Iycee Charles de Gaulle Summary Summary Of The French Revolution Research Essay

Summary Of The French Revolution Research Essay

Summary Of The Gallic Revolution Essay, Research PaperFrance was an absolute monarchy. Louis XIV ( 1643? 1715 ) was the enviousness of all other swayers in Europe. During his reign he had centralized the authorities and had encouraged trade and industry. His undoing was the long list of over ambitious wars that he had participated in. His replacements Louis XV ( 1715? 74 ) and Louis XVI ( 1774? 93 ) besides participated in drawn-out and dearly-won struggles.

France had suffered licking in the Seven Years War against Britain ( 1756? 63 ) . Her ground forces in Europe was crushed by the Prussians. The engagement in the American Revolution was for retaliation against Britain after the Seven Years War. A fatal failing in the Gallic absolute monarchy system, was its inability to bring forth strong sovereigns. Louise XVI was non strong.

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On the Eve of revolution all subdivisions of Gallic society had ground to be unhappy:? The Lords wanted power that was taken from them by the monarchy? The middle class resented the privileges of the Lords? The Bourgeoisie and the Peasants criticized the revenue enhancement systemAncien Regime refers to the old order in France ; the societal and governmental system that lasted until the Revolution. The Government order in France was an Absolute Monarchy. Due to the progressively big powers of a sovereign over society including: National System of Justice, Influenced the Catholic Church, The Right to decree Taxation and Leader of the military forces, the sovereign has to be a twine and stable individual.

Louis XVI was neither strong nor stable.The population was divided into three estates. The Third Estate was made up of the middle class, pay earners and the peasantry.

They were the bulk of the population. The Third Estate was besides known as the estate of the common mans. The Second Estate was for the aristocracy. They numbered 400 000 with most of them being of minor rank. The First Estate comprised the clergy.

The Upper Clergy were really affluent and powerful and hence they related to the First Estate. The Lower Clergy related more to the Lower Estates. The First Estate numbered around 100 000.The first two provinces enjoyed privileges over the Third Estate. Although they were the richest, they were exempt from revenue enhancements.

They were besides the lone members in society who could keep places of importance such as Military officers in the ground forces. This caused great discontent within the Third Estate.There was great demand for revenue enhancement reform in France before the Revolution. The inefficiency of merely taxing the lower estate showed in the Government? s budgets.

The Government was sing big debts and finally went Bankrupt. This was made worse by the Nobles non-cooperation when it came to Taxation. The Lords were determined non to give up their revenue enhancement grants. This proved to be a great job for Louis and his advisors. The provincials and middle class were besides unhappy due to the big revenue enhancements that they had to pay.

Due to over ambitious wars and excessive disbursement on tribunals, Louis XIV and Louis XV had been successful in assisting to ruin France. Their excessive disbursement on tribunals could be seen by the beauty and sheer size of Versailles. The cost of the wars was great in two ways. The Gallic had suffered large lickings and therefore had lost work forces and supplies. They besides had failed to derive any district ; in fact they frequently lost it. The worst war was the Seven Years War as this economically drained France and saw France lose most of her settlements to Britain.The provincials had many grudges.

One of the chief grudges was the seigniorial system. This system allowed for greater income disparity in France and a existent separation of categories. This frequently left provincials about isolated compared to the remainder of society. All provincials within France felt this at the clip. The provincials were burdened with immense sums of revenue enhancement that were about impossible for them to pay. This led to a instead discontented peasantry within France.

The Gallic Monarchy was successful in running shortage budget after shortage budget. This was aided by big costs brought on from old disbursement by Louis XV and Louis XIV. This did non halt Louis XVI from adding to the problems. Alternatively of implementing revenue enhancement reform Louis was insistent on non raging the aristocracy. Therefore he had to borrow the differences in outgo and gross.

These saws a changeless loan rhythm develop. When Turgot tried to halt this he was overthrown by Marie Antoinette? s hatred of him and the aristocracy? s want to see him fired. This saw the more self-satisfied Necker.The blue bloods were besides exempt from revenue enhancements. When Turgot tried to alter this Necker quickly replaced him. This shows the power that the aristocracy really held over the King sing revenue enhancement grants. A more powerful and strong King may hold chose to oppress the aristocracy or to coerce revenue enhancements upon them. Louis did non.

Alternatively France went without revenue enhancement reform.Necker the Gallic fiscal advisor was sacred of the Nobility. This saw him decline to urge revenue enhancement reform. This is apprehensible after the death of Turgot. Necker? s fatal error had been in presenting a loans scheme that saw the public debt rise each twelvemonth.

This put the fiscal state of affairs of the monarchy in a really unstable place.The Aristocrats were denouncing the monarchy? s tyranny. The Nobility was long discouraged by their loss of rights. They worked back into environing the monarchy with themselves in places of power. The particular concern of the Lords was to see that the King did non present revenue enhancement reform. They wanted more political power to do certain events like this did non go on.

While they denounced the monarchy? s tyranny they wanted to put up their ain signifier of it.The Bourgeoisie besides attacked it ; they besides attacked privileges of the Nobility. For centuries the Bourgeoisie had accepted a place of societal lower status to the aristocracy.

Due to the increasing monopoly that the aristocracy were keeping on privileges and the Bourgeoisie? s ain improving conditions this caused many Bourgeoisie to contemn the nobility. They besides despised the tyranny of the monarchy. They had been the most influenced by the Disposition of head.

The character of Louis besides played an of import function. It was good known that Louis was more concerned with his ain personal involvements than in the involvements of the State and Court. Often this bored him and he left his work up to his advisors and curates. Or even worse he would do headlong determinations that would do even worse effects in France.

In Addition, Marie Antoinette held great power over Louis. Often she stood in the manner of his proposed reforms by speaking him out of it. It was good known that she had talked him into firing Turgot, who may hold been able to forestall the revolution through his economic reforms. She was besides hated by a batch of the population due to her foreign birth. This did non assist her later when she was executed. Her pleasance loving besides talked Louis into disbursement excessive sums on the tribunal and her.Louis XVI should hold been capable of get the better ofing his jobs with the Aristocracy.

His powerful place should hold allowed him to coerce revenue enhancement reform onto the aristocracy. He besides should ne’er hold allowed himself to name the Estates-General. Alternatively he should hold introduced mild reforms to additions the support of the populace once more. Then he could make, as he wanted. If he had of been a stronger individual he besides would non hold been as easy influenced by the aristocracy, his advisors or his married woman.A few reforms would hold prevented Louis from citing the Estates General.

Alternatively this encouraged farther unfavorable judgment of the Ancien government and provided stronger force against tyranny in France. This was the beginning of the terminal for Louis.Bitter struggle between the categories over the signifier it should take provided farther jobs. The Third estate wanted a ballot by caput count. They besides wanted to duplicate their Numberss so that they would hold a bulk. Louis agreed to duplicate their representation but non their vote counts.

On July 14th, 1789, A Paris crowd stormed the Bastille. This proved to be a important event in the revolution. The Bastille had long been regarded as a symbol of political subjugation. Here people were sent when they had opposed the Ancien Regime. The Bastille was ab initio approached for the gunpowder it held. In confusion nevertheless shootings were fired and the immense Crown stormed the Bastille. This demonstrated that the capital was in the Revolutionaries custodies and the Kings regiments were withdrawn.

The Paris Commune was established and the National Assembly continued to run into with the realisation that they needed to run into the demands of the multitudes. The Law of the Lamppost was used during this period. Profiteers, blue bloods, authorities functionaries and army officers were all hung from lampposts.The flight of the? migr? s followed these events.

Most of the? migr? s went to the sympathetic states such as Austria, Russia and Britain. They hoped to derive support from Russian and Austrian military personnels and German Princes. The Austrian Emperor and Prussian King threatened war if Louis XVI was harmed.On July 13th 1789 there had been formed the Paris Commune ( Municipal council ) and the National Guard.

The National Guard was comprised of 200 work forces from the six different subdivisions of Paris. They were under the bid of the Marquis de Lafayette. The units of the National Guard were responsible to the municipal councils. These new councils were strongly bourgeoisie and were interested in protecting belongings from crowd force.

This gave the middle class a radical force to utilize as a reserves and police organisation. It was designed to settle the rioting of the popular multitudes. Lafayette tried to protect the fundamental law from both the King and the rabble.

The first clip the National Guard saw action was on the 14th of July 1791 when the Guard fired on a Crown in the Champs de Mars and 50 were killed.On the Night of the 4th of August the National Assembly met and the abolishment of feudal system was brought approximately. Cryings accompanied this as many of the members of the National Assembly gave up their privileges and looked towards equality.

All freedoms from revenue enhancement, all feudal dues and tithes, tolls and pensions were abolished.On the 26th of August 1789, the National Assembly issued the Declaration of the Rights of Men. The intent of this papers was to bring forth equality within France and to get rid of the category system that was prevailing in France. This meant that a adult male could accomplish high position despite his parenthood. Harmonizing to the Declaration all citizens had the right to make up one’s mind what revenue enhancements should be levied and how public gross should be spent. Other cardinal human rights included freedom of address, freedom of the imperativeness, spiritual autonomy and freedom from improper apprehension or imprisonment. Therefore the Declaration was basically a democratic papers.

It proclaimed the sovereignty of the people.On the 5th of October 1789 a group of 7000 hungering work forces and adult females marched on the tribunal at Versailles. They were traveling to inquire the King for some staff of life. They camped outside the castle. That dark some adult females broke into the castle and attempted to slay Marie Antoinette. She escaped and ran to the Kings room. The encroachers stopped here, as the King was still considered sacred. Lafayette prevented any bloodshed by guaranting that the King returned to Paris with the rabble.

Here Louis became a practical captive in the Palace of Tuileries.The National Assembly reformed the local authorities system. France was divided into 83 sections. Each of these had the same Torahs, imposts, weights and steps. Internal Tariffs were besides abolished in France. This greatly improved the economic system of France. It besides presented the state with more equality and abolished the certain privileged countries of France. The chief jobs were that the Government failed to hold a clear connexion to the Local Governments and besides the Local authoritiess barely had any gross therefore taking to bankruptcies.

The System of Justice was besides reformed under the National Assembly. This allowed for unfastened public tests and the abolishment of the despised Lettres de Cachet. This allowed for the trails of all people in the same tribunal. Before the assembly they had been conducted in different tribunals depending on category. Fanciful offenses such as unorthodoxy and thaumaturgy were abolished. There was a tribunal of concluding entreaty for civil and condemnable instances and a high tribunal for instances of lese majesty.The imperativeness was now free to knock etc. The freedom of the imperativeness was absolute and this led to it going a signifier of propaganda.

It was instrumental in the rise of chief figures such as Robespierre and Danton.Early on in 1789 radical commissions of crewmans and soldiers were formed. This frequently caused struggle with the regular ground forces and naval forces. In February 1790 the forces were made responsible to the National Assembly. This efficaciously took from Louis any opportunity of utilizing the military to recover his place of influence.On the dark of the 2oth of June 1791 the King and his household attempted to get away to the friendly boundary lines of Austria. This was encouraged by Marie Antoinette and was aided by her friend Count Axel de Fersen.

They were nevertheless caught and returned to Paris. The King before go forthing had left behind a declaration that complained of his deficiency of powers. He besides condemned the work of the Revolution. Paris received him in silence when he returned.

The Republican motion gathered great strength after this event. On the 16th of July the Government passed a edict rhenium? instating the King despite protests.The Constitution of 1791 established 6 chief points:1.Hereditary Constitutional Monarchy2.A parliament consisting of a individual elected chamber ( the Legislative Assembly ) . 3.There was to be a separate executive ( with no power to do Torahs )4.All Judgess were to be elected5.

? Cliff-hanging? veto for the King6.The franchise was to be given to all that paid revenue enhancements tantamount to 3 yearss rewards or more.Self-denying Ordinance refers to the determination that the current members of the National Assembly could non go members of the Legislative Assembly. The fundamental law was non popular to many in France dice to the limited franchise.

This meant that virtually merely the property-owning categories qualified for this.Why France became involved in War:A ) Attitudes of oppositions of the RevolutionB ) European Monarchs hated and feared the revolution. The interrelatednesss of the Royal households of Europe made certain they remained reasonably close. Therefore they supported each other in their several Royal households. When France presented the thought of get rid ofing tyranny and finally the monarchy the European sovereign became fearful that this would distribute to their states. Both Emperor Leopold II ( Austrian Emperor and brother to Marie Antoinette ) and Frederick William II ( King of Prussia ) issued the Declaration of Pillnitz which vouched to reconstruct the old order within France.

They promised to establish a counter-revolution greatly influenced by the Gallic emigrants.C ) Attitude of the RevolutionistsD ) The Girondin Advocates for war progressively put force per unit area on the Legislative Assembly to declare war on Austria and Prussia. The Girondins and Jacobins were the groups in the Assembly. They did non keep a bulk at the Assembly? s formation. This lead to the Legislative Assembly showing Austria and Prussia with a set of demands.

When these were refused the Girondins gained even more support in their calls for war.The war was seen as a manner to distribute the radical cause to all parts of Europe. This missional ardor to distribute the philosophy of autonomy, equality and fraternity made certain the Gallic had great enthusiasm. It was besides seen as a opportunity to unbrace all of the Gallic people under one streamer.

Many of the members of the Legislative Assembly believed that France would unify underone streamer to support itself.On April twentieth 1792, the Gallic Legislative Assembly charged Austria with plotting aggression and declared war, get downing the first? War of the Peoples? in the modern universe. This was followed by a Gallic invasion of the Austrian Netherlands and two months subsequently the King of Prussia joined Austria in the battle against France.The Gallic Forces were rapidly overcome by the Austrian Forces in Belgium and were driven back into France. The Duke of Brunswick that issued a pronunciamento stating that Paris would be burnt to the land if the Royal household were hurt.

This infuriated the people as it gave the feeling that they had collaborated with the invading Armies. This turned the balance in Paris towards the groups. This saw the replacing of the middle class dominated Paris Commune and saw it replaced with a extremist dominated Commune. This lead to the invasion of the Tuileries by Georges Danton and his protagonists.On the 10th of August a crowd of 10 000 invaded the Tuileries and killed the Swiss Guard.

Louis XVI escaped and asked for the protection of the Legislative Assembly. They suspended him as sovereign and locked him and his household in a prison known as the tower. This went against the Fundamental law and it saw the terminal of the Legislative Assembly. The Assembly had remained a futile organic structure and it had failed to accomplish any of its purposes to maintain order.

This saw the constitution of a new authorities called the National Convention. This new convention was to be elected by cosmopolitan right to vote. Danton? s forming work forces and laborers supplied the ground forces with work forces and arms.

This enabled Dumouriez to get the better of Brunswick at Valmy ( September 20th 1792 ) . It was on the 21st of September that the Republic was proclaimed. This was besides the start of the Revolutionary calendar.The Convention and it? s Committee of Public SafetyIn the first hebdomad of September there was a call to weaponries by Danton to the Parisian rabble. They marched away to support France. All those suspected of being against the revolution and being held in prison were besides massacred. The slaughters were initiated by the comite? de surveillance of the Paris Commune under the leading of Dr.

Paul Marat. Marat joined Robespierre and Danton in a triumvirate dedicated to the constitution of a proletarian democracy.The chief external force per unit areas came from the new alliance formed by the European Monarchs. This included Austria, Prussia, Great Britain, Spain, Russia, Sardinia, Tuscany, the Netherlands Republic and the provinces of the Holy Roman Empire.

Lazare Carnot, an organisational mastermind, organized the conscripted ground forcess of France. They drove back this menace of the enemy. Any General who lost a conflict was executed, as it was thought they were a treasonist to the Republic. Within France the Committee dispatched the ground forces to oppress the monarchist rebellions and instituted the Reign of Terror.With the commission of Public Safety a radical court was besides set up. The Revolutionary court was to seek counter revolutionists.

Then the Committee developed a new policy that involved the usage of the guillotine across France. Many were killed, most from the nobility classes or those that were of wealth. The Committee was in favor of imposed equality by direct democracy, penalty and force. The closure by compartment was the scythe of equality, the people? s axe.

There was the debut of the? Law of Suspects? . This Law allowed of the apprehension of those that were believed to hold opposed the revolution. The Law of the Maximum was besides introduced which allowed for the scene of monetary value ceilings. The Jacobin dominated Committee slackly followed the demands of the Sans-Culottes. This allowed for greater popularity. They were good known as supporting the hapless.

When Danton believed that the external and internal menaces had been dealt with he called for an terminal to the panic. Robespierre had him and his closest followings executed. This shocked many of the centrists within the convention as they thought if Danton was non safe who would be. They labeled Robespierre a terrorist and he was executed on July 28th 1794.

With the passing of military danger, the desire appeared for a relaxation of these exigency steps. The Jacobins were outvoted in the Convention and Robespierre accused and executed. The Jacobins were so outlawed, and the & # 8220 ; Terror & # 8221 ; officially ended. The Committee of Public Safety had been successful in doing some era reforms.

These included set uping the metric system of weights and steps, get rid ofing Negro bondage and establishing civilization Centres such as libraries and art galleries that were unfastened to the multitudes. The Convention so abolished the Committee of Public Safety after the autumn of Robespierre and besides the Revolutionary Courts.The Convention so formed the Fundamental law of Year III ( Year III of the Revolutionary Calendar ) . This included:? A Directory, or executive, of five managers, who were to keep the main executive office in bend? A ) Parliament dwelling of two Houses? B ) The Council of Five Hundred? C ) The Council of Elders? D ) limited franchise ( like the one in 1791 ) .This signified a return to the protection and support of the Bourgeoisie. It was a move off from the multitudes and the provincials. This besides brought an terminal to the experiment of democratic authorities in France.

On the proclamation of this fundamental law there were aggregate rebellions. These were stopped by Napoleon. Napoleon was going more and more popular with the Convention for his suppression of these attempted putsch vitamin D? etat.Another job had arisen though as the Second Coalition was formed. This included Britain, Russia, Turkey, Austria and Naples. Napoleon interim was fostering his popularity with the success of his Italian Campaign and his Egyptian Campaign.The period of 1795 to 1799 was marked with attempted putschs and rebellions.

However the Directory was able to go on in Government as it had the backup of the armed forces. If this backup were to of all time be removed the Directory would discontinue to be. A concluding putsch was organized by Napoleon Bonaparte.

On returning to France in 1799 he joined with three of the Directors in a confederacy to take control. His three Director confederates resigned and the staying two were arrested. When the council of seniors did non welcome him with gap weaponries he secured the authorities edifices with his ground forces. A partial council of his friends were formed and voted Bonaparte and two others as impermanent consuls. This was the start of the Consulate Government.

The first undertaking of Napoleon was to free the menace if the Second Coalition. For this he marched his ain ground forcess against them. Contending his 2nd Italian Campaign he inflicted a licking on Austria at Marengo in 1800.

General Moreau defeated the Austrians at Hohenlinden. Russia hurriedly withdrew organize the alliance and the Austrian emperor agreed to peace. Then the Peace of Amiens was achieved with Britain in 1802. This got rid of the external menaces for the clip being.Bonaparte than worked on reorganising France and shuting the Revolution.

While working towards this: 😕 Local authoritiess were made more efficient and became extremely centralized.? The? Code of Napoleon? was instituted? The Concordant was signed with the Vatican? France reverted back to the Christian Calendar? Education was placed under a cardinal controlThese alterations made certain some of the good points of the Revolution were carried on. These included the abolishment of the feudal system and the old category order. It besides kept and guaranteed the land colonies of the Revolution and gained for Napoleon the support of the peasantry and the clergy.

The costs of all these reforms affected all Frenchmen. Personal Liberty disappeared ; the imperativeness was censored ; the schools and Church taught trueness to Napoleon ; the secrets police imprisoned or murdered Napoleon? s enemies. Napoleon claimed Frenchman merely wanted glorification, aggressive Patriotism and demagogic leading. ? I sealed the gulf of lawlessness and unraveled pandemonium. I purified the Revolution and strengthened the monarchy? .

Napoleon so started enlarging ports and docks and the British took this as an offense and disregarded the Peace of Amiens. In 1805 Britain formed the 3rd alliance incorporating Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria. Napoleon defeated the Austrians at Ulm on the 15th of October 1805 and he entered Vienna. The British naval commanding officer Lord Nelson destroyed his fleets in the ports of Spain and France. This ruined any opportunity of Napoleon occupying Britain.By winning the conflicts at Austerlitz on the 2nd of December, 1805, Jena, Averstadt and Friedland in June of 1807, Napoleon defeated the Austrian, Prussian and Russian Armies. Austria accepted the Peace of Pressburg and Russia the Treaty of Tilsit.

In 1807 Russian and France became Allies. Napoleon improved his substructure to do runs more efficient.The Continental Blockade was issued after the Berlin Decree that stated no British ships could merchandise with Europe. This was followed by a counter encirclement.

This greatly affected France more and this was abandoned in 1813. By 1810 the Gallic Empire had reached its biggest place.Napoleon so failed in his run s in Portugal and Spain. Austria encouraged by Spanish success rose in rebellion in 1809. They were crushed in and in the Treaty Napoleon demanded the manus of the Austrian emperor Marie & # 8211 ; Louise. IN 1811 Napoleon suffered a humiliating licking in Russia. Prussia besides rose in rebellion and was crushed.

However Austria and Russia joined forces and defeated Napoleon at Leipzig. On April 14th 1814 Napoleon abdicated and was banished to the Island of Elba. Ten months subsequently he returned but was defeated by British Prussian forces on the 18th of June at Waterloo.The Importance of NapoleonThe Good:? His early triumphs saved France? He established jurisprudence and order in France? He established national integrity under a twine centralised authorities? He made lasting some of the additions of the Revolution.

For illustration legal equality, land colony and the sections for the local authorities? Organized France into a twine incorporate province eg. Concordat, Code of Napoleon, Bank of France? European Countries were affected by get rid ofing category privileges and distributing patriotism.The Bad? His wars continually drained France? They cause a great loss of life and devastation? His Continental system dislocated trade and industry? Private involvements and rights became low-level to the EmperorNapoleon thought that the lone manner he could be respected was to continually convey back glorification through his military runs. The followers is a list of those things that occurred due to or during the Revolution which had a considerable impact on Gallic Society or the World.Immediate Effect on France of Napoleon? s Defeat at WaterlooWith the licking of Napoleon at Waterloo, there was a return of the Bourbons to the throne with Louis XVIII.

All of Napoleon is conquerings were lost by France and divided among those states of the alliance that defeated France. Economically the wars had crushed France and left industry and commercialism in ruins. This ruined France? s chance to equal Britain? s industrial power.Politically the alliance who had defeated France demanded a return to the old swayers and construction within France. This saw the in-between categories fight bitterly to keep their basic legal and political rights.

It was non until 1870 that France would once more go a Republic.The Gallic Revolution summed up the whole Anti? Feudal procedure in Europe by fleetly seting an terminal to all the feudal privileges, Torahs and establishments in France. With Napoleons conquest the Anti-Feudalism Process was spread farther through Europe.

This was made Napoleons conquerings easier as the provincials of the states were happy to see the terminal of Feudalism. After Napoleons defeat nevertheless most of Europe restored some of the feudal revenue enhancements and this undid the work of Napoleon and the Revolution.The Bourgeoisie economically benefited the most from the Revolution. First they secured the abolishment of revenue enhancement unfairnesss within the Ancien Regime. Tax Privileges were abolished, so were corrupt taxing methods, local and provincial tolls, revenue enhancements on legal and market minutess, indirect revenue enhancements on goods and the rough system of revenue enhancement supervising which hampered the growing of industry and commercialism.

The Revolution besides established a unvarying criterion of weights and steps. This was the metric system. The Government besides helped set up protective duties for Gallic industries.The Revolution continued the procedure of Emancipating the Serfs and making peasant owners. France emerged as holding the richest provincials in Europe.

Their land additions gave them wealth and power. Therefore the provincials became conservativists in Gallic Politicss.To the workers and non-land proprietors the Revolution did non truly profit them. They were still non allowed to vote or organize trade brotherhoods. Their on the job conditions still could non be negotiated. This may explicate why there was later a Revolution against the Bourgeoisie.In its first triumph the Revolution had put an terminal to tyranny in France. Alternatively of the? Godhead right of the Kings? there was the? will of the people? .

This was understood to intend restricting the powers of Government through a fundamental law and secondly electing an assembly and parliaments. Free address, freedom of the imperativeness and freedom to organize political parties were seen as basic human rights even though they did non truly exist after Napoleon established a absolutism. Universal Suffrage was started and so abandoned rapidly. Political Autonomies won by the revolution led to a constitutional parliament but non a democracy. The Revolution had provided one democratic election ( National Assembly, and non for adult females ) and this would be remembered throughout Gallic History.

The Revolution brought an terminal to privileges and the category system. Everybody came under the same jurisprudence and revenue enhancement. Promotion became unfastened to talent and citizens were equal before the jurisprudence. Neither the new set of Nobles nor the returned set in 1815 could pull out the same privileges present in the Ancien Regime? s aristocracy.

The actions and thoughts of the Gallic Revolution have been keenly studied by political theoreticians. They have arrived at three different decisions about which type of authorities should hold resulted:? Democratic parliamentary authorities is the best solution and it leads to endless reforms? That another revolution is necessary to derive the societal justness that the Bourgeoisie denied to the lower categories. This thought was to be embraced by socialist and ulterior Communists.? That good authorities can be expected merely from a leader Genius like Napoleon.

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