Stakeholders Perception Of European Companies Commerce Essay
It would be better to state clearly at the beginning, what is the purpose of this study. The rubric is Stakeholders ‘ Percept of Well-known European Companies at The Time of Global Crisis, but the reader will happen in it the word picture of how can Carlsberg, Heineken Holding and Anheuser-Busch InBev preformance at the clip of planetary crisis. We use these three companies to simplify our research without cut downing the end of this study.
There are several grounds why we chose these three companies. We chose brewery industry because brewery industries can reflect more clearly about the public perceptual experience toward the companies ‘ public presentation at the planetary crisis clip. They are the biggest brewery industries from Europe, which already known globaly, and listed on top 1000 companies by Forbes Magazine. We retrieve many existent information from the companies ‘ web site, like their one-year study, and we process the informations based on relevant theory therefore becomes utile information. Besides their operational public presentation index, we besides use another statistical information, like the dealing volume of these companies portion, to depict the public perceptual experience. We guarantee our informations is free from material mistake, because we use choice control to keep the cogency of informations. We list the beginning that we used at the footers of the concerned pages, and in the bibliography at the terminal of this study.First, we dedicate this study to Saxion University and Petra Christian University as our graduation assignment.
Then, we dedicate this study to concern individual, as consideration for bettering their ain defects due to the public presentation of their stock, which was profoundly affected at the clip of the last planetary crisis, particularly for Carlsberg, Heineken Holding, and Anheuser-Busch InBev. We besides dedicate this study to the readers who want to research and develop farther, and to those pupils who want to acquire a broader penetration about the public perceptual experience in relation with company public presentation, specifically.Our first debt is due to Mr. Couperus and Ms. Gorter under whom we studied. They liberally believed in and heartily encouraged our work throughout. Their scope of cognition, their critical sharp-sightedness and the thoroughness with which they went thorugh the work provided the illustration of the profesional instructor without which this book would non hold been possible.
Mr. Bossnik and Mr. Meendering gave freely of his valuable clip to read the study and brought many corrections and raised many inquiries which led us deeper into the work.
To these two instructor we are really thankful so because without their sort involvement, our defects would be even more obvious. We owe thanks to many others excessively: our former instructors at Petra Christian University, Indonesia, who assisted us with a batch of suggestions ; our lovely household who ever support us mundane ; our compatriots friend Nathania, Meilisa and Catherin ; our friends from Indonesia ; our co-workers from ACFI, ACFIA group in Saxion ; and chiefly our God who give us opportunity to complete this study.CONTENT PageTitle PagePrefatory NoteContented PageDrumheadChapter 1 IntroductionChapter 2 Company IndicatorChapter 3 Stockholders ‘ Percept3.1. Stakeholders ‘ Percept Literature3.2. Influencing Factors3.2.
1. Profitableness3.2.2. Liquid3.2.3.
Solvability3.2.4. Operational Performance3.2.
5. Investing Evaluation3.2.6.
Continuous Improvement3.2.7. Quality of Management3.2.8.
Goodwill3.2.9. Corporate Social Responsibility3.2.
10. Good Corporate Administration3.2.11.
Learning and Innovation3.2.12. Other issuesChapter 4 Pull offing Stockholder Percept4.1.
Carlsberg4.2. Heineken Keeping4.
3. Anheuser-Busch InBevChapter 5 DecisionAppendixLiteratureSummaryThe planetary fiscal crisis that happened in 2008, had led to a profound impact for many companies ‘ public presentation. However, the extent and timing of the effects differ among each other companies. Those who have good characteristic foundation, healthy fiscal linkages and other back uping factors can last the fiscal hurricane, even though their operational activities are besides affected, charcterized by some impairments and downswings. These companies largely located in Eurozone, which is presenting a surprising recovery after 2008 and has an attractive environment for the sustainable development and economic stableness. The facts disclosed in the publication of these companies, particularly from the 2008 one-year report-description of their success both in managerial and operational, give particular attractive force for us to bring out the secret behind their traveling concern.
We examined industrial sector that has strong correlativity with the planetary crisis, in which this sector is non affected by seasonal consequence, to give clear grounds about their perform due to planetary crisis. Then, we chose three companies that fulfil our standards as object research which can stand for their industrial sector as well-known European companies. We will concentrate our reserach on stakeholders ‘ perceptual experience, which we believe to be the critical success factor due to their success. In the terminal, we will reason the relationship between stakeholders ‘ perceptual experience and company public presentation, what factors can inlfuence these perceptual experience, and how to keep these perceptual experience to supply optimum public presentation while sing unfavourable economic conditions. We expect the consequence of this research besides can be utile and applied to other industrial sector, wherever they are.Chapter 1: IntroductionThis study has been written because of our graduation demand as Accounting and Finance concluding twelvemonth pupil in Saxion University of Applied Sciences. This study will discourse about the factors that can impact the stakeholders ‘ perceptual experience of well-known European companies at the clip of Global crisis, particularly for the fiscal factor.
The value of the companies will depend on the stakeholders ‘ perceptual experience towards the companies. The better stakeholders ‘ perceptual experience, the higher corporate value will be. If the stakeholders give negative perceptual experience on the company, no affair how great the company is, it will decidedly non win in the market. On the other manus, because of the planetary crisis occurred, the factors that may impact stakeholders ‘ perceptual experience will be more diverse. We besides decide to analyse Carlsberg, Heineken Holding and Anheuser-Busch InBev in this study because those companies are celebrated beer companies in Europe. Beer acts as day-to-day demands goods in Europe. Almost mundane European people drink beer in their life, so the demand of the beer will non be vary in a twelvemonth. This status will do our analysis more dependable because the study, which is provided by those companies, will give us the stable consequence from twelvemonth to twelvemonth.
These state of affairss are the ground why we decide to discourse about the stakeholders perceptual experience of well-known European companies at the clip of Global crisis.This research is focused on the ways that can Carlsberg, Heineken Holding and Anheuser-Busch InBev do to act upon the stakeholders ‘ perceptual experience towards their companies at the clip of planetary crisis. The aim of this research is supplying to the full information for companies sing the factors that can act upon the stakeholders ‘ perceptual experience towards European well-known companies at the clip of planetary crisis. In the beginning of this research we will analyse the fiscal study of the company to give us clear information about the company and afterlife, we will garner other information that can back up our research to happen the factors that can act upon the stakeholders ‘ perceptual experience. Finally, after completing this research we will happen the reply for the cardinal inquiry, “ how can Carlsberg, Heineken Holding and Anheuser-Busch InBev influence the stakeholders ‘ perceptual experience at the clip of planetary crisis ” and other factors that can act upon the stakeholders ‘ perceptual experience. Furthermore, by making this research non merely allows us to understand broader information but besides provides the information for the companies about the factors that can act upon the stakeholders ‘ perceptual experience towards its corporate value, therefore the companies can fix good if the planetary crisis will go on once more in the hereafter.The content of this study is divided into 5 parts and debut of this study will be in the first Chapter.
The 2nd chapter concerns about the company index. In chapter 2 we will explicate briefly why we choose Carlsberg, Heineken Holding, and Anheuser-Busch InBev to be analyzed in this study. Further in chapter 3 is about the shareholders ‘ perceptual experience. We will specify the shareholder perceptual experience in the first sub-section of this chapter and the 2nd sub-section of this portion will speak about all the factors that can act upon the shareholders ‘ perceptual experience. Traveling frontward to chapter 4, we will get down our analysis in this portion. The sub-sections in this portion will analyse the scheme that Carlsberg, Heineken Holding, and Anheuser-Busch InBev have done to give a positive feeling to their stakeholders. We will measure whether the scheme that has been implemented success or non by looking at their fiscal ratios.
After set abouting the analysis, we will happen the scheme that can lend positively to act upon shareholders ‘ perceptual experience at the clip of planetary crisis. Finally, in the last chapter is decision and recommendations.Chapter 2: Company IndexDetermine the object of analysis is the first measure we must make. The object of analysis must be in the same industry that can picture good how stakeholders ‘ perceptual experience at planetary crisis clip can act upon their public presentation. In this instance, we chose brewery industry, where the demand of their merchandise has been recognized as a day-to-day necessity. From this though, we can happen the scheme to endeavor in Global Crisis Time, where their scheme can be proved by a better public presentations index in the following period.
Possibly the alteration in public presentation indexs from twelvemonth to twelvemonth is non because of other factors such as appetite alterations in beer ingestion or alteration in penchants, but focus chiefly for Global Crisis consequence.Measuring whether a company may be cited as a well known company is non an easy undertaking. Every stakeholder[ 1 ]has different judgement method, standards, and criterions accent to measure companies. For illustration, Government can emphasis their appraisal from revenue enhancement position, Investor will be more accent on return, Creditor will concentrate on solvency position, and so on.
To get the better of this job, foremost, we set some chief standards that can be by and large accepted by whole stakeholder. Those chief standards are:It must be a transnational companyIt should name on at least one stock marketIt should hold international premium trade name merchandisesIt must be a leader in its ain local marketThen, we set some cardinal public presentation indexs that can stand for the demands of every individual stakeholder. We make certain that our preferable companies have a better station crisis public presentation.We besides use the beginning from Forbes to make up one’s mind the well known companies for our research.
Forbes is a taking publication and media company[ 2 ]. Forbes provide beginning for the latest concern, fiscal intelligence and analysis, including the beginning that is utile for our research. The company that we are traveling to analyse in this study will be in the list of the Forbes Global 2000[ 3 ]. The Forbes Global 2000 are the biggest, most powerful listed companies in the universe. Making usage of Stakeholders “ good known ” standards and the consequence from Forbes Global 2000, eventually, we decide to categorise Carlsberg, Heineken Holding and Anheuser-Busch InBev as three of the well known companies in our research. In ulterior paragraph, we shall show the ground why we decide those companies every bit good known companies in this research.The first company is Carlsberg.
Calrlsberg is the universe ‘s 4th largest brewery groups[ 4 ]and harmonizing to Forbes Global 2000, Carlsberg stood in the 435 of the universe ‘s rank[ 5 ]. In 2009 Carlsberg is the 4th largest brewery group in the universe using about 45.000 people[ 6 ]. Its concern portfolio[ 7 ]consists of brewery activities in three geographical parts: Northern and Western Europe, Eastern Europe and Asia. The Carlsberg beer portfolio includes more than 500 trade names. The trade name portfolio includes the well-known international premium trade names Carlsberg, Tuborg, Baltikan and 1664, and strong local trade names such as Ringnes ( Norway ) , Feldschlosschen ( Switzerland ) , Lav ( Serbia ) and Wusu ( Western China ) . The strength of the Group ‘s trade name portfolio is highlighted by the fact that Baltika, Carlsberg and Tuborg are among the six biggest trade names in Europe, with Baltika ranked as figure one.
Carlsberg ‘s Gallic trade name, Kronenbourg, holds a 10th place in Europe. Supported by this information, we are certain that Carlsberg is one of the biggest and one of the most celebrated brewery companies in the universe.The 2nd Company is Heineken Holding. There is no uncertainty that Heineken is available in about every state on the Earth and is the universe ‘s most valuable international premium trade name. Heineken has broad international presence through a planetary web, owns and manages one of the universe ‘s prima beer makers in footings of gross revenues volume and profitableness[ 8 ]and was ranked 383rd in Forbes Global 2000[ 9 ]. Heineken Holding international trade names are Heineken and Amstel, but Heineken group besides sell more than 200 international premiums, regional, local and forte beers and cyders, including Primus, Birra Morreti, Sagres, Cruzcampo, Star, Foster ‘s, Strongbow, Kingfisher, Tiger, Newcastle Brown Ale, Zywiec and Ochota. Furthermore, Heineken Holding has been able to stay one of the universe ‘s prima client and corporate trade names for more than 130 old ages[ 10 ]. All of this information is used as a footing for choosing Heineken Keeping to go one of the well-known companies in this research.
Anheuser-Busch InBev is the last company that will be analyzed in this research. Anheuser-Busch InBev is Brewery Company based in Leuven, Belgium. Anheuser-Busch InBev is the largest planetary beer maker with about 25 % planetary market portion and one of the universe ‘s top five consumer merchandise companies[ 11 ]by EBITDA[ 12 ]. Anheuser-Busch InBev leverages the corporate strength of about 116.000 people based in operations in six operational zones, including, North America, Latin America North, Latin America South, Western Europe, Central and Eastern Europe, and Asia Pacific.
This company manages a portfolio[ 13 ]of good over 200 trade names including three planetary flagship trade names: Budweiser, Stella Artois and Beck ‘s, multi state trade names like Leffe and Hoegaarden, and strong local beer such as Bud visible radiation, Skol, Brahma, Quilmes, Michelob, Harbin, Sedrin, Klinskoye, Siberian Crown, Chernigivske, and Jupiter. In add-on, Anheuser-Busch InBev was ranked seventieth in Forbes Global 2000[ 14 ]and got the highest Market Value[ 15 ]among the companies in Belgium[ 16 ].Chapter 3: Stakeholders ‘ Percept3.1. Stakeholders ‘ Percept LiteratureThe development of the stakeholder construct begins in 1963, when the word appeared in an international memoranda at the Stanford Research Institute, defined as ‘those groups without whose support the administration would discontinue to be ‘ .
Stakeholder itself is derived from two words, interest which means everyone with an involvement, and holder which significance is the same with component. Nowadays, the construct becomes normally use particularly in strategic concern and development, and economic term. In concern term, stakeholder can be defined as any group or person who can impact and is affected by the accomplishment of the house ‘s aims ( Elias & A ; Cavana, 2000 ) . Stakeholders of company can be classified into two large classs, internal and external.InternalEmployeesDirectorOwnersExternalSuppliersSocietyGovernmentCreditorsStockholdersCustomersCompanyFigure 1: Internal and external stakeholders of a companyStakeholder besides can be identified by power, legitimacy, and urgency property to achieve saliency in the heads of company. We can sort the stakeholder into 4 categories. The stakeholder can switch from one category to another when the saliency of stakeholder addition or lessening by achieving or fring one or more of the properties ( Elias & A ; Cavana, 2000 ) .
Latent Stakeholder ; merely have one of three properties and have low stakeholder saliency.Dormant StakeholderThis type of stakeholder merely possess power property, for illustration: Mass Media.Discretionary StakeholderMerely possess legitimacy property, for Example: Stockholders that have fewer than 20 % ownership.Demanding StakeholderStakeholders that merely possess urgency property, for illustration: rival.Anticipant Stakeholder, have two of three properties and have moderate stakeholder saliency.
Dominant StakeholderStakeholder that possesses power and legitimacy properties, for illustration: tertier establishment like market regulator due to public company.Dangerous StakeholderStakeholder that possess power and urgency properties, for illustration: Labor UnionDependent StakeholderStakeholder that possesses urgency and legitimacy properties, for illustration: Company ‘s Bank, Creditor.Definitive Stakeholder, have all of the properties and have high stakeholder saliency. Example: Customer, Government.Non Stakeholder does n’t hold any property.Figure 2: Stakeholder PropertyBeginnings: Elias & A ; Cavana, figure 2, p5.
Percept means a manner of apprehension, construing and seeing. In conformity with stakeholder, so stakeholder ‘s perceptual experience describes how stakeholders perceive a trade name or a company, based on its behavior and the actions of its people. To stakeholders, perceptual experience is their world. Percept may be positive or negative, depends on the experiences that stakeholder might hold had and other factor that stakeholder group take into history as aboriginal factor, sing to the company issues.
Hence, stakeholder ‘s perceptual experience should be managed to guarantee that the repute of the company is maintained. By pull offing perceptual experience, the company builds reputational value which is really utile in back uping their ability to last in the competition.Based on the stakeholder property, we can state that the 4 categories of stakeholder have different position, particularly when confronting hard times, such as the planetary crisis. By psychological, these different positions will take into different behaviors, and they can impact each other straight or indirectly. That is why we need to understand the typology of stakeholder ‘s perceptual experience, so we can supply the appropriate actions for each stakeholder to impact their position and pull off them good.
Non supportive Stakeholder
Assorted Blessing Stakeholder
Scheme: CollaborateCooperationMenaceHighLowLowHighFigure 3: Stakeholder TreatmentHarmonizing to this figure, we can use suited intervention based on feature of stakeholder.Assorted Blessing stakeholder is stakeholder that both have high potency of menace and cooperation.
For Example: regulator, authorities, can back up the company ‘s aim but besides can do statute law to menace company ‘s aims. The suited scheme is join forcesing with them, follow the regulations.Supportive stakeholder is stakeholder that has high cooperation degree, but low menace degree.
The appropriate scheme is affecting this stakeholder into company ‘s activity. For illustration, company can affect their retail merchant to command the client satisfactory degree.Fringy stakeholder is stakeholder that both have low potency of menace and cooperation. The applicable scheme is supervising them to avoid them go any menace in close hereafter.Non supportive Stakeholder is stakeholder that has high menace degree and low cooperation, and even can make unlawful act to make their nonsubjective. We must support from this sort of stakeholders. For illustration, rival and other industry that against our aim.
3.2. Influencing factorsThe organisations are responsible to their Stakeholders and the stakeholders hold peculiar perceptual experiences of those endeavor, construct upon their behaviors and actions. From one stakeholder group to another stakeholder group will hold different perceptual experiences but nevertheless the perceptual experience should be understood and managed before they can be leveraged and managed. General factors that can act upon stakeholders ‘ perceptual experience towards companies will be listed in figure three below.ProfitablenessGCG
SolvabilityOperational PerformanceLearning & A ; InnovationOther IssuesContinous ImprovementLiquidInvesting EvaluationQuality of ManagementCSRAccomplishmentGood willFigure 3: Stakeholders ‘ Perception Influencing Factors3.2.1.
ProfitablenessProfitableness defines the sum of net income made, shown as a per centum of costs or gross revenues gross[ 17 ]. The long term profitableness of an organisation is significant for both the advantage received by stakeholders and the survival ability of the organisation. The perceptual experience of about all the stakeholder groups is influenced by profitableness factors. The higher net income the better stakeholders ‘ perceptual experience.
The immense net income determines the organisation ‘s power to supply a immense return to all of the stakeholders groups.3.2.
2. LiquidLiquid means the house ‘s ability to pay its measures on clip[ 18 ]. Liquidity is related to the adeptness and easiness with which a house able to covert its non-cash assets into hard currency, every bit good as the size of the house ‘s investing in non hard currency assets relative to its short term liabilities The liquidness of the company can be seen from its liquid assets[ 19 ]. When the company has some sum of liquid assets, it can be guaranteed that they will probably hold the ability to pay off its short term debt duties that are coming due in the close hereafter and still capable to fund its on-going operations. In most instances, the company with a low rate of liquid assets compared with its short term liabilities means as a mark that the company will hold trouble to run its operations, every bit good as to run into its duties.
Creditors are one of the stakeholder groups that would be influenced most by this factor. With the high degree liquidness, creditors will easy give recognition to the company, but on the other manus when the company has low degree of liquidness they will unlikely give recognition to the company.3.2.
3. SolvabilitySolvability determines the house ‘s ability to be able to pay all its debts on the due day of the month. Solvability can be besides viewed as the degree of fiscal hazard a company and its stakeholders face. The higher the sum of long term duties held by the company the higher the fiscal hazard of bankruptcy. The stakeholder groups that is most affected by this factor is creditors, particularly the bondholders. Bondholders are the group of stakeholder who own a bond of the company.
The Bondholder decidedly will non purchase a bond from the company that has a great degree of fiscal bankruptcy.3.2.4.
Operational PerformanceOperational public presentation is the manner a company manage its on-going operations. Chiefly, Operational public presentation steps at how efficaciously and expeditiously a company is using its resource to increase stakeholder value and bring forth gross revenues. Most of the stakeholder groups will be influenced by this factor, because this factor besides related to the ability of the company to give net income. The more effectual and more efficient a company run its operations the easier for a company to bring forth gross.
3.2.5. Investing EvaluationInvesting rating factor is the factor from investor position. Basically, this factor is influenced by the portion monetary value in the market. Investor will prefer a company that has high degree of investing rating factor, because it means that company has the ability to last in the market and give high return to the investor.
An investor will see the company better when the company portion monetary value is high, which can take to better consequence in investing rating factor degree.3.2.6. Continuous ImprovementContinuous betterment means the attempt of the company to better its merchandises, services and procedures, so the company can fulfill its stakeholders. About all of the stakeholder groups will be affected by this factor.
When the company is ever go oning to better its company, the company can set to the unpredictable demands of the market as clip base on ballss and reference to the development that has been done by the rival. This factor is important to the stakeholders, because they will believe the company is really improbable to last in the market if it can non accommodate to the market.3.2.7.
Quality of ManagementThe quality of Management depict how good the company pull off its operation to bring forth net incomes, including how the company manage the struggle within its internal procedure and respond to the ailments of the employees or the clients. If the company pull off its operation with the quality, the stakeholders will see it as a good signal to the survival ability of the company.3.2.8.
GoodwillGoodwill is a conducive factor or a “ prudent value ” that makes the Market give higher appraisal towards company ( so public willing to pay more for something ) , and can be used as competitory advantage[ 20 ]. Goodwill in this analysis will be focus on intangible assets[ 21 ]. The illustration of good will is beforehand in engineering and concern scheme, modern-day direction technique, patetnts and hallmarks, trade name equity, house repute, etc.Normally, companies who have high value of good will will be prefered more by stakeholder because their traveling concern and high value at market. But stakeholder must give more attending to the computation of the good will, because good will in fiscal statement have a complicated computation method that can take to missunderstanding.3.2.
9. Corporate Social ResponsibilityCorporate Social Responsibility means the attempt that has been done by the company to accomplish cost advantages and at the same time move in a socially responsible mode. In add-on to recognizing fiscal returns, the companies are besides expected to care for the environtment, their employees and the local community. The basic construct of the Corporate Social Responsibity is the responsible balance between people ( ‘social wellbeing ‘ ) , planet ( ‘ecological quality ‘ ) and net income ( ‘economiv prosperity ‘ ) . The first construct is People, which defines the scope of topics, including both eksternal and internal societal policies.
Internal societal policy relates to the nature of employment, wellness and safety, preparation and instruction, diverseness and chances, every bit good as labour/ direction relationships, while Eksternal societal policy involves the chief catgegories, specifically:Product duty, consists of merchandise and services, advertisement, consumer wellness and safety and regard for personal privateness.Human right issues, consists of freedom of assocition, non-discrimination, security pattern, autochthonal rights and disciplinary patterns.Society, consists of competition, community activities and pricing.The 2nd construct is Planet, which relates to the impact of the company ‘s operational activities to the environment, for illustration the usage of scarce goods ( such as H2O, energy or other natural stuffs ) . The last construct is Profit. Profit bases for the organisation ‘s part to economic prosperity, both in direct and indirect economic impact. Direct economic impact comprises the fiscal footings between the company and its cardinal stakeholders, while indirect economic impact is related to the part of the sector to gross domestic merchandise[ 22 ]and the spin off from company activities in term of invention.PlanetNet incomePeoplesFigure 4: The Three Pillars of CSRWhen the company operates in a hapless on the job conditions, violates the human rights or performs enviromental dirt, they will be publically criticised.
Such critism will damage the company ‘s repute in the stakeholders point of position, which may take in autumn in gross revenues and the employees going demotivated. By being a responsible to their societal environtment, the companies will be easier to increase their market portion, raise staff motive to work for the company and promote their invention power.3.2.10. Good Corporate AdministrationCorporate Administration is the procedure affected by a set of legislative, regulative, legal, market mechanism, naming standarts, best patterns, and attempts off all corporate administration participants, including the company ‘s manager, officers, hearers, legal advocate, and fiscal advisers, which creates a system of cheques and balances with the end of making and heightening enduring and susutainanble stockholder value, while protecting the involvements of other stakeholders[ 23 ]. Implementing a Good Corporate Governance has of import function to making long term stockholder value, and to incresing the value for all stakeholders.
In general, Corporate Governance is composed by three facets, viz. :Shareholder Aspect, which focuses on the creative activity of stockholder value.Stakeholder Aspect, which emphasizes the value to protect the end for all stakeholder groups.Integrated Aspect is the facet that combines stockholder facet and stakeholder facetBy implementing Good Corporate Governance, the company will be appreciated more by its stakeholder because of the attempts that has been done by the company to fulfill its stakeholder.
Learning and InnovationWhen a company can supply and give more attending to its acquisition and invention procedure, it will give value added for a company in the stakeholders ‘ position. Company normally provide developing centre to fulfill their employee, where employee can spread out their restriction and cognition. Besides, company normally besides have research and development departement to carry through client demands.3.2.12.
Other issuesMarket are really reactive towards information, because information can inffluence people ‘s position. Normally, non all information can be retrieved freely and sometimes, the information is non dependable. Those factor can impact stakeholders paradigm because stakeholders are highly sensitive to distributing information. For illustration, publish about new ordinance or publish about rising prices, can act upon stockholder behavior, political issue influence pricing determination by provider, and etc.