Socrates And Descartes On Dualism Essay, Research Paper
Socrates and Descartes on Dualism
Dualism means the complete separation of the mental universe and the physical universe. In doctrine, it is the theory that the existence is explicable merely as a whole composed of two distinct and reciprocally sole factors: the head and the organic structure. Socrates and Plato are called dualists because they think that head and organic structure are separate and distinguishable substances. Mind is witting and non-spatial and organic structure is spacial but non witting. While separate, these two substances interact. Both Socrates and Descartes argue that the head and organic structure are dissociable and immortal.
In the Phaedo, Socrates argues that the organic structure is attached to the psyche but that the psyche can be independently of it. In fact, as the organic structure drags the psyche about, it merely confuses the psyche with its senses and does non let the psyche to obtain truth and wisdom. The lone manner the psyche can happen pure cognition or world is to go separate from the organic structure since & # 8220 ; the psyche grounds best when none of the senses troubles it but when it is most by itself, taking leave of the organic structure in its hunt for world & # 8221 ; ( Plato 102 ) .
In the chase of cognition, the lone manner to detect world is to divide the organic structure from the psyche. This freedom from the organic structure is called decease. This does non intend that one should populate in a province close to decease, but one should non fear decease.
Socrates explains that & # 8221 ; our psyches existed apart from the organic structure before they took on a human signifier & # 8221 ; ( Plato 115 ) .
Since our psyches were alive before we existed, so harmonizing to Socrates, our psyches exist after decease besides. Souls exist in two ways after decease. If a individual is good and follows the patterns of doctrine, so their psyche will & # 8220 ; do its manner to the unseeable, which like itself, the Godhead and immortal and wise & # 8221 ; ( Plato 120 ) . Here it will be free of human ailments such as ignorance, confusion, and fright, and pass its clip with the Gods. However, if a P
erson thinks they know what they do non cognize and does non follow the patterns of doctrine, so their psyche will roll aimlessly until it is forced to its proper dwelling topographic point.
Descartes agrees with Plato that the head and organic structure are dissociable and infinite by utilizing his method of uncertainty to demo that he could non doubt the being of his head. As doubting involved idea, and thought demands a consciousness to believe it, Descartes was certain that he could non doubt his head existed: cogito ergo amount & # 8220 ; I think hence I am & # 8221 ; . He claims to cognize what a thought think is, and he regards himself as a believing thing.
Although Descartes by and large agrees with Plato on this topic, he disagrees that there is needfully a physical organic structure at all. Descartes did believe that it was possible to doubt the being of his organic structure. Many times he had dreams which he found to hold no footing in world. He imagined that a malicious devil might be gulling him into believing that he had a organic structure. Subsequently he argues that God exists and that as God exists he can be reasonably certain that his organic structure exits besides.
Descartes explained that while he could logically deny the being of a physical substance, he can non logically deny that of mental substance, so they must be separate. But, how do mind and count interact? The Cartesian solution is to take a firm stand that the mental representation does non stand for the physical. However, since this does non wholly explain the job, Descartes insists that God is responsible for these interactions and merely He knows how the procedure works.
Both Descartes and Plato agree that the head, characterized by mental substance, and the organic structure, characterized by physical substance, are dissociable and immortal. However, Descartes inquiries whether the physical organic structure even truly exists at all. Although these philosophers do non hold a clear apprehension of how the head and organic structure, which are separate entities, interact, they clearly agree that mental and physical are dissociable and immortal.