Drumhead British History Essay, Research Paper
Chapter 1 The foundation Rocks
Britain is an Island and its history has been closely connected to the sea. The seas saved Britain from danger. Strong national sense have been developed by the sea.
Britain? s prehistoric culture
Britain has non ever been an island. The ice age wasn? t one cold period. Our first grounds of human life is a few rock tools, dating from 250.000 BC.
Britain was barely habitable until another milder period around 50.000 BC. During this period, a new type of homo seemed to hold arrived. They look similar to normal people, but they were smaller and had a life span of lone 30 old ages.
Around 10.000 BC Britain was peopled by groups of huntsmans, gatherers and fishers.
Around 5.000 BC, Britain has become an island.
There were several encroachers:
? The first people to occupy were people from either Spain or north-africa. They were little and dark and knew how to do clayware.
? After 2400 BC new groups of people arrived in Britain, they were round-headed and strongly built. They became leaders of British society.
? Around 700 BC They Celts arrived in Britain, They came from cardinal Europe and they were technically advanced. They could do arms from Iron. These are the ascendants of many of the people in Scotland, Wales, Ireland and Cornwall. Last Gaelic reachings were the Belgian Tribes.
? The Romans arrived in 55 BC. They brought the accomplishments of reading and composing to Britain. The Romans could non suppress Scotland.
? The Anglo-Saxons Invaded in the 5th century AD.
? The Vikings in 865 Ad
The Romans had a good influence on British life, The people learned how to talk Latin/ Greek and learned how to compose. The Romans came to Britain because they could utilize the British nutrient for their ground forces with the Gauls.
Most obvious feature were the towns, They were the bases of Roman civilization.
There were three different sort of towns in Roman Britain.
? Coloniae: Towns settled by Roman colonists
? Municipia: Large metropoliss in which all dwellers were given Roman citizenship.
? Civitas: Included the old Celtic tribal Capitals
London was twice the size of Paris and the most of import trading Centre of Northern Europe, because Britain produced so much maize for export.
The biggest alteration during the Roman business was the growing of big farms called? Villas? . Roman life seemed civilized, but it was besides difficult if you were hapless. The life anticipation was merely 20 old ages.
Chapter 2 The Saxon Invasion
The encroachers came from powerful Germanic folk.
? The SaxonsSettled in the remainder of England.
? The Angles Settled in the East
? The JutesSettled in chiefly Kent and along the south seashore
They gave the England of modern times her name. It was the portion they had settled in Britain.
The Anglo-Saxon left small of Gaelic civilization in England. There are merely two metropoliss: London and Leeds and some rivers: Thames.
Government and society
The Saxons created establishments which made the English province strong for the following 5oo old ages.
One of them was the King? s council, the Witan. It issued Torahs and orders. Nowadays the male monarch still has a toilet council, based on the Witan.
The Saxons divided the land into counties ( Shire is the Saxon word for county ) . They besides changed the agribusiness in Britain. They introduced a new Big Dipper which was far more better than the Celtic 1.
The husbandmans had to work together, because they had to portion land and instruments with each other. This made a new signifier of colonies. To do this work they had several Torahs and ordinances.
? Each territory had a? manor? , The villagers paid their revenue enhancements here and work forces met here to fall in the? fyrd? , The Anglo-Saxon ground forces.
? The Aldermen were the local functionaries, but they changed to warlords. The name was changed to Earl. A Danish name. They are both still used in the ground forces.
In the Celtic countries, Christianity began to distribute, because it was forbidden in the Anglo-Saxon portion.
Not Augustine, but the Celtic church brought Christianity to the normal people. Bishops went from small town to village to state about their faith. They were besides accepted in Anglo-Saxon small towns, in malice of the difference.
Saxon male monarchs helped the church become large, but the church besides increased the power of male monarchs. They gave their male monarch support and made it harder for Royal power to be questioned. It was different from now, an eldest boy did non go king automatically.
The power of the church was besides increased by the monasteries. They trained the work forces who could read and compose.
The Vikings invaded in 865 AD. They accepted Christianity rapidly and did non upset the local population. King Alfred won a conflict against the Vikings in 878, and eight old ages subsequently he captured London. He was smart plenty to do a pact with the Vikings.
Alfred was recognised as a male monarch.
Who should be king?
The Saxon male monarch, Ethelred decided to pay the Vikings to remain off. He asked money from his people ( revenue enhancements ) It was the beginning of the revenue enhancement system.
Edward ( the confessor ) , who was the boy of Ethelred, was more interested in the church, than in being male monarch.
Edward died in 1066 without an inheritor. The inquiry who should be king is of import in British History.
Harold was chosen to be male monarch, He had no Royal blood. His right to the throne was challenged by the Duke of Normandy. Harold was faced by two dangers:
? The French in the North
? The Danish in the South
He defeated the Danish, but got killed in the conflict of Hastings by the Gallic. Duke William became male monarch.
Chapter 3 The Celtic lands.
The Celts were driven in to Waless, they called themselves Welshman? fellow countrymen? . Life in Wales was unsafe and bloody. Almost all male monarchs got killed by a Welshman.
In 1039 Gruffydd ap Llewelyn was the first Welsh male monarch to govern all over Wales.
Ireland was ne’er invaded by the Anglo-saxons or the Romans. They had their ain Gaelic civilization. Kings were chosen by election. Christianity came to England about AD 430, which is the beginning of Irelands history.
Scotland was populated by different groups ;
? The Picts ; The chief group/ lived in the North and northeast/ spoke Gaelic
? The non-Pictish/ chiefly Scots who moved to the Highlandss from Ireland in the Fourth century.
? The Britons/ lived in the Lowlandss.
The early center ages
Chapter 4 conquering and feudal regulation
The Norman conquering
William was crowned male monarch, his conquering had merely merely begun. Merely the Saxon Lords who accepted William wholly from the get downing kept their land, the others lost everything.
William gave the land to his Norman Lords.
William was smart in giving off land. He gave his Lords and ground forcess land in different parts of Britain, so they couldn? t gather work forces easy to get down a rebellion.
At the same clip he kept adequate land himself to do certain was stronger. He kept the Saxon system of sherrifs.
Feudalism came from the Gallic word feu. It means that all the land belongs to the King, but there are several Godheads who look after it. In return for goods.
William decided to do an overview of his land and the value of it. This was no really popular, because everyone felt they could non get away this.
Kingship: a household concern
When William died he left the Duchy of Normandy to his Elder boy, Robert. He gave England to his 2nd boy, William. When William died, their younger brother Henry acted rapidly and took over the throne. Robert was really angry and decided to occupy England, but it took him over a twelvemonth to garner an ground forces.
The Norman Lords had to take between Henry and Robert. They chose Henry, because he was already in London, with a Crown on his caput.
In 1106 Henry invaded Normandy and defeated Robert. England and normandy were now under the same swayer.
Henry? s boy died and he had no other boies so he left everything to his girl Matilda. He married her to a Gallic baronial. When H died, His nephew Stephen did the same thing as him and raced to England to take the Throne. Matilda invaded four old ages subsequently, with the consequence of a civil war. Matilda eventually accepted Stephen as a male monarch, but when he died he would hold to go forth the throne to her boy.
Stephen died merely one twelvemonth subsequently, and England was ruled by a male monarch accepted by everyone, Henry II.
He married Eleanor of Aquitaine and he besides ruled Anjou. His imperium stretched from the Pyreneess to the Borders of Scotland.
Henry quarrelled with his married woman and his two boies took the side of their female parent. Henry died in 1189, defeated by his boies. Richard followed his male parent. He has ever been one of Englands most popular male monarchs.
Richard the lionhearted was captured by the duke of Austria on his return from the holy land. The Duke demanded money and it took England two old ages to pay. Richard was killed in France in 1199 and the Gallic male monarch took over Richard? s portion of France.
Richard had no boy, so his brother John followed him. John wasn? T popular because he was greedy.
He made a batch of money by raising revenue enhancements and pay
In 1204 John had become less popular by neglecting to protect his Lords? land against France.
In 1209 John quarrelled with the Catholic Pope. The Catholic Pope asked the male monarch of France to occupy England and closed every church in England. Finally in 1214 John gave in.
In 1215 John hoped to recapture Normandy, but his Lords lost their trust in him and did non desire to contend.
Magna Carta and the diminution of feudal system
John was forced to subscribe a new understanding called magna carta. This promised protection for all freewomans. It was non for the full population, because the Lords merely thought for themselves.
Magna Carta was recognized by every male monarch after John and was used until the 16th century.
Chapter 5 The power of the male monarchs of England
Church and province
John? s reign marked the terminal of the battle between Church and province. This battle was for both power and money. The Church wanted the male monarchs of Europe to accept its authorization over both religious and earthly personal businesss and argued that even male monarchs were answerable to God. Kings on the other manus, chose bishops as work forces who could be loyal to them.
The beginnings of parliament
John died in 1216. His boy Henry III was merely nine old ages old and tied to magna carta, He was ruled by Lords for the first 16 old ages.
Henry was able to govern at 25. He spent tonss of money and the Lords were upset. Under the leading of one of the Gallic Lords parliament was founded in 1258. It forced Henry to acquire rid of his foreign advisors.
Henry died in 1272 and his boy Edward took over the throne.
Edward I brought the first existent parliament together.. He besides created the house of parks ( representative establishment ) , which could supply the money he needed.
The house of parks was a mixture of dwellers of Britain. All common people.
Covering with the Kelts
Edward I was less interested in conveying back France than unifying Britain under his control. In 1284 Edward united west Cymrus with England.
Ireland was conquered by Norman Lords in 1169. They had small job get the better ofing the Irish male monarchs and folks.
HenryII went to Ireland himself to guarantee his Godheads would non go to independent.
He made Dublin the capitol of his new settlement. The English Crown merely ruled Dublin and a little environing country called? the picket? .
In Scotland things were really different. They were stronger than the Welshman and they had their ain male monarch who ruled most of Scotland. This male monarch was to powerful and most English male monarchs did non seek to get the better of him, but Edward I was different.
In 1290 there was a crises. There were 13 inheritors to the throne. Robert Bruce and John de Balliol were both Norman-Scottish knights. They invited Edward to avoid civil war. Edward was willing to assist if they would accept him as their master.
He put John de Balliol on the throne, but it was no succes, the Scots Lords rebelled against him.
William Wallace, a Scots knight rebelled against Edward and was rather succesful, but Edward excecuted Wallace and it seemed he had won after all. Robert Bruce was the new leader of the motion. Edward died in 1307. He tried to hammer down the Scots, but hammered patriotism in the Scots alternatively.
Edward II, his boy went back to England and Robert Bruce managed to go male monarch of Scotland.
Chapter 6 Government and society
The growing of authorities
The signifier of authorities changed when England had besides captured France and the usual manner wasn? t really good anymore. They needed one cardinal point and it is still there in Westminster. The male monarch kept all records in Westminster. The functionaries in Westminster had to maintain an oculus on the economic system of the state and the male monarchs? demands. Government disposal kept a transcript of each missive they had sent and had grown tremendously since William I.
Law and justness
Every Godhead had his ain Torahs for their land, merely for serious offenses there was a male monarch? s tribunal. Henry I introduced that all offenses should be punished every bit. The male monarch easy took over the power of the Lords.
By the terminal of the 12th century there were work forces educated for this intent and they were experts on jurisprudence and order. England had a different jurisprudence system from the remainder of Europe which still used the Roman Torahs. Britain introduced a jury to make up one’s mind whether a adult male was guilty or guiltless These early juries are different from now. The accused adult male could take twelve neighbors or friends to convict he was guiltless.
This changed and attorneies were introduced to steer the jury, which had no sense of jurisprudence at all.
The Churches in small towns were different from the Church the male monarch had to cover with. Most priests were married and gave their place to their boies when they died.
This changed. Priests weren? T allowed to acquire married and inmates were founded for nuns and monastics who were willing to maintain this promise.
In the 13th century mendicants were brought up. They existed of sermonizers who went from small town to village, they were interested in the normal psyche and lived with the hapless.
Ordinary people in state and town
Life in the countryside was difficult. Work force had to work all their lives until they were unable to work any longer.
The hapless were divided from their Masterss by the feudal category system. See page 37.
The growing of towns as Centres of wealth ( see page 38 )
Language, literature and civilization ( see page 41 )
Chapter 7 The late center ages
War with Scotland and France
Scotland and France became Alliess, to protect themselves from England. France tried to do England less powerful, by act uponing the trade with other states.
England declared the war to France, because they could non afford to lose their trade with Flanders ( Belgium ) .
Edward III declared the war in 1337, claiming the right to the Gallic Throne. The war did non stop until 1453 and England lost all Gallic belongings except for Calais.
At foremost there was peace after this war, but the combat started once more in the 15th century.
The age of gallantry
Code of gallantry = the manner a perfect knight should act.
Chivalry was a utile manner of carrying immature work forces to contend by making the thought that war was a baronial and glorious thing. They could profit from it, but normally, war was nil more than inhuman treatment and decease. The black prince was feared in France for its inhuman treatment.
The century of pestilences
The twelvemonth 1348 brought the pestilence ( black decease ) It wasn? t the first natural catastrophe and it wasn? t the last. One tierce of Britain? s population died. There were more pestilences after this which killed most the immature and the healthy. After the Black decease there were so few workers left, they could inquire for a higher wage. This led to the terminal of serfhood.
Life became more agreable after this, even for provincials.
Tonss of Flanders came to England after the industry collapsed at that place. They came to seek for work encouraged by Edward III.
The hapless in Revolt
When Edward III died his grandson Richard II became king. He was really immature and advisers decided to inquire revenue enhancements for every individual above 15. After the 3rd clip ordinary people in the metropoliss started rebellions and refused to pay. The adult male who made this up Wat Tyler got killed and Richard II met the peoples wants and made peace. He did non implement the revenue enhancement, but he did non give them more rights.
Heresy and Orthodoxy
The Church wasn? T popular, because of its greed. Priests and Monks lived in wealth. They besides became cognizant of their Englishness and the Catholic Pope was a alien. They were convinced that their revenue enhancements helped the Gallic, because the Catholic Pope was populating in France.
The Church besides had to much power. Religious leaders were frequently Chancellor of the Exchequers of the male monarch.
Another menace was the spread of spiritual Hagiographas and there was one adult male who decided everyone should be able to read the bible so he translated it into English.
Chapter 8 The crisis of Kings and Lords
The crisis of kingship
During the 14th century there was a uninterrupted battle between the male monarch and his Lords.
1327- king Edward II got killed. His boy Edward III was merely 11 old ages old.
Richard II had made himself really unpopular by his pick of advisers. He imprisoned John of Gaunt 3rd boy of Edward III, he died in prison. Henry of Lancaster, took retaliation and Richard was put down. Henry IV became king. He divided the state in two parts, Lancastrians and Yorkists.
Cymrus in Revolt
Owain Glyndwr was the first and merely prince to be widely supported in Wales. He descended from two royal households and created the thought of a Welsh state. He wasn? T strong plenty to get the better of the English, beut he created a feeling of national individuality.
The battle in France
When Henry IV died he passed the throne to his boy Henry V, The land was peaceable and united. Henry V became one of England? s most darling male monarchs.
Henry V won back most of France and married the Gallic male monarch? s girl Katherine of Valois. He was seen as the inheritor of France, but he died earlier than the male monarch.
His nine month old boy inherited the thrones of England and France.
England fought France to enlarge its land, but they were defeated twice by the Gallic and lost everything except Calais.
It & # 8217 ; s non a complete sum-up of the book, but the first few chapters are at that place & # 8230 ;
illustrated history of United Kingdom