Sustainable Use of Marine Resources in Community Fisheries Essay
Chapter 1 Introduction
The handiness of the assortment of marine resources has attracted the constitution of human populations in coastal country. There are more than three billion people live in coastal countries. The growing in the demand for services and goods is besides addition to reply the demand of population growing ( Alpizar, 2006 ) . Harmonizing to the addition of market demand for nutrient, it has led to resource over development ( Nasuchon, 2009 ) . Besides, when people focus on nutrient and money that they need for their day-to-day endurance, preservation of natural resources for the hereafter becomes less of import ( Nasuchon & A ; Charles, 2010 ) . Furthermore, the failure of province and market mechanisms to advance sustainable and just natural resource direction in the development universe has stimulated a hunt for community-based options ( Li, 2002 ) . Nasuchon and Charles ( 2010 ) continued that over-exploitation and loss of coastal resources trigger the demand for new attacks to piscaries and coastal direction. Calls for a different attack emerged in the late eightiess based on the observation that under certain conditions, users can self-organize to accomplish successful administration ( Leopold et al. , 2013 ) . Community-based natural resource direction ( CBNRM ) advocators have claimed that run intoing preservation aims while bettering the rural communities’ wellbeing and supports ( Marschke & A ; Nong, 2003 ) . However, Community-based direction has different execution techniques which base on the assorted states ( Nasuchon & A ; Charles, 2010 ) .
The states of the Gulf of Thailand besides suffered over-exploitation of marine resources. The marine fish stocks are a to a great extent exploited resource due to the high denseness of the coastal population around the Gulf of Thailand ( Em, 2007 ) . Cambodia is one state among other states of Gulf of Thailand. The estimated population of Cambodia in 2011 was 14.7 million with 7.38 % of coastal population ( Rizvi & A ; Singer, 2011 ) . Furthermore, it is estimated that 30-50 % of the entire population in the coastal countries are involved in fishing ( Torell & A ; Salamanca, 2001 ) . With this big sum of population concentration in the coastal country, marine resources are to a great extent affected. As an evident, Marschke and Nong ( 2002 ) stated that since 1993 piscary resources have significantly declined. Nasuchon and Charles ( 2010 ) continued that fishery over-exploitation and loss of coastal home ground suggest the demand for new attacks to piscaries and coastal direction. However, Marschke and Nong ( 2003 ) suggested that community-based direction is comparatively new within Cambodia. In piscaries sector, Community Fishery is referred to community-based direction of fishery resources. every bit many as 400 Community Fisheries Organizations have been established throughout the state in 2005 ( Sten, Degnbol, & A ; Ahmed, 2006 ) . However, Sten et Al. ( 2006 ) continued that most community piscaries organisations were non implanted decently. During that clip, community piscaries organisations performed their responsibility through acquisition by making. Marschke and Nong ( 2003 ) suggested that community-based direction returns through test and mistake, and with a great trade of interaction among graduated tables of direction.
However, after the blessing of Sub Degree on Community Fishery Management in 2007, community piscary organisations have full support from the authorities and have the guideline to follow which aid to direction the organisation decently. Some kind of Co-management between Community fishery organisations and Government have formed by this Sub Degree on Community Fishery Management. With this solid legal support, the bing community piscary organisations try to better their public presentation and new community piscary organisations emerge with the purpose to protect piscaries resources and better their support.
Kampot is home to broad assortment of marine biodiversity with the three chief Marine ecosystem including Rhizophora mangle, seagrass and coral reef which support the local people within the country. Most of coastal small towns along the coastline rely to a great extent on the marine resource. In return, it put high force per unit area on these ecosystems. Fishery community organisations are besides practiced to pull off fishery resources in this state. Wholly, there are 10 piscaries communities in Kampot state. Each piscaries community has its ain country to pull off and conserve the natural resource base on the feature of the country. A batch of illegal activities have been stop by piscaries communities within the boundary of their legal power. Therefore, piscaries communities play a really important function in conserving marine biodiversity. Some piscaries communities are believed to be really successful and some are non. Make piscaries communities truly conserve marine biodiversity? Or do it worse? Two Community Fishery Organizations are selected for the survey. The first 1 is Koh Kresna Community Fishery which is considered to be less successful community ; and 2nd one is Tropang Sangke Community Fishery which is the most successful community.
1.1. Statement of Purpose
This research is conducted to happen out to what degree that community piscary can lend to protect marine resources. The intent to the constitution of community piscary is to protect and conserve marine biodiversity and at the same clip better local community support. Sustainability is non truly easy to accomplish because there are many factors that influence it. Local community is allowed to pull off their marine resources and better the wellbeing of the community through community piscary. It is a really good chance for local community to lend to protect marine resources and raise their consciousness about them. It besides gives local community opportunities to take part and work closely with concerned authorization, so that it builds a nexus between local communities and the authorization. This nexus is really important for the success of coastal direction. However, there are still uncertainties about the capableness of local community to pull off their community piscary.
To unclutter these uncertainties, this research is conducted at the local community degree to entree the capableness of them to pull off community piscary and the accomplishment of their end. The following are the research inquiries and hypotheses of this research.
- Does the status of Marine home ground ( Mangrove, sea grass and coral reef ) go better after the constitution of the community?
- Does the support of the local community improve after the constitution of the Community piscary?
- Is Community fishery able to accomplish sustainable usage of marine resources within its given boundary?
- What are the chief factors that influence the accomplishment of the sustainable usage of marine resources?
- Does local community have enough cognition about the benefit of Marine home ground ( Mangrove, sea grass and coral reef ) ?
With these 5 research inquiries, 2 hypotheses are formulated.
- Community piscary already has adequate cognition about the benefit of Marine home ground ( Mangrove, sea grass and coral reef ) .
- Community piscary is able to accomplish sustainable usage of Marine resource within its given boundary.
1.2. Analytic Methodology
Following by the research involvement the community piscary and marine biodiversity preservation, there are 5 research inquiry needed to be answered. However, to reply all these inquiries, we need to organize a item analytical model which can be used as a guideline. This analytical model shows the whole image of the research intent and how we are traveling to reply the research inquiries. To back up and warrant the reply for the research inquiries and the hypotheses, literature reappraisal will function as comparing with the consequence of the research. Since local communities besides contribute to the loss of marine resources, these jobs need to be solved at their degree. Community piscary is the underside up attack to undertake the full job at the local degree and achieve sustainability. Therefore, this research goes down to the local degree to happen the reply. There are two attacks are used to acquire the reply. These two attacks are focus group treatment and questionnaire study. With these two attacks, adequate information is gathered at the local degree of the community piscary itself and without any interfering from the higher degree. Then, the 2 hypotheses which are formulated from the 5 research inquiries are tried base on the information acquiring from these two attacks. Finally, after the confirmation of the hypotheses, deduction and recommendation is offered for the betterment of community piscary and every bit good as for the authorization notice spreads and make full those spreads. The following the whole construction of the analytical model.
Figure 1?1 Structure of Analytical Methodology
1.3. Research Methodology
In order to reply the research inquiries and turn out the hypothesis a set of research methodological analysis is used to garner information and information. This research will be conducted by utilizing both primary and secondary informations aggregation.
1.3.1. Secondary informations Collection
Roll uping published and unpublished literature including books, diaries, studies, scientific articles in related to the subject of this research from all beginnings including library, e-library, journal directories ( e.g. Sciencedirect.com ) , and concerned governments for Kampuchean related papers. It is really of import to roll up all these paperss in progress. It provides a first measure for an rating or analysis to derive some background cognition and apprehension ( MacDonald & A ; Headlam, 1986 ) . Secondary information serves as evident and support to explicate research inquiries and so formulated hypotheses for this thesis. Furthermore, it is used to back up the analysis of primary informations and comparison in the treatment portion of this thesis.
1.3.2. Primary Data Collection
There are two types of attacks to roll up primary informations for this thesis. First attack is focus group treatment. Three tools are used in this attack to roll up desire information from local community. The 2nd attack is questionnaire study. Further information is collected from this attack to unite with the information acquiring from the first attack.
220.127.116.11. Focus Groups Discussion
Focus groups treatment is really utile manner to happen out about bing concern issues and every bit good as to acquire coveted information. It is based on the coveted treatment subject organized by the research worker. Since this attack drama critical function in this research, this attack was carefully carried out. There were assortment of groups were selected to fall in the treatment. There were community piscary commission, community member ( fishermen ) , and people who buy angling merchandise in treatment. The bulk of the participants were fishermen. These three groups are the cardinal participant in community piscary. Focus group treatment was divided into three chief parts harmonizing to three chief tools used in the treatment. These tools are marine resource timeline, prioritized job, and resource flow. Each tool is designed to acquire specific information and information for the analysis to reply the research inquiry and turn out the hypotheses. Detail information about each tool is described below.
18.104.22.168.1. Marine Resources Timeline
Resource timeline is design to acquire the information about tendency of marine resources within the boundary of piscaries community-based direction. Participants was asked to turn to the position of available marine resources ( mangrove, seagrass, coral reef, fish, crab, water bird, and other resources ) in their direction boundary in a series of timeline. During the procedure excess information was besides noted when participants adverting about of import issues. To do it easy for the participants, timeline of this tool is divided into 3 periods. The first period is the period before the constitution of their piscaries community-based direction. The period after the constitution of community establishment is the 2nd period. The last period focal point on the last three old ages. The general thought about marine resources development and preservation in the community is realized.
22.214.171.124.2. Prioritized job:
This tool aims to acquire the information about the bing job in the community establishment. It besides helped to turn to the chief job by allowing participant prioritising it. It started by inquiring participants to describe about all bing job relating to both marine resources and the direction of their community establishment. After all bing jobs were listed ; the procedure of prioritising took topographic point by allowing all participants voting for the most serious job. Each job was voted against each other and the job won the ballot got 1 point. When all jobs were compared, the point of each job was counted and the job which got the highest mark became the top precedence job in the community establishment. Besides acquiring the information about the job that the community is confronting, this tool is besides aid to verify the strength and failing of piscaries community-based direction based on the job they are confronting.
126.96.36.199.3. Resources Flow:
By the name implied, resource flow is used to track down the beginning of marine resources particularly piscaries resources and where they end up. Different fisher might aim different species of fishes. Community piscary commissions invited different type of fisher to achieve the treatment. The tool started by inquiring participants to name fish species they catch for their support. Then participants were asked to indicate out the home ground of those fish species that they catch. The of import home ground for the support of local community is obtained based on this tool. At the terminal of resource flow, participants needed to province where all fish merchandises that they catch stop up. The whole flow of marine resources working by the community was obtained by utilizing resources flow tool.
188.8.131.52. Questionnaire study
Beside focal point group treatment, semi-structure interview is conducted by utilizing both close and open-ended inquiries. Basically, the questionnaire for the interview is divided into 5 chief parts which cover about background of the interviewee, their cognition about Marine home ground and its relationship with piscary, direction of community establishment, benefit of community piscary, and willingness to fall in marine biodiversity preservation.
First portion is about background of the interviewee. There are 9 inquiries in entire in this portion and they wholly related to the background of the interviewee including age, instruction degree, callings, boat type, cogwheel used, species catch, and fishing agenda. These background inquiries determine experience of the interviewee in fishing and the dependance on marine resources.
Knowledge about Marine home ground and its relationship with piscary is the 2nd portion of the questionnaire. All inquiries in this portion are related to marine home grounds which chiefly focus on Rhizophora mangle, seagrass, and coral reef and their critical function for piscary. These inquiries are really basic about the benefit about these home grounds to fishery and coastal country. Knowledge about the benefit of these marine home grounds plays a really important function on how local community utilizes and conserves them. In order for community establishment to set more attempt on direction of marine resources in their country, they at least demand to cognize the basic benefit about those resources. This portion of the questionnaire gather all this information and justice whether piscaries community-based direction in this instance survey have enough basic cognition about the benefit of Marine home grounds. The willingness and committedness to protect and conserve these home grounds will be revealed by this portion of the questionnaire excessively.
The 3rd portion is about community establishment. The inquiry is about the overall direction of the community establishment. There are 10 inquiries in this portion which explore about the wellbeing of community establishment and the cooperation among community member. It is really indispensable for community piscary to collaborate with each other in order to beef up their community establishment and successfully pull off their marine resources. How strong they cooperate with each other can be assess in this portion of the questionnaire. This portion of the questionnaire besides analyzes the single member about their finding to take part in piscaries community-based direction.
One of the chief ends of piscaries community-based direction in Cambodia is to better the local support and at the same clip conserve the marine resources. Therefore, the forth portion of the questionnaire is designed to happen out whether both piscaries community-based direction can accomplish their chief end or non. The inquiries merely assess the position of Marine home grounds ( mangrove, seagrass, and coral reef ) in the direction boundary of these two instance surveies of piscaries community-based direction and compare it with the position from the focal point group treatment. About the support, the questionnaire merely scratches the surface to research whether there is any betterment among community member by inquiring straight about income alterations and some other influence factors.
The last portion is approximately willingness to take part in marine resource direction undertaking. There are 5 inquiries in this portion. The first 3 inquiries are about whether community member used to come into contact with other coastal direction stakeholder. The Last two inquiries are about the willingness to fall in in coastal direction plan and the ground why they want to take part. It helps to measure whether community member have the willingness to take part in marine resource direction.
1.3.3. Sample choice
The questionnaire study was conducted in two fishing small towns stand foring two community piscary establishments. The first small town is Tropang Sangke small town stand foring Tropang Sangke Community Fishery Institution. Koh Kruesna Village is the 2nd small town which represents Koh Kruesna Community Fishery Institution. Random choice was used to take community member for the interview. The interview covered much of the small town by choosing interviewee from different portion of the small town. Most of the clip, the interview was conducted one on one. However, there were times that a few interviewees were asked at the same clip.
1.3.4. Data Analysis and reading:
Microsoft excel tools was used to heighten the information analysis which includes frequence, per centum, and tabular arraies. The consequence is tabulated into two different parts harmonizing to the focal point group treatment and the questionnaire study. The consequences from focus group treatment and questionnaire study are combined and discussed to bring forth the overall consequence the whole research. Furthermore, the overall consequence is discussed with the bing literature reappraisal of the success of piscaries community-based co-management and other of import factors.