Space communication that coverage over regions varying
Space technology is technology developed to use inspacecraft, satellites, or space travelling.
Space technology includesspacecraft, satellites, ground station, command and control centre and datastorage, analysis and distribution the examples of current space technologyincluding GPS system that used for navigation, communication that coverage overregions varying in size, weather forecasting, remote sensing which criticallyrely on space infrastructure and more. 1 The main mission of almost all satellites to belaunched is to provide services or bring convenience to people on Earth inorder to improve life quality. Satellites are mainly used as a source ofinformation for problem solving and support sustainable development includingmanage natural resources like forest, ocean, iceberg, petroleum and help inemergency situations for example forest fire, pollution of oil spill onocean. The main goal of remote sensing satellite is usethe satellite to detect and classify objects on Earth in the atmosphere andoceans, based on certain electromagnetic radiation. 2 Satellite data such asearth-observation imagery can be used for healthcare industry. Thesetechnologies allow to develop a greater understanding of Earth planetenvironment related to planet health and the effects of human’s actions on theworld’s health.
This technology directly impacts those in areas wherehealthcare is lacking especially poor country with poor accessibility to healthresources and diseases are prominent. There are several ways satellite data can be usedto improve global public health such as monitoring water levels and waterevaporation by observing the Earth’s water cycle to optimize safe and cleanwater access by ensure population including human, animal and plants andresulting in ensure health. Moreover satellite payload can be used to measureair-borne particulate levels, so that impact of pollutant heavy air can beaccessed. Large carbon emitters also can be identified by satellite technology.3 There are few current on-going example usedsatellite technology to help in gather, manage and solve main and complexpublic health problems in some countries. Furthermore, satellite data has beenapplied to solve or improve health problem such as Malaria in Vietnam,Onchocerciasis disease in West Africa 3 and more. The management of complexpublic health problems can be done by communication, remote sensing andnavigation satellites. Satellite data also can be used to identifydangerous mosquito populations.
Mosquitoes are known carriers of a wide rangeof diseases like malaria, dengue, tuberculosis, and more. However commercialsatellite is not able to detect the tiny mosquito effectively, but theenvironmental characteristic of their habits can be identify by satellite datafrom remote sensing and navigation satellites. The multispectral andhyperspectral satellites is used to identify the environment, biological factorand geographic factor of health related information for surveys, monitoringprogrammes in the field of the disease have come in investigate the effectivemethod by healthcare professionals to control these disease from spreadingaccurately. 2.0 PROBLEM STATEMENT Dengueis a serious public health problem in many countries throughout the worldincluding Malaysia. Global incidence of dengue has grown dramatically in recentdecades (WHO 2009) 4. In Malaysia, dengue cases are reported in all stateseach year.
Up to 19th May 2012, 9,607 dengue cases with 20 deaths were recordedin Malaysia, compared to 7,963 dengue cases with 12 deaths for the sameduration in 2011 (Ministry of Health Malaysia 2012) 5. However,controlling the primary dengue virus vector, Aedes aegypti, has proven adifficult undertaking in the modern urban landscape. Aedes exploits a widevariety of containers that are found in domestic habitats as larval developmentsites, including containers ranging in size from bottles and cans to largewater storage tanks 6. Uncontrolled urban growth, which often is accompaniedby a lack of piped water or unreliable water supplies, and the proliferation ofnon-degradable trash containers in today’s throwaway society combine to providean ample supply of larval development sites and makes it difficult toeffectively control Ae.
aegypti. Withcurrent technology, there still no specific medications to treat dengue orvaccine commercially available can against dengue. 7 Vaccine development ishindered by the lack of suitable animal models and the requirement for a robusttetravalent vaccine that covers all four serotypes of dengue. While vaccinesare under development, it is not clear how they can be best applied when theyare available, including in combination with other interventions like mosquitocontrol.
Therefore, to reduce the risk of dengue infection, prevention is themost important step. The only method available in the control and prevention ofdengue fever is to reduce the Aedes population. Early detection of Aedespopulation and habitat is important to reduce the dengue reservoir. Despitethis trend of increasing cases of dengue, surveillance for this vector-borneviral disease remains largely passive in most of the Southeast Asian countriesespecially Malaysia, without adequate laboratory support. Dengue outbreaks ischallenging because the location people are contracting the disease isdifficult to figure out. The poor coverage and ineffective inspection of houseand premise inspection carried out might be because of the problem of man-powerand the ability of the mosquitoes to breed in small and hidden area.
Mosquitocontrol methods, except for chemical treatment against adult mosquitos, usuallyrequire a knowledge of the location of the aquatic habitats in which themosquito larvae are developing. 8 Nonetheless, as the conventional approachesare less successful in managing the dengue transmission. Therefore, the methodsused did not reduce the case of dengue infection effectively and cause thenumber of case of dengue infection cannot be controlled from increasing. InMalaysia, there are still lacking of effective way to detect the habitat orpopulation of the Aedes mosquito before there is any case of dengue reported.To achieve an effective vector control program, analysed epidemiologic andentomologic surveillance data must be collected and analysed.
Based on the datawith particular emphasis on ecologic factors then determine where, how, andwhen to initiate vector control. 3.0 MISSION OBJECTIVE With respect to the problem discussed in theabove section, a number of mission objective of the remote sensing satelliteneed to accomplish. 3.1 Tomonitor, assess and predict dengue in Malaysia The key to the dengue forecasting tool liesin pinpointing areas where prime breeding grounds for these mosquitos overlapsimultaneously with human populations. 9.
Predicting where these mosquitoswill flourish relies on identifying areas with warm air temperatures and calmwaters, such as ponds and puddles, which they need for laying eggs9. By usingthe ongoing information on precipitation, temperature, soil moisture andvegetation in Malaysia targeted area, predict the dengue case in the area andtake action to stop the population of Mosquito Aedes. This satellite design study will explorethe mosquito vector group’s preferred habitat and reliably predict risk ofdengue transmission and, subsequently, incidence of infected human populations.3.
2 To identify the relationshipbetween environmental factors and dengue transmissionLike all organisms, eachspecies of mosquito is adapted to a specific ecological niche. 10.Larvae of some species can tolerate only a very narrow ecological range,whereas larvae of other species are more broadly adapted and may be widelydistributed in a great variety of habitats. Appropriate breedingground for mosquitoes vary by species and can be identified based on thecombination of plant type, ground cover, air quality, and volume of waterpresent in a specific area. Therefore, the data collected by the satellite will be used toinvestigate and to see if any relationships exist between dengue incidence or prevalenceand environmental variable including humidity, rainfall, land cover, land use,temperature and local cultural practice. Remotely sensed environmental data and ecologicalinformation synthesized will be used to quantify and examine any possiblerelationship between dengue transmission risk and environment factors. Then,effective vector control can be carried out based on the data obtained todecide the location and period to start the control action.