Socy 210 Essay, Research Paper
Chapter 2 Paradigms, Theory and Research
+ Logical accounts are what theories seek to supply.
+ Theories map in 3 ways: 1 & # 8211 ; prevents our being taken by good lucks ( if we know why it is go oning we can expect whether it will work in the hereafter )
2 & # 8211 ; theories make sense of ascertained spiels in ways that suggest other possibilities. ( if we can understand grounds ; we can take effectual action )
3 theories can determine and direct research attempts, indicating toward likely finds through empirical observation ( theory directs research workers where to detect interesting spiels in societal life )
+ Paradigms the cardinal theoretical accounts or frames of referance we use to form our observations and logical thinking.
x a point of position among many we must regognize that our positions and feelings are the consequence of paradigms we have been socialized into.
x 2 benefits of acknowledging we are working within paradigms 1 ) we are better able to understand positions and actions of others runing from a different paradigm. & A ; 2 ) we can see new ways of seeing and explicating things. **** We can non make these things every bit long as we mistake our paradigm for world.
ten Thomas Kuhn ( 1970 ) & # 8211 ; Paradigms play functions in natural scientific discipline every bit good. Major scientific paradigms include Copernicus s position of the Earth traveling around the Sun ( alternatively of the contrary ) , Darwin s theory of development, Newtonian mechanics, and Einstein s relativity. Which scientific theories make sense depends on which paradigm scientists are keeping.
ten Social scientist develop paradigms of understanding societal behavior. Each makes certain premises about the nature of societal world. Ultimately, paradigms can non be true of false ( merely more or less utile )
+ Macrotheory and Microtheory & # 8211 ;
ten Macrotheory: the battle among economic categories, international dealingss, interrelatednesss between major establishments in society i.e. authorities, faith & A ; household & # 8211 ; trades with big aggregative entities of society or even whole societies.
ten Microtheory: more intimate position, trades with issues at the degree of persons or little groups. Surveies frequently come near to the kingdom of psychological science.
ten Auguste Comte identified society as a phenomenon that can be studied scientifically. Society merely was.
tens Comte replaced spiritual belief with scientific objectiveness.
ten Comte developed his positive doctrine which suggests three phases of history & # 8211 ; theological phase: up until 1300s ( chiefly religious )
ten Metaphysical phase: the following 500 old ages, replaced God with thoughts of nature and natural jurisprudence. Finally his following phase ( Positivism ) would utilize cognition to replace faith and metaphysics. Based observations on five senses. Comte felt society could be studied and understood locially and rationally.
x The positive paradigm assumes we can scientifically detect the regulations regulating societal life.
ten Karl MARX suggest that societal behavior could outdo been seen as the procedure of struggle: the effort to rule others and avoid being dominated.
tens Focused chiefly on the battle between economic categories.
The manner capitalist economy produced the subjugation of workers. He was besides committed to reconstituting economic dealingss and to stop this subjugation.
ten Marx chiefly addressed macrotheoretical issues ( big establishments and whole societies )
ten Georg SIMMEL studied small-scale struggle, conflicts amongst members of little groups
x Often focuses on category, gender, and cultural battles ( wherever different groups have viing involvements ) .
x Simmel & # 8211 ; was more interested in the ways persons interacted with one another ( micro ) began by analyzing couples & A ; triads he wrote about the web of group association
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ten Simmel ( European ) influenced U.S. developments in George H. Mead and Charles H. Cooley who developed it into a powerful paradigm of research.
ten This paradigm lends penetrations into the nature of interactions in ordinary societal life it can besides assist us understand unusual signifiers of interaction.
ten Examines how shared significances and societal forms are developed in the class of societal interactions.
tens Harold Garfinkel takes the point of position that people are continually making societal construction through their actions and interactions ( making their ain worlds )
ten People continually seeking to do sense of the life they experience, Garfinkel suggests that everyone is moving like a societal scientist: hence the term ethnomethodology methodological analysis of the people.
ten Making sense of other behaviors
ten Research within the ethnometho. Paradigm frequently focuses on communicating.
ten Focuss on the ways people make sense out of life in the procedure of populating it, as though each were a research worker engaged in an enquiry.
ten Sometimes know as societal systems theory. Breaks things manner down.
x A societal entity ( organisation or a whole society ) can be viewed as parts, each lending to the map of the whole the human organic structure for an anology ( bosom, lungs, encephalon, etc. )
x The position of society as a societal system looks at the maps served by assorted constituents.
ten Police service to protect society, felons create occupation security for constabulary each map serves the system.
ten When societal research workers look for the maps served by poorness, favoritism, or subjugation of adult females, they are non warranting these things. Rather they seek to understand the functions such things play in the larger society as a manner a understanding why they persist and how the could be eliminated.
ten Feminist ( of both genders ) began oppugning the usage of masculine nouns and pronouns whenever gender was equivocal.
x Now focused on gender differences and how they relate to the remainder of society.
ten In add-on to pulling attending to the subjugation of adult females in most societies, highlight how old images of societal world have frequently come from and reinforced to experiences of work forces.
Two Logical Systems Revisited & # 8211 ; Deductive and inductive theory
+ The traditional Model of Science
x 3 chief elements theory, operationalization, and observation
ten utilizations deductive logic.
ten THEORY scientist start with a theory from which they derive a hypothesis that they can prove
ten OPERATIONALIZATION to prove any hypothesis the significances of all the variables must be specified.
x Literally means the operations involved in mensurating a variable.
ten Operational definition ( def. ) the concrete and specific definition of something in footings of the operations by which observations are to be categorized. Pg 446
ten OBSERVATION looking at the universe and doing measurings of what is seen
ten Having developed theoretical lucidity and outlooks and holding created a scheme for looking, all that remains is to look at the manner things really appear.
x Disconfirmability & # 8212 ; is an indispensable quality in any hypothesis. If there is no opportunity your hypothesis will be disconfirmed, it hasn T said anything meaningful.
+ Deduction and Induction Compared
ten Induction starts from observed informations and develops a generalisation which explains the relationships between the objects observed ; Deduction starts from some general jurisprudence and applies it to a peculiar case.
x 2 instance illustrations pg 38-44
+ Deductive Theory Construction
ten List to form your theory 1. specify your subject
2. specify the scope of phenomena your theory references. ( who/what will