its derivatives have induced G2/M check point arrest by regulating the expression of different types of proteins involved in transition of phases and ultimately led to apoptosis. MCF-7, A549,PA-1 56 Camellia sinensis (Green tea) Leaves Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a polyphenol isolated from the plant inhibited the growth of cancer cell lines by causing cell cycle arrest. Along with EGCG, other flavonoids- rutin and Quercetin also possess anticarcinogenicity. HEY, OVCA, HT-29,HCA-7