Stigmata Essay Research Paper What are stigmata
Stigmata Essay, Research PaperWhat are stigmata and can it happen to anyone? Can it go on to you or person you know? When does it go on? Is this phenomenon true or merely another fraud? What happens to person who is considered a stigmatic? What precisely is a stigmatic?Stigmata is the self-generated duplicated lesions that Christ received during crucifixion ( Nickell, 219 ) . The lesions that one receives are the lesions that resemble the lesions Jesus Christ suffered in crucifixion. The lesions of Stigmata are supposable inflicted by a supernatural force ( Microsoft Encarta ) .There are two types of Stigmata: seeable and unseeable. The unseeable are wounds that the victim can experience tormenting them ; but no 1 can see them.
Visible stigmata are wounds that can be seen by others ( Freze, 35 ) . The lesions that one receives can be of the custodies ( or carpuss ) , pess, brow, back, side, and shoulder. The most common of the lesions for one to have are the lesions of the custodies or carpuss. The lesions of the pess, brow, and the side are less common. Some stigmatists have besides claimed that their bosom has been & # 8220 ; wounded & # 8221 ; or it has formed into a mystical, Christian object such as a cross ( Nickell, 219 ) .Some & # 8220 ; brides of Christ & # 8221 ; have reported to hold a ring inexplicably appear or form on their ring finger or the index ( Nickell, 219 ) . Some stigmatists have reported to hold a ring given to them from Lord as a mark of their religious matrimony with him. Some & # 8220 ; brides & # 8221 ; have said that they could see the ring, but no 1 else could see what they were explicating.
The & # 8220 ; brides & # 8221 ; described their rings as a aureate set with a diamond or two ( Freze, 52 ) . The rings they were explicating were similar engagement rings we see in jewellery shops. The ring may be wholly unseeable to others, or they may be able to see the reddening of the tegument ( Freze, 52 ) . In most instances, the & # 8220 ; pealing & # 8221 ; is a thickener and reddening of the tegument. The tegument will take the form of a nuptials set ( Nickell, 219 ) .The lesions of people who receive stigmata vary. Some lesions of the side could be on the right or left side.
Some lesions could go on in the thenar or carpuss. The form of the lesions varies a great trade besides. The lesions could be punctures that are round, directly, a crescent- form, or a cross-shaped ( Source 4 ) .
The lesions can be a reddening of the tegument, a bloody boss ( as if it is a rough cicatrix ) or, deep lesions that you can see through ( Nickell, 220: Freze ) . Freze says that some stigmata victims claim that a lesion is cutting into their bosom. Some of the lesions on the bosom can be images of the cross, Crown of irritants, nails of the crucifixion, or nervousnesss that are in the form of the spear ( 37 ) . St.
Clare of Montefalco was a stigmata victim that had symbols of the Lord & # 8217 ; s passion etched right into her bosom. She had the caput of Christ, a rood, nails of crucifixion, the Crown of irritants etched into her bosom, and her nervousnesss were in the form of the spear ( Freze, 37 ) . Although, the location of the lesions vary a great trade ; unluckily, there is non any scientific ground that predicts what shape the lesions are traveling to take ( Nickell, 219 ) . Although, there are some surveies that have shown lesions extra by the cross the victims pray upon and the lesions Jesus Christ is demoing on the cross.
If Christ is hanging from his custodies, so the individual will likely hold lesions of their custodies ( Stigmata ) . The gaps of the lesions could look in merely one country of the organic structure or in several countries of the organic structure at the same clip.The lesions of stigmata have said to make many different things. These lesions have been known to give off olfactory property of sweet aromas or flower aromas ( beginning, 3 ) . It has been said that even after the stigmatic is deceased, the sweet olfactory property will linger in their suites and even over their gravesite ( Freze, 53 ) . It seems that the aroma can come from the lesions or can be as if a aroma spray is all over their organic structure.
Sometimes a radiance of a visible radiation has been said to light around the stigmata & # 8217 ; s lesions ( Freze, 44 ) . The sum of blood that pours from these lesions besides varies. Many people have the lesions duplicated on a hebdomadal footing. The clip span is normally Friday to Thursday ( Freze, 35-42 ) .
Then stigmata victims can shed blood up to one 12 cups of blood a twenty-four hours ( Source 4 ) . Some stigmata victims have non bled any, they simply have bloody workout suits ( beginning, 3 ) . Dr. Lefebvre, a professor of medical specialty at Louvain, said that the instances that he examines. The secernment of the liquid is non blood. A ruddy liquid does non organize at a lesion is a secernment of the pores when the pores dilate. He said that the workout suits could come from the stigmatic being in their province of rapture or in high provinces of emotion.
Dr. Lefebvre describes the perspiration as if you were to hold a piece of ruddy confect in your oral cavity ( Source, 3 ) .Who does this go on to? Nickell says this happens to Christians more so than any other individual or group of people ( 219 ) . There have been approximately 321 instances in entire ; 62 saints, and there were 20 stigmata victims in the 19th century ( Source 3 ) .
Major non-Christian faiths do non claim to have lesions that mystically appear upon one without instruments, lesions produced by suggestion or by actions for or from God. Stigmata do non be in both major separated subdivisions of Christianity and even the Christians who do take full credence of crucifixion of Christ. The lesions of Stigmata can go on to adult females every bit good as work forces ( Source 3 ) .So do stigmatists merely bore the lesions of Christ, or are they capable of other supernatural experiences and do they hold side effects of holding Stigmata? Freze says that stigmatists from the yesteryear have been capable of bilocation, have guardian angels who see them on a regular footing, or are capable to convey the dead dorsum to life. Is it true or merely another fraud? Freze says that many victims of Stigmata besides claim that they can see the occurrences of events of the past ( 35-42 ) . Some illustrations are that victims of stigmata claim that they can see as if they were present at the crucifixion of Christ.
They claim to see purgatory, snake pit, or even heaven ( Freze ) . In history, many stigmatists claim to be capable of one or all these experiences. Some side effects that people with stigmata have are the inability to kip visions that may be soothing or horrific.
Ecstatic visions of the life and Passion of Christ, inedias. Freze calls these Supernatural gifts ( 222 ) .The first known reliable stigmatist in Church history was St. Francis of Assisi.
There may hold been others before him though. He was the laminitis of the Franciscan Order. St. Francis of Assisi foremost bore the lesions in 1224. He foremost experienced stigmata when he and some of his & # 8220 ; disciples & # 8221 ; went to Mount Alverno in the Apennines ( Source 3 ) . On September 14th, after 40 yearss of fasting, he had a vision. As described in an earlier work of Francis & # 8217 ; s expressions and Acts of the Apostless:& # 8220 ; He began to contemplate the passion of Christ andhis ferver grew so strong within him that he becameentirely transformed into Jesus through love andcompassion and on this same forenoon, while hewas therefore inflamed by his contemplation, he saw aseraph with six reflecting, ardent wings falling fromheaven.
This seraph drew near to St. Francis in Swiftflight so that he could see him clearly and acknowledgethat he had the face of a adult male crucified & # 8220 ; ( Freze,220 ) .As Saint Francis gawked on him a great fright filled him and at the same clip with great joy, sorrow, and admiration.
He felt the great joy at the sight of Christ, who appeared to him so familiarly and looked on him so kindly ; but seeing him nailed to the cross, he felt infinite sorrow and compassion. Then after a long image and imprint of the Passion of Christ. Wounds began to look on Saint Francis as he had seen them on the organic structure of Jesus crucified. Saint Francis followed the church really near and wanted to be so close to God that he tried to copy Christ. He had a feeling of rapture when he received the lesions because he was able to portion the lesions that Christ received and ( Nickell, 220 ) . His lesions stayed with him until he died on October 3, 1226.Marie-Rose Ferron was the first identified stigmata victim from the United States ( Freze 237 ) . Her lesions began to look in 1927.
Her lesions progressed to all five in less than a twelvemonth. She had the ability to see visions of Christ, claimed to be able to bilocate, and her lesions poured blood on a day-to-day footing.There have been instances of bogus stigmata. Peoples desiring to be closer to God, they inflict these lesions upon themselves. Some perform this sham stigmata because they are hankering to be closer to God or they fear they will decease a evildoer. They have used knives, choices, or has some mental unwellness ( Nickell, 221 ) . Many bogus stigmatists will crush themselves up, floging, thorning, and carving faiths words and images into their flesh ( Nickell, 222: Beginning 3 ) .
Nickell says that some mentally sick, crazes, self-hypnotic suggestion, and nervous conditions have caused people to acquire reddening, broken, and the lesions sometimes bleed. The 13th century was the first recorded stigmata and shortly after Saint Francis & # 8217 ; phenomenon, people started holding resemblances of stigmata. There has non been a interruption in the phenomenon since ( Nickell, 223 ) .There are certain feelings that stigmata victims describe. Stigmatics normally describe their experiences as & # 8220 ; Godhead or mystical & # 8221 ; . A feeling of unhappiness, depression, failing, and physical hurting are feelings that the individual studies holding felt before the oncoming of the lesions. Some stigmata victims feel as if their encephalon is bring oning these lesions ; but this instance is rare ( Source 4 ) .
The blood of the lesions may be of a different type than their ain ( Source 3 ) .So is this fict or fact? Science can non turn out this because no 1 can reproduce this occurrence. Research workers have tried hypnosis to try the formation of Stigmata. The best account that many can give for this occurrence is that it is a fraud ( Source 3 ) .
Research workers do non even cognize if Saint Francis & # 8217 ; s stigmata are true. He could hold brought the lesions on himself ( Nickell, 225 ) . & # 8220 ; Nonetheless, stigmata are a fact, and remain a echt enigma ; the flesh truly does alteration, and the perennial concomitants to the phenomenon my have a great trade to learn us & # 8221 ; ( Source 4 ) .So are Stigmata true or merely persons hankering to be near to God? Will science of all time be able to state us anything about this go oning? Stigmata can go on to anyone and it could go on to you!Work CitedNickell, Joe. ( 1993 ) . Looking For a Miracle, crying icons, relics, stigmata, visions, and mending remedies. New York: Prometheus Books.( 1993-1998 ) .
Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 99, [ CD-ROM ] . Available: 1993-1998 Microsoft Corporation.Stigmata. Retrieved October 25,2000 from the universe broad web:hypertext transfer protocol: //www.crystalinds.com/stigmata.htmlIs Stigmata for Real? Retrieved October 23,2000 from the universe broad web:hypertext transfer protocol: //www.
thewaters.org/columns/stigmata.htmlWainwright, Rupert ( Director ) . ( 1999 ) . Stigmata [ movie ] . Metro-Goldwin-Mayer Pictures.
Freze, Michael S.F.O, ( 1993 ) . Voices, Vision, and Apparitions.
Hunnington, IN: Our Sunday Visitor Publishing Division.