Steganography Essay Research Paper I INTRODUCTIONWhile Encryption

Steganography Essay, Research Paper

I. Introduction

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While Encryption is noticeable and a mark for inquiries by the authorities

every bit good as hackers, Steganography takes it one measure further and hides the

message within an encrypted message or other mediums ; such as images, doing it

virtually impossible to observe. It is a method related to the art of concealing a

secret message within a larger one in such a manner that the unwanted individual can non

do out the presence or contents of the concealed message being sent. It can be

hidden in a image or a sound file.

Most communicating channels like telephone lines and wireless broadcasts

transmit signals, which are ever followed by some sort of, noise. This noise

can be replaced by a secret signal that has been changed into a signifier that is non

noticeable from noise without cognition of a secret key and this manner, the secret

signal can be transmitted undetectable. [ 1 ]

A. Purpose of this paper

The intent of this paper is to present cryptography by explicating what it

is and how it works in concurrence with cryptanalysis ; supply a brief history ;

note on the types of package plans available and how effectual they are.

B. Body

First, I will specify shorthand, along with cryptanalysis and digital

watermarking. I will besides discourse the differences between the two. Second, I

will discourse briefly the history of cryptography. Finally, I will reexamine

several different package applications available that provide cryptography,

how they are implemented and discourse any failures that may happen.

C. Conclusion

I will reexamine the subjects, which were discussed and give my personal sentiment

on a peculiar package plans that I tried out.


A. Definition

Cryptography comes from the Grecian word Steganos significance covered or secret,

fundamentally concealed authorship. Steganography is a non-cryptographic technique for

concealing informations in the natural noise constituent of some other signal. Cryptography

merely takes one piece of information and hides it within another. It uses

computing machine files ( images, sounds recordings, even discs ) which contain fresh or

undistinguished countries of informations. Invisible inks, microdots, character agreement,

digital signatures, covert channels, and spread spectrum communications besides use

Steganography. Steganography takes advantage of these countries, replacing them with

information ( encrypted mail, for case ) . The least important spots ( LSBs ) of

most digitized signals ; music or images for case ; are indiscriminately distributed.

You can alter these spots to anything you like without perceptibly altering the

music or images.

Cryptanalysis disguises the text of the message but doesn? t hide the fact

that it is making so. PGP ( Pretty Good Privacy ) , a really strong cryptographic

tool. Its popularity doesn & # 8217 ; t root from the fact that cipher knows how to interrupt

the system other than by a brute-force onslaught ( which is a requirement for any

good cryptosystem ) . PGP became popular because it is highly good designed,

fast, and has an first-class cardinal direction. There are many cryptanalytic

algorithms every bit strong as the one used in PGP, but PGP & # 8217 ; s popularity and free

handiness made it a de facto criterion for secure electronic communications

all over the universe. [ 2 ]

Digital watermarking which is a particular technique of making unseeable

digital Markss in images and audio files that carry copyright information. These

Markss can be detected by particular plans that can deduce a batch of utile

information from the water line: when the file was created, who holds the

right of first publication, how to reach the writer etc. As you know dozenss of copyrighted

stuffs are reproduced, i.e. stolen on the Net every twenty-four hours so this engineering

might be utile if you are a interior decorator.

B. History

Cryptography day of the months back to ancient Greece. During ancient Grecian wars, if a

solder needed to advise his leader that he had information on enemies be aftering

to assail at a certain topographic point and clip, he would take a clean tablet compose the

message so cover the tablet with wax. This was a manner to hide the

information as he passed through reviews. [ 3 ]

Another manner they used to direct concealed messages was to shave the courier? s

caput so tattoo the information. Once his hair had grown plenty to cover the

message, he was so sent on his manner to present the message. Of class, he had

to hold his hair shaved once more for the message to be revealed so allow his hair

turn back.

During World War II, the Germans developed the microdot. A secret message was

photographically reduced to the size of a period, and affixed as the point for the

missive & # 8216 ; i & # 8217 ; or other punctuation on a paper incorporating a written message.

Microdots permitted the transmittal of big sums of printed informations, including

proficient drawings, and the fact of the transmittal was efficaciously hidden.

Another signifier of concealment

information was utilizing Null cyphers ( unencrypted

messages ) . The existent message is “ camouflaged ” in an guiltless sounding

message. Due to the “ sound ” of many unfastened coded messages, mail filters

detected the fishy communications. However “ guiltless ” messages were

allowed to flux through. An illustration of a message incorporating such a nothing cypher


News Eight Weather: Tonight increasing snow.

Unexpected precipitation clutters eastern towns. Be

highly cautious and use snowtires particularly heading

E. The main roads are wittingly slippy. Highway

emptying is suspected. Police study exigency

state of affairss in business district stoping near Tuesday.

By taking the first missive in each word, the undermentioned message can be


Newt is disquieted because he thinks he is President.

The undermentioned message was really sent by a German Spy in WWII [ Kahn67 ] :

Apparently impersonal & # 8217 ; s protest is exhaustively discounted

and ignored. Isman difficult hit. Blockade issue affects

stalking-horse for trade stoppage on by merchandises, chuck outing suets and

vegetable oils.

Taking the 2nd missive in each word the undermentioned message emerges:

Pershing canvass from NY June 1.

Recently, Margaret Thatcher was so annoyed with legion imperativeness leaks of

cabinet paperss, she had the word processors programmed to encode their

individuality in the word spacing, so that disloyal curates could be traced. [ 4 ]

C. Software

Three types of stegonagraphic package bundles were evaluated by Neil

Johnson and Sushil Jajodia ( writers of Researching Cryptography: Sing the

Unseen ) on their restrictions and flexibleness. [ 5 ] They are StegoDos, White Noise

Storm and S-Tools for Windows.

StegoDos is a share-ware plan, which can be downloaded for free off the

cyberspace ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) . Its restriction is that it merely works with 320

ten 200-pixel images with 256 colourss. Using a Renoir picture, they tried to

infix a exposure of the Russian strategic bomber base ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) .

It could non be used because of size limitations. They were able to utilize the

package in the Shakespeare image one time it was cropped and fitted into the 320 ten

200 pixel image. There was some deformation to the image but non really noticeable.

StegoDos uses LSBs ( Least Significant Bits ) to conceal it? s messages. It is the

less successful tool of the three tested.

White Noise Storm is a DOS application and is really effectual. It uses the LSB

attack and applies this to IBM Paintbrush ( PCX ) files. They were able to implant

the Russian strategic bomber base into the Renoir picture with no debasement

to the image. But, there were jobs due to resound intervention in the

unity of the image, which altered the colour pallet well in the

Renoir picture. The chief disadvantage of this encoding method is the loss of

many spots that can be used to keep information. [ 5 ]

The last package evaluated was S-Tools for Window. This freeware plan

Lashkar-e-Taibas you hide files of any type in.gif and.bmp images every bit good as in.wav

sounds. Furthermore, S-Tools is really a steganographic and cryptanalytic

merchandise in one, because the file to be hidden is encrypted utilizing one of the

symmetric cardinal algorithms: Triple DES and IDEA are really unafraid as of today.

Another good cryptography merchandise is Steganos for Windows 95. It has about

the same maps as S-Tools, but applies a different algorithm ( HWY1 ) and is

able to conceal informations in.bmp and.wav files every bit good as in field text and HTML files

in a really cagey manner. Steganos merely adds a certain figure of extra infinites

at the terminal of each text line. Steganos besides adds an option of directing files from

your difficult thrust to the shredder, which makes it impossible to retrieve them.

III. Decision

In decision, I gave a brief definition of cryptography every bit good as

cryptanalysis and digital watermarking. Following, I went into a small history about

Cryptography and where it originated. Finally, I discussed some of the package

that is available, what executions were used and noted any restrictions with

those package plans.

Steganography is much powerful tool when used in concurrence with

cryptanalysis because it adds another bed of protection to an encrypted file.

Commercial applications of cryptography, digital watermarking and digital

fingerprinting is now in usage to track the right of first publication and ownership of electronic

media. [ 5 ]

[ 1 ] Markus Kuhn, 1995

hypertext transfer protocol: //

[ 2 ] Introduction to PGP

hypertext transfer protocol: //

[ 3 ] Mr. Byte, Steganography, 1997-1999

hypertext transfer protocol: //

[ 4 ] Anderson, Ross J. , Petitcolas, Fabien A.P. , On The Limits of


16 [ 4 ] 474-481, May 1998

[ 5 ] Johnson, Neil F. , Steganography, 26-34

hypertext transfer protocol: //


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