Snakes And Effects Of Bites Biology Essay

This chapter focuses on the background information from old research worker that is considered important in development of this research, attack that have used for so Artificial Neural Network particularly in Kohonen Neural Network and Backpropagation Neural Network. They are many beginnings for literature reappraisal which are diaries, articles, past pupil research paper or thesis, books, encyclopedia, on-line beginning such as at Science Direct, IEEE and others. The account will be done consecutive where it will assist the development procedure in this research.


Snake in Malaysia

Southeast Asia is home to a broad diverseness of serpent species happening in Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Borneo, Indonesia, Philippines and everyplace else in this part. Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo entirely are place to perchance more than 200 different species of serpents that occupy all degrees of tropical rain forest. These serpents come in a kaleidoscope of colourss ‘ with a broad scope of forms and sizes. Snakes besides play an of import ecological function in continuing the natural environment through their marauding function of feeding on toads, lizards, mammals, fish, insects and even other serpents.In Malaysia, and around coastal Waterss of the part, harmonizing to Tan N.H ( n.d ) there are at least 18 different species deadly forepart fanged land serpents and more than 22 different species of sea serpents. These deadly are divided to other 5 subfamilies.

They are Crotaline, Elapinae, Laticaudinae, Hydrophiini and Ephalipiini. Crotalinae and Elapinae are land snake types and Laticaudinae, Hydrophiini and Ephalopiini are sea snake types ( Tan N.H, 2000 ) .

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TheA Crotalinae, or crotalines, are aA subfamilyA ofA venomousA vipersA found inA AsiaA and theA Americas. They are distinguished by the presence of a heat-sensing cavity organ located between the oculus and the anterior naris on either side of the caput. These serpents range in size from the bantam hump-nosed viper, hey all portion a common feature: a deep cavity, or pit, in the loreal country between the oculus and the anterior naris on either side of the caput.

TheseA loreal pitsA are the external gaps to a brace of highly sensitiveA infraredA observing variety meats, which in consequence give the serpents a 6th sense that helps them to happen and possibly even judge the size of the little warm-blooded quarry on which they feed ( Campbell & A ; Lamar, 2004 )

Elapinae And Hydrophiini

ElapidaeA or in GreekA called ellopsA which intending to sea-fishA is aA familyA ofA venomousA snakesA found inA tropicalA andA subtropicalA parts around the universe, mundanely inA AsiaA andA North AmericaA and aquatically in theA PacificA andA Indian Oceans.A All elapids have a brace ofA proteroglyphousA Fangs that are used to injectA venomA from secretory organs located towards the rear of the upper jaws. In outward visual aspect terrestrialA elapids look similar to theA Colubridae: about all have long and slight organic structures with smooth graduated tables, a caput that is covered with big shields and non ever distinct from the cervix, and eyes with unit of ammunition students. In add-on, their behaviour is normally rather active and most areA oviparous. The Fangs are the first two dentitions on eachA maxillaryA bone, which are enlarged and hollow, and normally merely one is in topographic point on each side at any clip. The upper jaw is intermediate in length and mobility between typical colubrids ( long, less nomadic ) and viperids ( really abruptly, extremely nomadic ) .



TheA Laticauda is the least altered to sea life of all the members of Hydrophiidae ; it retains the broad ventral graduated tables typical of tellurian serpents and has merely a ill developed tail fin.A LaticaudaA are adapted to populating on land and in shallow seas.. Litacauda frequently active at dark, which is when they prefer to run. Even though they contain one of the most toxic venoms in the universe ( their bite is 10 times more toxic than that of theA King Cobra ) , A LaticaudaA are normally non aggressive towards worlds, and inA New Caledonia, where they are calledA tricot rayeA ( “ stripeyA jumper ” ) , kids play with them. Bites are highly rare, but must be treated instantly.

Snakebite Cases in Malaya

Most of the instances of serpent bites in Malaysia are due to the Malayan cavity viper ( Agkistrodon rhodostoma ) ( Reid et al, 1963 ; Lim and Abu Bakar, 1970 ; Muthusamy, 1988 ; Lim, 1990 ) .

Harmonizing to Tan ( 2000 ) snakebite is s serious medical job in Malaysia. He add that from 1958 to 1980, there were 50 and half thousand instances of recorded in the infirmaries in Malaysia. ( Tan N.

H, 2000 ) .

Table 1.1: The Management of Snakebites in Malaysia

Snake Speciess

Entire Cases

Fatal Cases

Malayan cavity viper ( Calloselasma rhodostoma )1136


Sea serpent158


Asiatic common cobra ( Naja naja )112


Asiatic lance-headed viper ( Trimeresurus )25


King cobra ( Ophiophagus hannah )6


Krait ( Bun garus )1






( Tan N.H, 2000 )From that statistic we can reason that most of the instances of snakebite in Malaysia in unidentified instances. This is serious job because the initial measure to assisting snakebite victim is to place snake type for farther medical intervention. Even physician will give polyvalent to unidentified instances ; this does n’t intend that it is good solution.

Snakebite Symptom

Snakebite symptoms ‘ can split to several classs by what type of venom poisoning victim demoing a marks. We do research on Elapid Venom Poisoning, Pit Viper Venom Poisoning and Sea Snake Venom Poisoning.

Snakebite symptoms ‘ can split to several classs by what type of venom poisoning victim demoing a marks. There are Elapid Poisoning Venom, Pit Viper Venom Poisoning and Sea Snake Venom Poisoning.

Elapid Venom Poisoning

All elapids are deadly and many are potentially lifelessly. The venoms are mostlyA neurotoxicA and are considered more unsafe than the mainlyA proteolytic venomsA ofA vipers. Harmonizing to NSW Health ( 2007 ) most victim from Elapid Venom Poisoning will demo paralytic mark.


Ptosis: Droopiness of a organic structure portion particularly at palpebras.Opthalmoplegia: Paralysis of the one or moreA extraocular musculuss which are responsible forA oculus motion.

Fixed dilated students: SuddenA pupillaryA dilation and loss of ability to compress in response to visible radiation.Dysarthrias: MotorA address disorderA ensuing fromA neurological hurt, characterized by hapless articulation.Dysphalgia: Symptom of trouble in get downing.Tongue bulge: Besides called “ contrary ” or “ immature ” sup is the common name given to or facial muscular instability, a human behavioural form in which the lingua protrudes through the anterior incisorsA duringA swallowing, A speechA and whiles the lingua is at remainder

Limb failing, Respiratory failing and Peak flow rate

Pit Viper Venom Poisoning

Viperid venoms typically contain an copiousness ofA protein-degrading enzymes, calledA peptidases that produce symptoms such as hurting, strong local swelling andA mortification, blood loss from cardiovascular harm complicated byA coagulopathy, and break of the blood curdling system. Death is normally caused by prostration in blood force per unit area. Proteolytic venom is besides dual-purpose: it is used for defence and to immobilise quarry, as with neurotoxic venoms, and besides many of the enzymes have a digestive map, interrupting down molecules in prey points, such asA lipoids, A nucleic acids, and proteins. ( Slowinski, 2000 ) .A This is of import, as many vipers have weak digestive systems.

Harmonizing to NSW Health ( 2007 ) most victim from Pit Viper Venom Poisoning will demo coagulopathy marks.


Persistant blood sludge.

Hematurias: the presence ofA red blood cellsA ( red blood cells ) in theA piss. It may beA idiopathicA and/orA benign, or it can be aA mark that there is aA kidney stoneA or aA tumorA in theA urinary tractA ( kidneys, A ureters, A urinary vesica, A prostate, andA urethra ) , runing from fiddling to lethal.

IfA white blood cellsA are found in add-on to red blood cells, so it is a signal of urinary piece of land infection.

And Active hemorrhage.

Sea Snake Venom Poisoning

Lapp like Elapidae household, the bulk of sea serpents are extremely deadly ; nevertheless, when bites occur, it is rare for much venom to be injected, so that envenomation symptoms normally seem non-existent or fiddling ( A Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations [ FAO ] , 2007 ) .

A For illustration, A Palmaris platurusA has venom more powerful than any other tellurian serpent species inA Costa Rica, but despite its copiousness in the Waterss off its western seashore, few human human deaths have been reported ( Campbell & A ; Lamar, 2004 ) . Nevertheless, all sea serpents should be handled with great cautiousness ( FAO, 2007 )


Muscle hurting.

Myoglobinurias: Presence ofA myoglobinA in theA piss, normally associated withA rhabdomyolysisA or musculus devastation.

Myoglobin is present inA musculus cells as a modesty ofA O.

Snake Fang Mark

Harmonizing to Nishioka, Silveira & A ; Bauab ( 1995 ) , bites Markss are utile for the differential diagnosing of snakebite. Different of diagnosing between deadly and non-venomous snakebite is really of import cause victims of the former can profit from intervention with specific anti-venin. This will assist forestalling a physician to utilize polyvalent and besides monovalent ( for not deadly snake instance ) in significance of forestalling a long term side consequence of utilizing anti-venom.

Undertaking DOMAIN


AnA unreal nervous web ( ANN ) , normally called “ nervous web ” ( NN ) , is aA mathematical modelA orA computational modelA that tries to imitate the construction and/or functional facets ofA biological nervous webs. The human encephalon incorporates about 10 billion nerve cells and 60 trillion connexions, synapse, between them. ( Sherpherd and Koch,1990 ) .

It consists of an interrelated group ofA unreal neuronsA and processes information utilizing aA connectionistA attack toA calculation. In most instances an ANN is anA adaptative systemA that changes its construction based on external or internal information that flows through the web during the learning stage. Modern nervous webs areA non-linearA statisticalA informations modelingA tools. They are normally used to pattern complex relationships between inputs and end products or toA discovery patternsA in informations.

What has attracted the most involvement in nervous webs is the possibility ofA larning. There are three major larning paradigms, each matching to a peculiar abstract larning undertaking. These areA supervised acquisition, A unsupervised learningA andA support larning. Normally any given type of web architecture can be employed in any of those undertakings.

Unsupervised Learning

InA machine acquisition, A unsupervised learningA is a category of jobs in which one seeks to find how the informations are organized. It is distinguished fromA supervised learningA ( andA support larning ) in that the scholar is given merely unlabelled illustrations. Unsupervised acquisition is closely related to the job ofA denseness estimationA inA statistics. However unsupervised acquisition besides encompasses many other techniques that seek to sum up and explicate cardinal characteristics of the informations.One signifier of unsupervised larning isA bunch. Another illustration is blind beginning separation based onA Independent Component AnalysisA ( ICA ) . AmongA nervous networkA theoretical accounts, theA Self-organizing mapA ( SOM ) andA Adaptive resonance theoryA ( ART ) are normally used unsupervised larning algorithms. The SOM is a topographic organisation in which nearby locations in the map represent inputs with similar belongingss.

The ART theoretical account allows the figure of bunchs to change with job size and lets the user control the grade of similarity between members of the same bunchs by agencies of a user-defined invariable called theA watchfulness parametric quantity. ART webs are besides used for many pattern acknowledgment undertakings, such asA automatic mark recognitionA and seismal signal processing. The first version of ART was “ ART1 ” , developed by Carpenter and Grossberg ( 1988 ) .

Self-organizing Map ( SOM )

AA self-organizing map ( SOM ) A orA self-organizing characteristic map ( SOFM ) A is a type ofA unreal nervous networkA that is trained usingA unsupervised learningA to bring forth a low-dimensional ( typically planar ) , discretized representation of the input infinite of the preparation samples, called aA map. Self-organizing maps are different from other unreal nervous webs in the sense that they use a vicinity map to continue theA topologicalA belongingss of the input infinite.

SOM utile forA visualizingA low-dimensional positions of high-dimensional informations, kindred toA multidimensional grading. The theoretical account was foremost described as an unreal nervous web by theA FinnishA professorA Teuvo Kohonen, and is sometimes called aA Kohonen map. ( A Kohonen & A ; Honkela, 2007 )Operate in two manners: preparation and function. Training builds the map utilizing input illustrations. It is a competitory procedure, besides calledA vector quantisation. Mapping automatically classifies a new input vector.Consist of constituents called nodes or nerve cells. Associated with each node is a weight vector of the same dimension as the input informations vectors and a place in the map infinite.

The usual agreement of nodes is a regular spacing in a hexangular or rectangular grid. The self-organizing map describes a function from a higher dimensional input infinite to a lower dimensional map infinite. The process for puting a vector from informations infinite onto the map is to happen the node with the closest weight vector to the vector taken from informations infinite and to delegate the map coordinates of this node to our vector.


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