Some Medicinal Plants Of Western Ghats Biology Essay
A survey on Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal spore copiousness and species composing was undertaken in 25 medicative workss in the Anamalai Hills, Western Ghats. The fungous spores found in the dirt sample include Acaulospora, Glomus, Gigaspora, Sclerocystis and Scutellospora, genus. Among the rhizosphere dirt examined, a maximal spore count of 696 spores/100 gm dirt. The maximal spore population was observed during the winter season and per centum of colonisation was found to be high during the summer season. The spore population was observed maximal in Tribulus subramaniamii. There is a correlativity between spore copiousness and colonisation with regard to seasonal forms were observed in this survey.
Keywords- AMF, Mycorrhiza, Spore population and Root Colonization.
Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi ( AMF ) are a omnipresent group of dirt Fungis colonising the roots of workss belonging to more than 90 % of works households ( Brundett, 1991 ) . Enhanced works growing due to AMF association is good documented ( Bagyaraj, 1984 ) . In the past few decennaries, AMF have emerged as possible biofertilisers, a inexpensive, environmentally friendly alternate to expensive chemical fertilisers. AM Fungis are obligate symbiotic dirt Fungi which colonize the roots of the bulk of workss. The happening of this association has been frequently reported from really hard environment ( Arctic & A ; Desert ) to normal agro ecosystems. The association of this symbiotic relationship between the workss and fungus is widely reported and recognized by assorted research workers in assorted parts of the universe. It is estimated that 90 % of the tellurian workss signifiers association with fungous spouse for good web of both works and fungus.
It is hard to separate the comparative parts of the different types of propagules to colonisation of the root systems of workss turning in any peculiar field state of affairs that is to the ‘infectivity ‘ of the dirt. The denseness of the spores in dirt can be determined, but although this sometimes shows a correlativity to the extent of root colonisation ( Suresh and Nagarajan, 2011 ) .
Medicative herbs are known as beginnings of phyto-chemicals, or active compounds that are widely sought after worldwide for their natural belongingss. They are utile beginning of indispensable oil and have been used for a long clip in the perfumery, decorative, nutrient and pharmaceutical industry.
The potency for increasing medicative works growing by effectual direction of AM strains reinforces the demand to find AM colonisation of workss and the species composing of the AM community. Since most of the AM Fungis are host specific it is necessary to happen out the specificity of the being. Earlier surveies have indicated host penchants of mycorrhizal Fungis ( Miller et al. , 1987 ) , therefore proposing the demand for choosing efficient AMF for a peculiar host ( Sailo and Bagyaraj, 2005 ) . In this present survey an effort has been made to happen out the happening and per centum of colonisation of AM fungus in 25 medicative workss was assessed.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
1. Study country
The survey country Anamalai hills is a important section of the Western Ghats, which lies between 10° 13 ‘ to 10° 33 ‘ N in latitude and 76° 49 ‘ to 77° 21 ‘ E. The flora of this part, harbor many endemic species and is a alone ecological piece of land rich in biodiversity. The forest piece of land of Anamalais exhibiting a broad diverseness in terrain, lift and clime supports diverse floras of dramatic differences. The chief scope of Anamalai hills has a general way from North West to south east, with an lift runing from ca 900 m to 2500 meitnerium.
2. Collection and analysis of samples
The rhizosphere dirt and root samples of 10 Asteraceae members were indiscriminately collected during Jan 2008 to Dec 2008 in a polyethylene bag and stored in icebox in Kongunadu Arts and Science College Laboratory for farther analysis. The rhizosphere dirt samples were wet-sieved for spores utilizing the method described by ( Gerdeman and Nicolson, 1963 ) . Hundred gms of dirt from each works rhizosphere were independently suspended in 150 ml H2O, stirred with a magnetic scaremonger for 10 min, sieved utilizing 40, 70, 100 and 150 millimeter screens with tap H2O, filtered onto a filter paper, and so placed in a 9 centimeter Petri dish for scrutiny under a binocular stereomicroscope. The integral, healthy AMF spores with reflecting visual aspects were considered to be alive and counted in the four sieved samples. The spores were identified utilizing keys adopted by Schenck and Perez ( 1990 ) and Raman and Mohankumar ( 1988 ) .
For the convenience of the survey the period has been classified into three seasons viz. winter ( Jan-Apr ) , summer ( May-Aug ) and showery ( Sep-Dec ) .
Result and Discussion
This survey describes the distribution of VAM Fungi in the rhizosphere dirt of medicative workss. Both workss and rhizosphere dirts were collected during January to December of 2008. Twenty five common herbaceous workss of autochthonal medicative value belonging to 17 households from 4 different sites were screened for AM association. All the workss were found to be positive AM colonisation and were belonging to different genera. The spore population and per centum of root colonisation was observed on the form of seasonal fluctuation. The season was classified as Summer, Winter and rainy for the convenience of the survey. The maximal spore population was found to be maximal during the winter season. The maximal population was found in Tribulus subramaniamii of Zygophyllaceae. The minimal spore population was seen in Euphorbia hirta during the rainy season.
The root colonisation was observed maximal during the summer season in Zizyphus Christ’s-thorn of Rhamnaceae and lower limit was observed Fluggea leucopyarus of Euphorbiaceae. The root colonisation was maximal during the summer season this may be due to the increased activity of the works and demand for the foods and H2O emphasis. The diminution in the infection was observed during the rainy season. This may be due to the inactive status of the workss and rinsing off of the spores by rain H2O or may be because of the carnal perturbations.
The widely accepted construct of increased monogenesis and colonisation in winter and summer and worsening towards the rainy season was observed in the present survey. Again, we are non able to reason the exact ground for the addition in SP during summer and found really less during rainy season may be due to inactiveness of the works or less stress conditions of the workss during these seasons.
The grade of fluctuations in root colonisation was varied from species to species and even within the species of same household. This shows the host specificity of the AMF and impact of abiotic factors such as clime, dirt and perturbation by animate beings. The climatic fluctuation influences the choice of AMF or regulates the incidence of certain specific strains in the dirt ( Requena et al. , 1996 ) . Throughout the survey, a correlativity was seen in the spore populations and temperature. This form of correlativity was reported by Suresh and Nagarajan, ( 2009 ) . A elaborate survey with more parametric quantities such as dirt characters, dirt foods, animate being and human perturbation degrees are required to cognize exact grounds for these fluctuations. This observation is in conformity with in state of affairss where denseness of spores is positively correlated with the extent of root colonisation, both may increase during the turning season of one-year workss. Decreases in denseness with deepness of dirt could good be associated with the diminution in denseness of roots and mycorrhizas ( Hayman, 1970 ) . Based on the spores the survey revealed that the genus Glomus is ruling the rhizosphere of all times of trying. Out of 5 genus observed the glomus is the most common genus found associated with about all the works species. Previously many research workers have reported the laterality of the genus Glomus worldwide. This could impute to the survival ability of Glomus in many agro ecological conditions of Anamalai Hills. In aggregating with these present observations, assorted workers reported the omnipresent nature of Glomus species in assorted tropical dirts ( Gerdemann, 1968 ) . Thus the copiousness and colonisation expressions rich in the dirts will be the ground for the broad distribution of species profusion of the works community.