Stability Of Slopes Using Vegetation In Ootacamund Biology Essay

Ootacamund, known as Ooty is often subjected to legion landslides and gravitative motions.The purpose of the survey is to choose the suited workss which increase the stableness of inclines.

It is good understood that flora influences slope stableness in two ways: through hydrological and mechanical effects. Hydrological effects involve the remotion the remotion of dirt H2O by evapo-transpiration through flora, which lead to an addition in soil suction or a decrease in pore-water force per unit area, therefore an addition in the dirt shear strength. The denseness of the roots within the dirt mass and root tensile strength contribute to the ability of the dirts to defy shear emphasis. The site analysis was carried out in three chief facets which are topographic, climatic and botanical. Harmonizing to the local environmental conditions suited species were selected. The addition in shear strength of those species harmonizing to the dirt type was carried out.

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IntroductionSlope instability is one of the major jobs in geotechnical technology where catastrophes, like loss of life and belongings, do occur. A natural incline is different from an embankment or a semisynthetic incline in that the effects of flora and dirt variableness play an of import function in their stableness. The one method of dirt formation is the flora growing on the stone. In contrast the flora act as the dirt binder.

This mapdepends on the belongingss of the dirt and the features of the works. Chiefly this map depends on the root features of the peculiar species.SLOPE STABILITY AND ROOT STRENGTHThere are two types of faux pass or mass motions that characterize stableness jobs.

Faux pass orslides on inclines fall into 2 classs: deep seated and shallow seated.Deep-seated job isgeotechnical or geological in nature. It can merely be addressed taking into history incline geometry, dirtstrength, climatic status, groundwater features, etc. and can be ascertained by incline stablenessanalysis.



From the past research workers dense over compacted dirts tend to hold low hydraulic conductions, Poor aeration and high opposition to root incursion. As incline increased that is above 30IS deep rooted flora like bush take downing the landslide jeopardy. The addition in dirt stableness due to works roots is entirely based on the addition of the angle of internal clash F? from 34.3 & A ; deg ; to 39.

4 & A ; deg ; without any noticeable alteration in evident coherence degree Celsius ‘ . The soil-reinforcing effects of the workss are likely besides to be attributable to the higher stableness of unplanted dirt with a higher dry unit weight, which in this instance corresponded to an addition from g 15.5 kN/m3 to 19 kN/m3.


The survey country covers a portion of Ooty town in the Nilgiris territory, a cragged terrain in the north-western portion of Tamil Nadu, India.

The Ootacamund landform has soft hills with a thick dirt screen ( Parthasarathy and Vaidyanathan, 1974 ) . Most portion of the Nilgiris is profoundly weather-beaten and at some topographic points thick dirt screen of up to 40 m is found. The dirt available are derived from stones, holding an alloy of organic affair and capable of back uping flora. In this survey, 2:1 homogeneous incline with a tallness of about 10 meters is used to look into the effects of flora on the stableness of a incline


Consolidated-untrained triaxial compaction trials were conducted to obtain the information of coherence and angle of internal friction.The field denseness can be easy obtained from the nucleus cutter method. The mean denseness of 3 samples are taken as field denseness.

To foretell the suited works these features are needed.Table1. Soil Properties in site 1 – kagguchi ( Nilgiris )Soil PropertySite1Coherence C?0.70Angle of internal clash F?35ISDensity15 kN/m3PHValue6.2


( From RMD-Chennai ) Table 2.Climatic conditions in NilgirisParametervalueTemperatureSummer25 & A ; deg ; C – 10 & A ; deg ; Cwinter21 & A ; deg ; C – 5 & A ; deg ; CAltitude2286 mAnnual Rainfall991mmMonsoonClassNorth EExcess


Speciess choice is based chiefly on the micro climatic condisions. The root tensile strength of the species besides play an critical function in the choice of the species.Root pull-out trials were used to both qualify interface belongingss and happen the forces required to pull-out roots embedded in dirt.

The trials involved drawing out pre-embedded or adult works roots from the dirt and mensurating the pull-out force with increasing supplanting. This has direct relevancy to the extra reinforcing root forces ‘anchoring ‘ beyond the failure surface during incline or shears failure.The available root force moving on the base of each piece, T is calculated by the equation,st = T = Trd * LTrd = Design root force per square meter of the dirt.

L = Length of the faux pas surface.Trd = Tru / F.O.STru = Ultimate root force per square meter across the faux pas plane.F.

O.S = Factor of safety. Normally factor of safty for this job is 8. ( Green wood et al 2003 )Tru = N x ( P D2 ) x TP4TP = Pull out opposition.N = Average figure of roots of the works.Table 3.

Diameter and tensile strength of root of assorted herbs Cheng et Al ( 2003 ) and Ke et Al. ( 2003 )GrassAvg diam. of roots ( millimeter )Avg tensile strength ( MPa )Late Juncellus0.38±0.4324.50±4.2Dallis grass0.92±0.

2819.74±3.00White Clover0.91±0.

1124.64±3.36Vetiver grass0.

66±0.3285.10±31.2Common Centipede grass0.66±0.0527.30±1.

74Bahia grass0.73±0.0719.23±3.59Manila grass0.

77±0.6724.50±4.2Bermuda grass0.99±0.1719.

74±3.00Camellia sinensis ( Ooty tea )2.00 to 4.00N.AThe roors of the workss can be treated as elastic-reinforced elements and a map of the tensile strength of the roots can be added straight to the Mohr-Coloumb equation for failure criteria.

The stableness of the incline is considered as a curve. From the probable of failure, instance Toe failure is considered. Wu et Al. ( 1979 ) incorporated the effects of flora in incline stableness analysis by utilizing conventional bound equilibrium method. In bound equilibrium methods, the shear strength of the dirt along a possible faux pas surface is assumed to be to the full mobilised at the point of failure. The Mohr-Coulomb equation is used to depict the shear strength of the dirt:? = c? + ( s – U ) sunburn ??By integrating the consequence of root support,The equation becomes:? = ( c? + chromium ) + ( ? – U ) sunburn ??The evident root coherence ( chromium ) is incorporated in their infinite incline analysis and found an addition in the factor of safety ( F.O.S ) for some inclines.

The consequences indicated that tree roots improved the stableness of forested inclines.chromium = 1.2 ten st x ArAr = root country ratio defined as the country of the root traversing the shear plane divided by the sumcross- sectional country of the shear plane.

This equation assumes that the support from flora is limited by the tensile strength of the roots and that all roots are merely about to interrupt when peak shear strength is mobilized: both premises are questionable.From the old instance surveies ( regional clime ( 15IS C-30ISC ) ) the species vetiver grass and camellia sinesis ( root belongingss obtained from the agriculturist of Ooty ) are good lucifers with the climatic conditions of Ooty.The mean tensile strength of Vetiver grass = 85.10 MPa.

The country ratio Ar= & A ; aring ; niai / Ani = The figure of roots in category I.Army Intelligence = the average cross sectional country of root in size category IFrom the past research and survey, it is good known that the country ratio additions with the addition of shear strength. This matches with the modified Mohr- Coloumb failure theory in the influence of flora.Ar = 0.98 %The shear strength addition = 0.

5 KsfThe vetiver grass may be planted at the toe and base of the incline.


Deep rooted trees should be planted at the maximal shear zone. Eucolyptus trees are good suited for the climatic conditions of Ooty but the root dirt interaction belongings is questionable. The tree usually grows more than the ego weight of the tree is increase due class of clip. Pinus trees are besides noticeable in this vicinity but the average tensile root strength of the tree is non so high.

SpeciessCommon NameMean Tensile Strength ( MPa )Pinus desifloraRed pine33Pinus LambertianaSugar pine10Pinus western yellow pineWestern yellow10Pinus radiataMontery pine18Though all the above Pinus species are good suited for the Ootagamund Climate Pinus western yellow pine is merely seeable in this country. The tensile force is really low.So Pinus desiflora may be suggested to works in the mid manner of the incline.As


It is known that the shear strength of the dirt is increased by the plantation of askhus ( vetiver grass )Fig.

4 Failure surface Mitigation on inclineFrom the faux pas circle it is good known that the high possible land slide is in the mid manner. Harmonizing to that deep rooted workss should be planted in in the center. The bush or grass type flora may be Planted in the toe and the base of the incline. As mentioned in the debut, vetiver roots are really strong with high mean tensile strength of 75 MPa or about 1/6th of strength of mild steel.

When the dense and monolithic root webs act in unison, they resemble the behaviour of dirt nails usually used in civil technology plants. With its innate power to perforate through caliches or bouldery beds, the action of vetiver roots is analogically likened to ‘livingsoil nails ‘ by the writer ( Hengchaovanich, 1998 ) .Decrease in root diameter from 5 to 2 millimeters can ensue in a doubling or even trebling of tensile strength.Clearly finer roots can lend significantly to dirty support and shear strength increase.Finer roots have the advantage of non merely higher strengths but besides superior disengagement opposition because they have higher specific surface countries than larger roots at equalent country ratios. Though pinus species are good suited for the Ootagamund Climate Pinus western yellow pine is merely seeable in this country. The tensile force of Pinus western yellow pine is really low.So Pinus desiflora may be suggested to works in the mid manner of the incline.

Alternatively of placing the unsafe trees suited species may be planted by suited analysis. To accomplish these, dirt belongingss should be predicted at the suited intervals.


In the survey country the assorted parametric quantities were collected from the site such as incline, coherence angle of internal clash, mean denseness of the incline. Micro and Macro climatic conditions are besides of import factors. Afforestation of the waste land prohibition of deforestation for any other activities are really indispensable for Controling landslide activities in the survey country. Askhus ( vetiver grass ) may be planted in the inclines to diminish the possibilities of the land slides. Camellia sinensis ( Ooty tea ) besides act as the dirt binder which is suited for the micro climatic conditions of Ooty but everyday care and pesticide are needed for this works.

Though pinus species are good suited for the Ootagamund Climate Pinus western yellow pine is merely seeable in this country. The tensile force of Pinus western yellow pine is really low.So Pinus desiflora may be suggested to works in the mid manner of the incline.

To accomplish the singular stat mi rock in the field application of this ecotechnology, interdisciplinary research is needed in the field of Meteorology, Botany, dirt technology is needed.


The root tensile strength shall be locally conducted in the field for the assorted specieswhich suits for the local environmental conditions. The incline analysis shall be carried out utilizing Janbus method of incline analysis utilizing finite component or finite difference method of analysis.

To transport out analysis utilizing Janbus method Piezo metric line, belongingss of dirt in assorted beds are needed. Root decay and strength loss shall be besides taken into history to cipher the addition in shear strength.Janbus method of incline analysis for influence of floraThe general equation: ( Jambus method of incline analysis )F = & A ; aring ; [ C?l + ( W COS a – Uracil cubic decimeter ( U2-U1 ) sin a ) tanF ] / & A ; aring ; W sin aIncluding the influence of flora ( Green wood )F = & A ; aring ; [ ( C?+CV ) cubic decimeter + ( W + WS ) COS a – ( U+ & A ; Ntilde ; U ) cubic decimeter ( U2- & A ; Ntilde ; U2V ) – ( U2- & A ; Ntilde ; U2V ) sin a-DW wickedness ( a-b ) +Tsinq ) tanF ]& A ; aring ; [ ( W + Wv ) Sin a+ DWsin ( a-b ) +T cosq ]


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