Ski the most important things to keep

Ski ResortLodge-Hazzard AssessmentStephanie Sager12-11-2017This report isintended to simplify the hazard assessment completed on December 11th2017.  Mass Wasting is considered gravitypropelled erosion.  A few examples ofMass Wasting are: avalanches, landslides, and slumps (Jackson, 2000).  Some of the most important things to keep inmind for this assessment are the factors effecting the slope stability.

   The main ones for this assessment are: slope weight,material, water, vegetation, and also volcanic activity and Slope angle.There aregenerally two types of movements that have a possibility of effecting theintended site of the Lodge. One is called Creeping.  Creeping is whendebris slowly moves downhill at a speed of one centimeter or less peryear.  Factors that can cause these slowmovements are logging, adding weight to the top portion of a hill or Mt. whichcauses the heaviness to push down on the sediment, and also weather.  Remember that water is heavier than air, andthe snow levels can press down on already eroded hillsides.  Signs of Creeping include slanting trees and manmadestructures.

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  In cold climates, such asthe cascades, a continual freeze and melting process occurs). A specializedform of slow moving erosion is called Solifluction, which commonly effectsareas where permafrost is known to occur. Solifluction is then the top portion of sediment melts when the seasonschange to warm. This causes an oversupply of H2O and allows sediment to sluffoff as gravity pulls it down (H.

Jackson, 2000).  Creeping generally causes most damage toproperty by causing trees to lose hold with their root systems and minorlandslides. However, it can also be the initiator of a larger more damaginglandslide if in the right location with the right conditions.The second type of movement is the opposite ofCreeping.

  It tends to travel at higherspeeds which can cause much larger amounts of damage and even death.  These types of movements are known as a Fall,Avalanche, Slides, Slumps and Flows. Because of the speed at which these hazards occur there are not manyways to plan for evacuation.  The onlyway to survive one of these events are to mitigate ways to avoid being in thedirect path of such an event.While reviewing the grounds there was evidenceof splintered granite on the south side cliff of the valley.  Directly under this cliff were large piecesof granite that appear to have fallen from the above cliff.  This, along with the trees located above thefragmentation, is evidence of rock slides that could cause damage to the newlodge and possible complete destruction.

 The degrees of slope is also important to note on this southern rockface cliff.  It is extremely steep, whichcauses concern for the speed and amount of debris that could harm guests at thelodge.Located to the north there are layers ofsandstone and shale that are parallel to the slope.

  If one looks closely at the forest and vegetationthey could see the curvature of the trunks which show the movement of the landpointing downhill.  Located at the bottomof the northern hill is a collection of sediment, which has already slid down.This is known as talus.

 A volcano is also in close proximity to this skiresort.  If there were any activity fromthis volcano, located 10km west, it could cause the earth to shake and theground to loosen.  With the amount ofsnow and moisture at this location there would be a great chance of largeavalanches, mud slides (warmer season), rock slides, and landslides. All ofwhich would be funneled down to the valley of where the proposed lodge would belocated.

  While looking at the coresample taken from the site location, there is evidence of volcanic rock,pumice, mud and clay, decomposed tree material, sand, gravel, sandstone andshale.  Suffice it to say, there has beenprior volcanic activity at this exact location. The previous natural disaster included volcanic lava, mud slides, rockslides, slumps, and all around devastation. Based on the evidence from prior history andcurrent conditions, the location of this ski resort is unsuitable as apotential site.  There is a high likelihoodthat any of the above mentioned movements could happen at any time. One hazardcould happen one after another and cause continual threats to life andproperty, or all of them could happen at once if the volcano becameactive.



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