Sixtiess Counterculture: 10 Pg Proposal Essay, Research Paper
& # 65279 ; The 1960ss were disruptive times for America, both domestically and abroad. During the
1960ss America witnessed the blackwash of a president, the blackwash of a civil rights
leader, a? struggle? in Vietnam, and a counterculture revolution among the young person. The
counterculture would peacefully protest and beat up against the authorities early on, but as the
decennary progressed, the counterculture would divide into assorted cabals. Some of these sliver
groups would transport out violent steps to do themselves, and there sentiments, known. While
the violent actions were carried out by a rigorous minority, they attracted much attending from the
The intent of this paper is to set up a connexion between the peace motion and
the force perpetrated by the counterculture. I feel that it is of import that we find out how a
motion that was peaceable in the beginning could stop up being so violent. The fact that
Americas young person could acquire caught up in such a terrorization and violent state of affairs should be of
concern to all of us. The music, and music festivals, of the epoch are besides worthy of consideration.
Did the music contribute to the force, or was it a merely contemplation of the convulsion felt during the
In order to understand the violent groups and their connexion with the counterculture, we
foremost necessitate to understand what the counterculture was. The 1960ss were full of groups which lived
outside of the norm, one of the earlier and most celebrated groups to organize were the flower peoples. ? In
1965, Herb Caen of the San Francisco Chronicle labeled these people? flower peoples, ? as if they were
learner flower peoples. The immature insurrectionists called themselves? monsters? or? caputs, ? and they called
their? here and now revolution? a counterculture. ? The flower peoples were into populating a communal life,
a life of peace and repose and they were blowing the universe? s head. Harmonizing to Stern, ? The
dazing thing about them was that they were so happy. They did non reject the buoyancy that
suffused the early 1960ss. They smiled and danced and got high and loved everybody. They
wore flowers in their hair and painted their organic structures like freaky Easter eggs. Their plan for a
better universe was one where everyone was laid-back. ?
The flower peoples embraced music and drug, particularly marijuana and LSD. The flower peoples felt
that LSD would assist liberate their head, and they embraced the effects of the drug. Burton Wolf, a
coeval of the hippy scene, wrote, ? Several times, I saw barefoot hippy misss in a large heap
of Canis familiaris body waste, calmly walk to the kerb, and grate it off like you would from your shoe, ? I
used to worry about things like that before I took LSD, ? one of them told me. ? Now my head has
opened, and I see that it? s all portion of life: soil, fecal matters everything. Fecal matters are groovy. ? ? The flower peoples
were peaceable people who were seeking to do the universe better, this, nevertheless, would alter. A
big part of the flower peoples would be brought into extremist groups and unwittingly be turned
1967 marked a alteration in the manner of protesting. ? After 1967, countercultural militants
followed two major waies: the radical? charming political relations? of the Yippies, and the? here and
now? revolution of rural communes. ? The interruption from the flower peoples manner of thought is in portion due
to the ineffectualness of their? here and now? revolution. They were tired of peaceable protests as
the agencies to their terminal and they were sick of the endless theorizing of the New Left. They
wanted consequences. The Yippies ( an acronym for the Youth International Party ) , ? . . .were conceived
by Abbie Hoffman, Paul Krassner, Dick Gregory, Jerry Rubin and friends on New Years Eve in
1967 to wheedle, goose, entice and daze 1000s of monsters to Chicago for the August Democratic
Convention, create there a? Festival of Life? against the? Convention of Death, ? a? blending of pot
and political relations. . . a cross-fertilisation of hippy and New Left philosophies. ?
The Yippies were a extremist group, a group that wanted to agitate up all of the? heterosexual?
people. Be it the manner they looked or the manner they spoke, they wanted to dispute the
constitution. Jerry Rubin describes the archetypal Yippie, ? a street contending freek, a dropout,
who carries a gun at his hip. So ugly that in-between category society is frightened by how he looks. A
longhaired, bearded, brainsick mother*censored*er whose life is theater, every minute making a new
society as he destroys the old. ? Yippies favourite manner to estrange the bulk civilization was by
stating? *censored*. ? Rubin explained the power of profanity by kicking that the constitution has
taken all the good words and destroyed them. ? Love, how can I state, ? I love you? after hearing
? Cars love Shell? ? Fuck is the solution. It? s the last word in left in the English linguistic communication.
Amerika can non destruct it because she dare non utilize it. It? s illegal! Fuck is a soiled word because
you have to be naked to make it. It? s besides merriment. ?
At the? 68 Democratic Convention, the Yippies put forth a program, they were egging on
? Chicago with menaces, such as stealing LSD into the metropoliss H2O supply, puting off fume
bombs in the convention hall, holding sex in the Parkss and on the beaches, let go ofing greased hogs
in the hotels, dosing the nutrient of the delegates, etc.. ? Most of these menaces were hollow, but
they did transport out the smaller actions, such as the fume and malodor bombs, and the spreading of
fecal matters on the floors of hotels. The Yippies received the response they wanted, the metropolis delayed,
and refused licenses to the Yippies and other groups, and? Mayor Daley had the full 12,000
adult male constabulary force working in 12 hr displacements, five to six thousand National Guardsmen were
mobilized and put through particular preparation with fake longhair rioters. A thousand FBI
agents were said to be deployed within the metropolis bounds, along with countless employees of
military intelligence. Six 1000 U.S. Army military personnels, including units of the cleft 101st Airborne,
equipped with flamethrowers, bazookas, and bayonets, were stationed in the suburbs. ? The
actions of the Yippies and the response by Mayor Daly and Chicago set the tone for what was to
While out on enrolling trips, Dave Dellinger, a member of the column board for
Liberation magazine, wrote, ? . . .the two inquiries I was ever asked were: ( 1 ) Is there any
opportunity that the constabulary won? t create a bloodletting? ( 2 ) Are you certain that Tom and Rennie wear? T
desire one? ? Tom Hayden, the laminitis of the SDS, wanted precisely that, a bloodletting. David
Horowitz explains why, ? One of the plotters, Jerry Rubin, admitted a decennary subsequently that the
organisers had lured militants to Chicago trusting to make the public violence that finally took topographic point. This
tantrum with the general scheme Hayden had laid out in private treatments with me. When people & # 8217 ; s
caputs are cracked by constabulary, he said more than one time, it & # 8220 ; radicalizes them. & # 8221 ; The fast one was to
maneuver the idealistic and unsuspicious into state of affairss that would accomplish this consequence. ?
The move worked, ? After the convention, 10s of 1000s of applications for rank
poured into the ramshackle edifice on the West Side of Chicago that served as national SDS
headquarters. ? With a twelve militant in 1962, the SDS grew to over 8000 members at it? s
tallness in 1968.
The SDS, or Students for a Democratic Society, besides became really active at this point.
They were a left-of-center pupil organisation, an outgrowth of the Student League for Industrial
Democracy. The SLID was a socialist organisation that dated back to 1905, after deceasing out in the
1950ss, it was reconstituted in 1959 and so renamed the SDS in 1960. The SDS of the early
1960ss were utilizing civil noncompliance, sit-ins for civil rights, presentations at the states capital
that questioned military disbursement. As the 1960ss wore on the SDS began entertaining thoughts of
force and became infatuated with the Black Panthers. Both the SDS and the Panther felt a
connexion with the 3rd universe revolutionist motions that were against American
While the SDS deteriorated, the most hawkish and destructive motion of the
counterculture emerged, the Weatherman, which subsequently became the Weather Underground.
Roszak plaints that while he is against such groups, the counterculture stands for allowing people
do their ain determinations, and take their ain actions, no affair how muddled or misguided
they may be. The New Left by what they stood for could non turn away hawkish members.
While the Weather Underground was known for doing general pandemonium, Internet Explorer. combat, interrupting
concerns, interrupting Windowss and the such, they were better known for their terrorist actions.
Between September 1969 and May 1970, the Weather Underground could be linked to at least
250 major bombing efforts, and harmonizing to authorities figures the figure could be as many
as six times as great. On August 24, 1970, the Weather Underground planted a bomb in the
ground forces? s mathematic lab at the University of Wisconsin. The bomb ended up killing a alumnus
pupil who was working tardily. Roszak feels that the inclination towards force was non due to
the counterculture, but alternatively due to the radical Black Powerites, he felt that the cabals of
the counterculture were romanticising the black activists guerilla warfare.
The Panthers were supported by white groups, and their slogan was? By any agencies
necessary, ? this included public violences, battles, and slaying. They modeled themselves after the Green
Berets, their bylaws were rigorous and required that all Panthers be good educated in the of all time
altering political construction under which they live and be just and polite to their fellow black
adult male. ? Large Bob, a Squad member in the Black Panthers, confided to a former Jaguar that in
the three old ages he had been in Oakland, the Squad had killed a twelve people. ? Bobby Seale,
former leader of the Black Panthers, had close ties with Jerry Rubin, Abbie Hoffman every bit good as
the other leaders of the left. They were all tried together during the Chicago Seven Trial after the
Chicago public violences. It was this connexion that saved Seale? s life when he disappeared ; his friends
would non unwrap where he concealment.
The music of the epoch, along with the music festivals played a heavy portion in the defining of
the counterculture. The Monterey International Pop Festival, held in 1967 was one of the first
major music festivals held, it marked an terminal of top 40 music and the beginnings of resistance
? acid? stone. Monterey along with Woodstock, which followed two yea
R subsequently, created a
fabulous society, as Abbie Hoffman would name it, a Woodstock state. The Woodstock state
was a province of head, an lawlessness recognizing itself in the act of lawless rebellion. Shortly after
Woodstock, Hoffman? s dream was severely wounded if non destroyed by the Rolling Stones and the
Hells Angels at Altamont. The Stones had hired the Hells Angels as security for the show, and
from the start the vibraphones were bad. Gitlin recalls that the bulk of the crowd was on acid and
holding bad trips. This along with the Angels combat and jostling anyone who got to shut to
them or the phase caused a public violence to interrupt out during the Stones set. During the public violence, a black adult male
was stabbed and killed, all because the Angels took discourtesy to him being there with a white miss.
In response to the Altamont catastrophe, Jefferson Airplane released? Person to Love, ? a supplication to
the people to convey back the love and peace.
Jerry Hopkins Tells of Jim Morrison, of The Doors, motivating public violences during their shows. In
Chicago, Morrison wanted to carry on an experiment with the crowd, he wanted to see if he could
raise them to riot. The Doors performed all of their? violent? music at the show, playing vocals
such as Unknown Soldier, The End, Five to One and others. Morrison? s experiment was a
success, he had caused a public violence in Chicago.
In the wordss to Five to One, released in 1968, the message of rebellion is clear, Five to
one, baby/ One in five/ No 1 here/ gets out alive/ Now You get yours baby/ I & # 8217 ; ll acquire mine/ Gon sodium
do it, baby/ If we try. The old get old and the immature get stronger/ May take a hebdomad and it may
take longer/ They got the guns but / We got the numbers/ Gon na win/ Yeah, we & # 8217 ; re takin & # 8217 ;
over/Come on. This vocal demonstrates the thought behind the young person motion, it clearly provinces
that while the constitution has the power to suppress the young person, the young person have the sheer
Numberss to get the better of. Morrison besides uses this vocal in The Doors ill-famed Miami concert of
1969, where Morrison is arrested for motivating a public violence among other things. The Doors Box Set has a
recording of this public presentation where Morrison egged the crowd on, he mixes statements like this
with in the already activist vocal, ? Your all a clump of slaves! You? re a clump of *censored*in? imbeciles!
Leting people tell you what to make! What are you gon na make about it? ! What are you gon na make
about it? ! What are you gon na make about it? ! . ? Morrison is naming for the people to arise, he
wants them to go violent in their ways, and that is merely what they did. While most music
was a societal commentary, a few vocals were motivating. It is these few inciting vocals that the
groups in the New Left adopt as their subjects.
As Roszak stated, the violent extremist groups, no affair how much you were against them,
were still a portion of the counterculture. They may non be representative, but they must be
included. I would wish to go on my survey of this absorbing epoch by traveling through transcripts
of addresss given by the leaders of the counterculture motion and reading articles written
about them at the clip. I am seeking for journals of members of the counterculture, so I may
take a expression into what they were believing and experiencing at the clip. I besides plan to run into with some of
the instrumentalists of the clip, and interview them in respects of how they feel their music effected the
young person motion and whether or non they had declinations over what their music did or did non make.
I have non yet been able to happen interviews with Abbie Hoffman or Jerry Rubin as I had
hoped, but I plan to go on seeking for them. I would besides wish to read more into the history
of the activist groups, such as The Black Panthers and the Weather Underground. My male parent
went to high school with a member of the Weather Underground who was involved in some of
the bombardments that took topographic point, I intend on turn uping her and questioning her to happen out what sort
of influences caused them to go violent.
& # 65279 ;
Bessman, Jim. ? Rhino Compilation Recalls Monterey Fest? Billboard. vol. 104 August 29, 1992.
Bromell, Nicholas. ? Both Sides of Bob Dylan ; Public Memory, the Sixties, and the Politicss of
Meaning, ? Tikkun ( July-August 1995 ) : 13-21.
Burner, David. Making Peace With The 60 & # 8217 ; s. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1996. This
book allows the reader easy happen out approximately extremist motions of the 1960ss. It traces
the way of the motion of the soundless bulk and the counterculture.
Collier, Peter and Horowitz, David. Destructive Coevals: Second Ideas About the Sixtiess.
New York: Acme Books, 1989. This book provides valuable information on the
utmost extremist parties, Horowitz was a member of assorted cabals and helps the reader
to understand the head frame of the people at the clip. One besides needs to maintain in head
that Horowitz is now a right wing truster, so his positions may be biased.
Diggins, John P. The American Left in the Twentieth Century. New York: Harcourt Brace
Jovanovich, Inc. , 1973. Diggins provides an up close expression at the history of the Leftist
motion throughout the twentieth century.
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Farrell, James. Spirit of the Sixtiess: Making Postwar Radicalism. New York: Routledge, 1997.
I have used the extended bibliography in this book to assist happen extra beginnings.
Farrell besides investigates the counterculture life style in a thoughtful and effectual mode.
Foner, Philip S. The Black Panthers Speak. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1970.
The Black Panthers Speak tells the Panther narrative in their ain words, it tells you their
beliefs and their actions from their point of position.
Garofalo, Reebee. Rockin the Boat: Mass Music & A ; Mass Movements. Boston: South End Press,
1992. Traces the way of music in revolution, does non cover 1960ss really good, makes this
a weak beginning.
Ginsberg, Allen. ? Testimony of Allen Ginsberg in Chicago Seven Trial?
www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/Chicago7/Ginsberg.html. This allows the
reader to better understand the public violences at the 68 & # 8242 ; Convention.
Gitlin, Todd. The Whole World is Watching: Mass Media in the Making and Unmaking of the
New Left. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1980. Shows how the media helped
form the counterculture, and how they were viewed
Gitlin, Todd. The Sixties: Old ages of Hope, Days of Rage. New York: Bantam Books, 1987. This
book provides huge information on the 1960ss, Gitlin focuses on all of the cabals
throughout the decennary. His positions seem indifferent, and he provides a figure of footers
Harrison, Benjamin T. ? Roots of the Anti-Vietnam War Movement, ? Surveies in Conflict and
Terrorism ( April-June 1993 ) : 99-110.
Hayden, Tom. Trial. New York: Holt, Rinehart, Winston, 1970.
Herman, Ellen. ? Bing and Making: Humanist Psychology and the Spirit of the 1960. ? In Barbra
L. Tischler, ed. , Sights on the Sixties New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press,
Hoffman, Abbie. Revolution for the Hell of It. New York: Dial Press, 1968.
& # 8212 ; & # 8212 ; & # 8212 ; & # 8212 ; & # 8212 ; & # 8212 ; & # 8212 ; Steal This Book. Worcester, Mass: Jack Hoffman Presents, n.d.
& # 8212 ; & # 8212 ; & # 8212 ; & # 8212 ; & # 8212 ; & # 8212 ; & # 8212 ; . ? Abbie Hoffman on the Chicago 7. ? Woodstock 69 Program Guide.
A printing of Hoffman on riots/conspiracy to riot taken from the Woodstock Program.
& # 8212 ; & # 8212 ; & # 8212 ; & # 8212 ; & # 8212 ; & # 8212 ; & # 8212 ; ? Testimony of Abbie Hoffman in Chicago Seven Trial?
www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/Chicago7/Hoffman.html. This allows the
reader to better understand the public violences at the 68 & # 8242 ; Convention.
Hopkins, Jerry. No One Here Gets Out Alive. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1997. Jerry
Hopkins provides a expression into the life of Jim Morrison, in this expression he demonstrates the
power that music holds over the people.
Horowitz, David. Extremist Son: A Generational Odyssey. New York: Free Press, 1997.
Horowitz, David. ? Scenes From the 60 & # 8217 ; s: One Radical? s Story, ? The American Enterprise ( May-
June 1997 ) : 28-37. In this article, Horowitz discusses some of the more controversial
events of the 1960ss, he discusses the Chicago public violences, the Black Panthers, and more. This
article provides a expression into the extremist motion non usually seen. Must be read with
cautiousness, Horowitz may be biased.
Kimball, ? The Undertaking of Rejuvenilization, ? New Criterion ( May 1998 ) : 4-12.
Kuwahara, Yasue. ? Apocalypse Now! : Jim Morrison? s Vision of America, ? Popular Music and
Society ( Summer 1992 ) : 55-67.
Maratta, Pete. Counter Culture. New York: Topper Books, 1989.
McClellan, Grant S. American Youth in a Changing Culture. New York: H.W. Wilson, 1972.
Morrison, Jim. ? Five to One. ? Waiting for the Sun LP. Released July, 1968.
Morrison, Jim. ? Peace Frog. ? Morrison Hotel LP. Released 1970.
Morrison, Jim. ? Five to One. ? Without a Safety Net-The Doors Box Set, Track # 1. Recorded
1969, Released 1998.
Pratt, Ray. Rhythm and Resistance: Explorations in the Political Uses of Popular Music. New
York: Praeger, 1990.
Prochnicky, Jerry and Riordan, James. Break on Through: The Life and Death of Jim Morrison.
New York: Quill, 1991.
Roszak, Theodor. The Making of a Counterculture: Contemplations of the Technocratic Society and
its Youthful Opposition. New York: Double Day, 1969. Roszak provide a unequivocal expression
at the counterculture and that it came to be. Doesn? T include black parties as portion of the
counterculture though, maintain that in head.
Rubin, Jerry. Make It ; Scenarios of the Revolution. New York: Schocken Books, 1970.
Sargent, Lyman T. New Left Thought: An Introduction. Homewood, Illinois: Dorsey Press, 1972.
Stern, Jane and Stern Michael. Sixtiess People. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1990. Jane and
Michael Stern give brief looks into the motions of the 1960ss. They cover everything
from pop civilization to counterculture and seek explicate what precisely was go oning in
America at the clip.
Stoper, Emily. The Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee: The Growth of Radicalism in
the Civil Rights Organization. Brooklyn, New York: Carlson, 1989.
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Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1991
Thompson, Hunter S. Hells Angels: A unusual and Awful Saga. New York, New York:
Random House, 1966.
Tillinghast, Richard. ? The Grateful Dead: Questions of Survival, ? Michigan Quarterly Review
( Fall 1991 ) : 686-700.
Voirst, Milton. Fire in the Streets: America in the 1960 & # 8217 ; s. New York, New York: Simon and