Social Stratification Essay Research Paper 3 SOCIAL
Social Stratification Essay, Research Paper3.
SOCIAL STRATIFICATION and System Change-Starting point of Modernity ( from ideological point of position ) :Gallic Revolution & # 8217 ; s Slogans: Libert? ( Freedom ) , Egalit? ( Equality ) , Fraternit? ( Brotherhood )1. freedom of the persons ; chief establishment: the MARKET ( economic sciences )2. equality of LIFE CHANCES, or more disbelieving reading:- purpose: to diminish the inequalities of life opportunities3. tolerance and credence between different civilizations, states, ethnicities- SOCIAL ( and Economic ) INEQUALITIES in the centre of STRATIFICATION attacks- Sociable Stratification: the division of a population into UNEQUAL LAYERS or STRATA based on income, wealth, gender, ethnicity, power, position, faith, age or some other features.-SLAVERY system: the persons, who are considered as SLAVES do non possess a personal physical freedom & # 8211 ; e.g. : Antic Rome & # 8211 ; subjection of & # 8220 ; inferior & # 8221 ; barbar folks, inkinesss in the United States, ( first half of the nineteenth century )-CASTE SYSTEM: ascribed societal positions ( societal position at BIRTH ) provide the chief bases of unequal distribution of societal resourcese.g.
India: Brahmin ( male parents: priests, 2 % ) , Kshatriya ( warriors, 1 % ) , Vaisya ( bargainers, 7 % ) , Sudra ( craftsmans, 70 % ) and Untouchables ( 20 % )- it is a Closed system: people have great trouble in altering position-CLASS SYSTEM: an unfastened system, where people can alter position, in which ACHIEVED position provide the chief footing for the unequal distribution of societal resources-Social CLASSES ( based on ECONOMIC features, such as wealth and income )1. Marxist attack: Conflict between two categories, e.g. in the capitalist & # 8220 ; manner of production & # 8221 ; : BOURGEOISIE ( capitalists, proprietors of productive wealth ) against PROLETARIAT ( landless pay workers )2. WEBERian attack: in capitalist societies inequalities can be associated with the MARKET ; market capacity determines LIFE CHANCES- class+ STATUS ( the relation PRESTIGE of a individual & # 8217 ; s societal standing ) + power- purpose: Empirical description of a society ( MERTON vs. Parsons )Merton: middle-range theories ; associate theories to empirical testingParsons: & # 8220 ; expansive theory & # 8221 ; ; strictly theoretical concept of AGIL-scheme- empirical illustrations for stratification in modern-day societies1.
the hapless 2. working category ( unskilled, semi-skilled and skilled manual workers ) 3. in-between category ( e.g. white neckbands ) 4. upper category ( ELITE: who can act upon the most of import DECISIONS in a field )- Status: a composite index of several societal features ( e.
g. : income, business, instruction, topographic point of life, life manner, ethnicity, gender etc. ) which create societal beds ( strata )- Status INCONSISTENCY: different features seem to belie( e.g. : a top director of a MNCs, populating in a little small town, holding merely a primary degree of instruction etc.
)- Incongruence: your occupational Position does non suit to your degree of instruction ( e.g. ELITE in early phase of State Socialism )- a modern-day theory of societal stratification: theory of capitalsBOURDIEU 1. economic ( stuff ) : wealth, income 2. cultural ( human ) : embodied ( instruction ) and symbolic ( life manner, cultural forms ) 3. societal ( friends, affinity webs e.
g to acquire INFORMATION, acquiring a JOB, to hold stuff or emotional Support in instance of jobs )- Examples for MEASUREMENT- Meritocracy: your place based on youR KNOWLEDGE ( frequently identified by your degree of instruction ) , your WORK PERFORMANCE- Reproduction of inequalities? In modern-day societies by the establishments of the EDUCATION ( a possible transition of the different signifiers of capitals: e.g. if you pay more, you can acquire into better schools )- Mobility: alteration in socio-economic position( e.g from an unskilled worker to a top director at an MNCs )- intragenerational ( inside one life history, e.g. as a 20-years-old unskilled worker vs.
a 45-years-old top director ) and intergenerational ( from one coevals to the other ; compared to your male parent and/or female parent ) mobility-upward and downward mobility- Relative want: your comparative place has become deserving compared to other societal strata ( e.g. Roma people in Hungary during province socialism: their absolute place improved, but the distance between them and the other portion of the society grew )- Example: SYSTEM CHANGE and Stratification in Hungary after 1989- passage or transmutation? ( a long theoretical argument )- Bartha & # 8217 ; s reading ( personal position ) :Passage: in the degree of the AIMS/goals: e.g.
from state-socialism to a free-market capitalist economyTransformation: in the degree of TECHNICS, the choosen economic policies ( PATH-dependence ) ; e.g. Denationalization: how? in Hungary: centralised tendering vs. Czech Republic: voucher-privatisation- the INNER STRATIFICATION of the ECONOMIC ELITE during the transmutation ( passage ) period- Elite: those people who are able to inleunce the most of import DECISION-MAKING procedures in the economic, cultural or political domain ( severally: economic, cultural or political elite ) ; the members of the elite are NOT needfully neither the & # 8220 ; richest & # 8221 ; 1s, nore the & # 8220 ; most celebrated & # 8221 ; 1s- empirical description of the elite:1. reputational sample ( e.g.
: different & # 8220 ; ART schools & # 8221 ; )2. institutional ( positional ) sample- e.g. economic elite in Hungary during the 90 & # 8217 ; ssections: big industrial corporations ( among them: MNCs ) , banks+ other fiscal establishments ( insurance and agent companies ) , economic ministries, Parliament & # 8217 ; s economic commissions- places: at least a & # 8220 ; caput of section & # 8221 ;- the privilegised section: fiscal section + MNCs- younger people, more adult females, predomination of economic instruction ( vs.
technology /industrial corp./ or jurisprudence /Parliament/ ) , more refined life manner ( higher cultural ingestion ; near to that of that cultural elite! )- the degree of ELITE REPRODUCTION is comparatively high ( the alteration of the elect members is comparatively low ) compared to the other post-communist elites ( Poland, Czech Republic ) WHY?- 1. power transition theory ( Hankiss ) : successful transition of the former nomenklatura & # 8217 ; s /party leaders/ political power to economic powerMeasurement:- index 1: prima HSWP- ( MSZMP- ) party place in the 80 & # 8217 ; s- index 2: new economic elite place-2. techocratic continuity theory ( Szalai ) : in Hungary the elect alteration has started in the 80 & # 8217 ; s & # 8211 ; most of the former elite & # 8217 ; s members had still an appropriate degree of instruction before 1989, they could conserve their place thanks to their expertism, & # 8220 ; technocratic & # 8221 ; professional cognitionMeasurement:- index 1: degree of incongruence before 1989- index 2: degree of incongruence in the 90 & # 8217 ; sConsequence of the empirical testing: instead the hypothesis of technocratic continuity can be maintained