Calf fattening is across-the-board activity, related to run into animate being ‘s attention, lodging, medicine, feeding and direction. It is defined as all those facets and activities associating to raising of calves for meat intent. Before doing the determination, whether to put in the farm animal agriculture or non, one should carefully analyse the associated hazard factors.
A SWOT analysis can assist in analysing these factors, which can play of import function in doing the determination.Since beef demand is increasing twenty-four hours by twenty-four hours, hence, the demand of fattened calves is besides higher. The demand increases particularly before occasions like Eid-ul-Fitr and Eidul-Azha. That ‘s why the animate beings in such occasions are sold at a spot higher monetary values as compared to other yearss. The proposed concern can be started before these occasions or any clip through out the twelvemonth. At the beginning of the proposed concern, it is of import that the enterpriser must hold good cognition of the production and have contacts with the farm animal breeders and husbandmans. The ability to work with people/ animate beings and efficient usage of resources are of import facets in modern and commercial calf flesh outing farm.
2 Market Potential
In Pakistan, the beef industry is an of import section of farm animal production. The increasing population and the lifting consumer purchasing power have together contributed to an addition in demand ensuing in comparatively favourable monetary values for beef. Worldwide ingestion of meat during 1983 for developed universe was 74 kilograms compared to 14 kilograms for developing states and 11 kilogram for Pakistan. The information for 1993 indicates 76kg, 21 kilogram and 16kg for the three, severally. The challenge for Pakistan now is to accomplish 47 kilograms per capita ingestion by 2020. Harmonizing to statistics there is a spread in demand and supply of beef in the market. This spread is met through meatless yearss and through domestic fowl meat.
The feasibleness suggests buying calves on unrecorded weight footing from the rural countries or animate being mandies.
The animate beings are being traded across the state in carnal mandies round the twelvemonth. Most of which operate on hebdomadal footing. The other beginning of animate beings could be through doing an understanding with a provider ( middlemen/ beoparies ) . Government and private farm animal farms are besides the chief beginnings for buying meat animate beings. Animal markets are situated in different topographic points in Punjab, which includes Sheikupura, Okara, Sahiwal, Arifwala, Muridke and Jhelum. These markets operate on rotational footing in a hebdomad, or one time a month.
There are different contractors available in the markets that would assist in turn uping the proper animate beings. These contractors work on committee footing for providing calves on unrecorded weight footing. Commission rate charged may change from some % age of the carnal monetary value.
There is a general tendency to maintain the fattened calves in semi-confinement in order to command waste production, where these calves are confined and housed over slatted floors. All fecal matters and piss can be collected, therefore extinguishing the demand for utilizing bedding stuff.
At present most of the cowss in feedlots are still kept on concrete floors, or in dry parts, on an unpaved country. More efficient growing rates will be achieved if shadiness is provided. Solids from manure are either collected daily and stored, or allowed to dry in the feedlot and removed sporadically before distributing on Fieldss. Collection of piss is limited to feedlots with a slatted floor. Sheds of the animate beings should be airy with protection of the animate beings from utmost temperatures and strong air currents.
The carnal lodging should be facilitated with imbibing H2O for animate beings. There should be proper drainage system to maintain hygiene at the farm. It consists of a built up animate being shed, a brick soling paddock for animate beings, one room for hive awaying farm equipment and one for compound provender storage. But the pre-feasibility has taken feeding trough, unfastened paddock and H2O trough as the major lodging demand for the calves. Animal sheds should be located with long axis North to south, to acquire direct sunshine and yet confront off from the way of predominating air currents, whenever possible. Tree plantation can be carried outside the sheds to supply natural sunglassess and these trees will besides move as parkas. Dimensions of H2O troughs will be the same as that of feeding troughs and H2O will be available round the clock. By and large all the animate beings feed at the same clip in a caducous, but non all animate beings drink H2O at the same time.
The undermentioned figure shows the carnal lodging layout for calf fattening farm.
Ration for Calf Fattening
The ration is allowance of nutritionally balanced Total Mixed Ration ( TMR ) in 24 hoursto increase carnal productiveness. Wheat straw6 is besides used as dry fiber in TMR. The cost of TMR will be lowered if feed ingredients are mixed on farm. The composing of the rations fed in the finishing operations depends mostly on the types of provender produced local handiness and on weights and classs of calves to be fattened.
Rations can run from high-roughage low energy rations to high-energy rations composed about wholly of dressed ores. Examples of ingredients in rations are:Maize and maize silage with Soya bean repast and ureaBarley, corn silage, byproducts feeding big provender tonss ( e.g. murphy waste, sugarbeet byproducts )Maize, sorghum grain, lucerne, straw, cottonseed hulls and molasses.Some hormone-like growing stimulators, antibiotic provender additives and ionophores ( first stomachs changing factors ) are legalized to be included in the provender and are really normally used.
Average Production Parameters and Scopes
Green Fodder for Calfs
Cannon fodder is grown at the land, which is acquired on rental or owned by the enterpriser. Due to increased demand, improved eatage harvests such as multi-cut oats, berseem, lucerne, Sorghum- Sudan grass loanblends, Mott grass, sorghum, corn and millet have been developed. These have become really popular in irrigated countries such as Kasur, Sheikhupura, Gujranwala, Faisalabad, Sargodha, and Renala Khurd ( Punjab ) , Nowshera, Charsada, Mardan, and Peshawar ( North West Frontier Province ) , and Hyderabad, Sukkur, Larkana and Nawabshah in Sindh for peri-urban dairies. Detailss of fresh fishcultivars released by Research Institutions in Pakistan are given in Annex 2.
Average forage outputs in Pakistan are highly low compared to outputs obtained on research institutes and from well-managed farms and Fieldss. These are really low as compared to their possible, with 22.8 dozenss per hectare a recent estimate8. Although improved assortments and engineering are available, they have been slow to make the dairy farms. Recent medium graduated table on-farm work has indicated that outputs can be enhanced two to three crease by utilizing available improved assortments and appropriate agronomic techniques. In an country where land and irrigation are the major restricting factors to heightening fresh fish production, intensification is the lone manner to run into the demands for eatage. Intensive and economical eatage production per unit country per season would be the best pick. Besides attempts should be made to bring forth and supply sufficient measures of seed of multicut eatage assortments and loanblends like Mott grass to commercial dairy farms.
The fresh fish output ( except multi cut Mott Grass which yields 100-150 tones/ acre in 4 to 6 film editings per twelvemonth ) varies between 10 dozenss to 40 dozenss per acre depending upon the birthrate of land, quality of seed and application of fertiliser.
Daily Fodder Requirement
There is no fixed fresh fish demand for the animate beings but a regulation of pollex says that an carnal demands day-to-day fodder equal to 4.5 % of unrecorded organic structure weight on Dry Matter ( DM ) Basis. One tierce of this DM will come from green fresh fish and 2/3 rd will be supplemented by TMR in flesh outing calves to acquire maximal day-to-day weight additions. Harmonizing to these estimations, one calf of 80 Kgs organic structure weight will devour 8-10 kilograms fodder daily for 120 yearss ( preferable if fed free of pick i.e. ad libitum ) .
Daily Total Mixed Ration Requirement
Since an carnal demands day-to-day feed equal to 4.
5 % of its unrecorded organic structure weight on Dry Matter ( DM ) Basis. The 2/3 rd of this DM will be supplemented by TMR. For an animate being of 80 kilograms organic structure weight, it will be 8-10 kgs per twenty-four hours ( Preferred if fed free of pick i.e. ad libitum )
Entire Mixed Ration ( TMR ) Formula for calves:
Calfs can besides be fed on TMR in provender batch system. The Crude Protein ( CP ) value of this ration should be 12-13 % with 65-70 % Total Digestible Nutrients ( TDN ) . These provender ingredients when assorted harmonizing to feed expression will supply equal energy harmonizing to energy and protein demands of animate being.
This is used as a provender addendum. It includes a mix of minerals ( Mg, Fe, Na and salts ) . Mineral mixtures increase the carnal productiveness to bring forth more thin meat. Urea Molassess Blocks can besides be used to supplement the minerals.
Wheat Straw ( Bhoosa or Turi )
Wheat straw is a major, typical, and really popular provender, it is ever chaffed, and is the chief or even merely major dry fiber used on about all the farms.
Traditional convulsing methods break the straw into short pieces. Modern mechanical thrashers have been designed to interrupt the straw. In topographic points where it is produced, it is available at Rs.1.
0 per kg. In recent old ages baling units have been installed in cardinal Punjab ; bales are transported to major metropoliss, even to Gilgit, Skardu, and Chitral.
Daily Feed Requirements for One Fattened Calves in 120 Dayss
Vaccination & A ; Medication
Vaccination & A ; medicine is required to forestall any disease out interruption in the carnal herd. Each new animate being will be vaccinated before seting into the farm.
Anthelmantics are used to handle the animate beings for internal parasites where as crop-dusting and dunking with some Dis infecting solution is used to eliminate external parasites. The entire cost will be Rs.200 per animate being. Vaccines are produced at Veterinary Research Institute, Ghazi Road, Lahore.
The vaccinums are provided to the Government Farms and Hospitals on payment. Farmers can besides obtain these vaccinums on payment harmonizing to prescribed agenda from the Institute. Technical counsel is besides provided to the husbandmans. Farmers can hold their animate beings vaccinated from the field Veterinary Hospitals and Centres.
7.7 Calf Quarantine
A quarantine pace will be made for new carnal handling, dunking, weighing, and inoculation etc.
The freshly purchased animate beings will be dewormed and medicated with proper and necessary inoculations in this pace. Merely the disease free animate beings will continue to the feedlot from the quarantine sheds. Quarantine agreements will minimise the opportunities of disease spread in the farm by guaranting that the new animate beings do non transport any disease before they are taken to the chief sheds.
This weeklong period will besides be helpful in acclimatising the new animate beings before they enter the chief feedlot sheds. The behaviour of the animate being will be recorded during these seven yearss and so its demand of provender will be calculated consequently before directing it to the chief feedlot.
For a calf-fattening farm, work force is required for executing different carnal farming patterns at the farm e.g. lodging, eating, lacrimation, medicine and attention of animate beings etc. One individual can manage 25 calves easy for eating and other direction.
Farm End product
The fattening period is the period during which the animate being puts on weight. These animate beings are called fattened animate beings.
By and large the period is 90-120 yearss. Following are the desirable size and thickness of fattened animate beings. Large frame size with no.1 thickness isdesirable.
Like all meat, beef is besides really high in protein.
It besides contains important measures of ‘B ‘ vitamins and minerals such as Na, K and P. Offal, peculiarly liver, is rich in Vitamin B12, A, C and D, folic acid, Fe and vitamin B2. The wet content of thin meat is 75-79 % where as the petroleum protein content is 18-22 % . There is a 5-6.5 % mineral content in it.
The per centum of thin meat, bone and other tissues of carcases of different strains is given as under ;