Singapore S Water Reclamation Study Commerce Essay
Water is an indispensable component for the endurance of all living things in the universe ; including human existences. The current ingestion of domestic H2O per capital in Singapore bases at 158 liters per twenty-four hours ( Ministry of the Environment and Water Resources 2011 ) .As Singapore ‘s population and economic system is increasing, the industry and its people requires more clean H2O daily.However, Singapore does non hold sufficent beginning of natural H2O supply for the turning ingestion and have been to a great extent dependent on Malaysia to provide natural H2O since the 1961 understanding between both neighbhouring countries.
However, Singapore has now decided non to widen her H2O understanding which terminates this twelvemonth ( Singapore Press Holdings Ltd 2010 ) .Therefore, can the authorities still provide to the turning H2O demands of its population?
1.2 Singapore ‘s Water Reclaimation Study
The solution to the above jobs lies in the improbable beginnings from dirty and used sewerage water.Scientists in Singapore mastered the procedure of utilizing rearward osmosis engineering to bring forth safe and clean imbibing H2O for its population.Every lodging and lavatories are good connected to an independent sewage system and every bit long as the occupants maintain flushing, the state will ne’er run out of sewerage H2O! This engineering was projected to work out 7 % of the state ‘s demand during the debut but now this figure is expected to lift quickly to replace the initial H2O understanding with Malaya when it expires this twelvemonth.
Imported H2O from Malaysia supplies 33 % of the H2O needs.There are besides local catchments throughout the state which provides 50 % of the H2O demands and the staying 10 % through desalinated H2O by change overing saltwater ( Cezar Tigno 2008 ) .However, for research intent of this survey ; the focal point will be strictly on Singapore ‘s recycled H2O which is branded as NEWater.
The NEWater Brand
NEWater is the consequence of high graided rescued H2O which is the end product of handling used and soiled water.
It has been certified a base on balls class after being scrutinised by over 65 000 vigurous scientific trials and has even surpassed the demands of the World Health Organization.Its most noteworthy and recent award includes the “ Water Project of the Year ” held by Global Water Awards in 2009 ( PUB 2010 ) .Figure 1 below shows a screenshot of a NEWater Bottled drink which is 100 % made from recycled H2O.NEWater-bottles.jpg
Screenshot of NEWater bottled drinks ( Ong Dailin 2009 )
These bottled drinks are the combined attempts between the PUB ( Public Utility Board ) and the Ministry for the Environment and Water Resources ( MEWR ) since originating the Singapore Water Reclamation Study in the twelvemonth 1998.Since its interception in 2003, NEWater has chiefly served Water Fabrication industries and besides acted as a coolant for big machineries.In due clip, it was introduced to household abode ( Lin Jiamei 2010 ) . However, PUB has invariably backed off from the thought of selling the merchandise commercially to mainstream consumers.Its chief aim was to raise the consciousness with its occupants and it achieved that by administering a sample of the NEWater bottled drink at a public exhibition during the National Day Parade Celebrations in 2005.
Currently, there are a sum of 5 NEWater workss in Singapore.They are located in Kranji, Ulu Pandan, Seletar, Bedok and in Changi.SembCorp NEWater Plant located in Changi is the latest and the biggest undertaking to date.
This undertaking is a joint coaction between SembCorp and PUB ( Net Resources International 2011 ) .
Chapter 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 NEWater ‘s Advanced Membrane Technologies
Figure 2. Screenshot of 16 and 8 inches Advanced Membrane System ( PennWell Corporation 2011 )
The full NEWater ‘s procedure is really based on Advanced Membrane Technologies.
The two major equipments involved in this techological procedure includes the NEWater Pilot System and the nanofiltration or Reverse Osmosis membrane skid.Firstly, the Pilot System consists of Ultrafiltration, Reverse Osmosis and Ultraviolet disinfection units.Secondly, the Nanofiltration membrane skid is extremely various in executing feasibleness surveies on liquid waste treament and recovery.
Figure 2 shows the screenshot of a 16 and 8 inch Advanced Membrane System used in Bedok NEWater Plant in Singapore.This assembly consists of a spiral-wound and a cannular force per unit area vas where different types of Reverse Osmosis and Nano Filtration membranes could be tested based on the liquid waste ‘s nature and requirements.This trial skid allows easy optimisation of membrane operations through assorted imperative procedure parametric quantities such as flow rate and force per unit area ( Temasek Polytechnic 2011 ) .
PUB regularly behaviors more than 80,000 trials on a monthly footing to cover up to 290 H2O quality parametric quantities refering to physical, biological and chemical conditions ( AsiaOne 2011 ) .
4.2 NEWater ‘s Treatment Procedure
Figure 3. Flowchart of NEWater ‘s Factory Treatment Process ( PUB 2002 )
Figure 3 illustrates the brief flowchart procedure of a typical intervention procedure of NEWater in Singapore.The first procedure refers to the aggregation of dirty and untreated sewerage H2O from place and industries.These H2O will so be channeled to H2O renewal works to treat for the treatment.After which they will known as treated “ Secondary Effluent ” and will be linked to their several NEWater mills in Singapore.This is where NEWater is transformed through 3 key stages.
The first phase is known as “ Microfiltration ” . The ultrafiltration membranes involved in this procedure are from Canada.In this phase the “ Secondary Effluents ” base on ballss through membranes to filtrate out and a few contaminations will be retrained on the membrane surface.These include suspended solids, disease-causing bacteriums, viruses, colloidal atoms and protozoan cysts.The filtered H2O that passes through the membrane will incorporate merely dissolved salts and organic molecules which will follow to the following phase ; “ Reverse Osmosis ” .treatment2.pngFigure 4. Multiple Barrier Approach for the development of “ NEWater ” ( PUB 2002 )In the “ Reverse Osmois ” procedure a semi-permeable membrane is used where its little pores allows bantam little molecules like H2O molecules to go through through.
This procedure will take smaller sizes of bacteriums, nitrate, sulfate, heavy metals, chlore, aromatic hydrocarbons, disinfection through merchandises and pesticides.At this phase, the NEWater is already of a high class H2O quality and returns to the following phase of “ Ultraviolet Disinfection ” ( UV ) . Figure 4 clearly shows the multiple barrier attack to extinguish the different drosss during each development of the procedure before continuing to the following phase.The concluding phase is “ Ultraviolet Disinfection ” .These “ Ultraviolet Disinfection ” units comes from England.
In each single units, there will 6 UV visible radiations which will breathe up to 800 degress in temperature.Since the boiling temperature of H2O is at 100 degree Celsius, the H2O will be encased in a vitreous silica shell. The pH degree of the H2O will drop to acidic degree since it has went through the first and 2nd phase and now has deficiency of minerals and salt.Sodium Hyroxide will be added farther to convey back the pH level.The attendant result from this concluding phase is “ NEWater ” , which will so be pipped out to assorted places and industries across the state ( PUB 2010 ) .
Chapter 3: Data Analysis
3.1 SWOT Analysis of NEWater
Michael Porter ‘s SWOT Analysis is used to place the Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats for NEWater in Singapore.Table 1 below, shows the SWOT Analysis Model for this advanced merchandise.SWOT- Newater.
Table 1. SWOT Analysis of “ NEWater ”
Worlds produce dirty and untreated H2O on a day-to-day footing without fail.Its a natural procedure and 1 that is critical for the nucleus development procedure for NEWater.
This procedure was illustrated in Chapter 2.Currently in Singapore, there are a sum of 5 NEWater plants.The latest and biggest among those workss was constructed in Changi.Together with the other bing 4 workss, 30 % of the H2O demands in Singapore will be solved by these plants.In add-on, NEWater procedure and engineering is non dependent on any conditions conditions as its direct beginning is from the dirty and untreated H2O ; discarded by humans.These workss are besides environmental and nature-friendly as they dont require any natural resource for its production.In fact, the SembCorp NEWater works in Changi ; is the lone big graduated table recycling works in the universe of all time to be constructed on top of a H2O renewal works ( FaverSham House Group Ltd 2010 ) .With the H2O understanding signed by Singapore and Malaysia in 1961 before independency is poised to run out this twelvemonth ; it will poses no hardships to Singapore due to its trust on the local NEWater workss to fit the H2O demands of its citizens.
As frequently in the past 50 old ages, Malayan politicans would utilize H2O as a factor during serious bilateral dissensions with Singapore.More frequently, Singapore frequently had to subject to their favors as they have an upper manus in providing H2O to the country.Now, this issue will no longer be a irritant between both these states any longer as Singapore will no longer necessitate to depend on them for imported water.This would besides enable to bridge the broken relationship between these two states ( AsiaOne 2011 ) .
The full substructure and cost of constructing a NEWater works is a dearly-won affair.For illustration, the SembCorp NEWater works was constructed at a cost of $ 180 million in June 2010.Such cost will increase drastically when more NEWater workss are required to run into H2O demands in the close future.
The machines in these workss are besides of high cost and maintainence ( Vincent Wee 2009 ) .Secondly, Singaporeans are traditionally accustomed to imbibe straight from the lights-outs and view the NEWater as dirty and unacceptable for drinking.They believe that NEWater isnt strong plenty to extinguish toxic stuffs and chemicals which can be washed off at places or little businesses.
Currently, this proves as a large pschyological barrier in the mentalities of these people to readily accept the NEWater engineering in Singapore ( Singapore Press Holdings 2002 ) .As explained in Chapter 2, the full procedure of NEWater is complex and goes through assorted phases before completion.Since these procedures are complicated ; any human or computerized mistakes at any phase will non let the merchandise to be delievered within the needed criterions.
Presently NEWater is merely channeled to places and industries but is yet to be sold as a commercial bottled drink in the market.
NEWater could come in the mineral H2O industry as a bottled recycled drink to vie with other trade names in the market as well.This will enable the merchandise to derive both consciousness and assurance among Singaporeans.These bottled drinks which are made and manufactured in Singapore could besides be marketed as a planetary merchandise to aim a wider audience.
Attractive pricing will entice clients to this merchandise since it has passed International Quality and received many planetary awards as explained in Chapter 1.3.
Everyday the universe discovers new, emerging and lifelessly epidemic viruses due to the promotion of technologies.Toxic stuffs besides play an built-in portion in poisoning the NEWater and imposes a terrible menace to mankind.Therefore more rigorous and sensitive instruments are required to execute extra parametric quantities in the quality of the engineering to guarantee that the end product NEWater is virus-free and safe for drinking.Any oversight in such engineering will ensue in a immense catastrophe in Singapore ( Amresh Gunasingham 2009 ) .
Based on the SWOT Analysis, its apparent plenty that NEWater has more positive factors than negative factors internally.
Externally, it has a balanced chances and menaces for the product.It has legion strength factors which makes it a dependable and advanced merchandise in the current technological world.Therefore, the merchandise still has range for marketing it internationally and locally.However, It besides has to maintain abreast with the toxicological and microbiological issues impacting it externally.
3.2 Fiscal Deductions for NEWater Technology
Although the substructure for the building of such NEWater workss are high in cost every bit good as maintainence due to the engineering involved in these machines ; the local consumers are buoyed by the fact they were paying much lesser than what they used to pay before the interention of NEWater.For illustration, before the debut of NEWater, Singaporeans had to pay $ 1.
15 per cubic meter.Now, this monetary value was lowered by 15 cents to $ 1 per cubic meter. With the demand for NEWater lifting to 30 % through industries and places ; a monetary value decrease will profit the local little concerns and consumers as an inducement.
The operational efficency from these NEWater workss besides played an built-in function in the monetary value decrease by the Government when it was introduced in April 2007 ( May Wong 2007 ) .
Chapter 4: Recommendation
4.1 Future Direction for the NEWater Technology
With the current NEWater Technology work outing up to 30 % of Singapore ‘s H2O demands, more NEWater workss will be commissioned.Currently, the other 33 % of Singapore ‘s H2O demands are satisfied through imported H2O from Malaysia.In an event of a distaster or a terrible drouth in Malaysia, Singapore ‘s H2O supplies will besides be affected in the process.Therefore, to cut down the over trust on imported H2O from Malaysia, Singapore will necessitate to develop more NEWater workss to run into the H2O demands of its population.
It is besides economical as the production of H2O will be within Singapore and frights of a monetary value hiking from Malaysia on its imported H2O will besides be eliminated.This will besides pave the hereafter on the use of untreated sewerage H2O into a safe and drinking H2O civilization for the full state ( Victoria School 2005 ) .
4.2 Futher Improvements for the NEWater Technology
NEWater Technology is the lone realistic solution available for Singapore to work out its future H2O crisis, besides its bing local catchments and desalinization procedure which are dependent on conditions and sea H2O sorely.
However, NEWater has yet to be a commercial and planetary product.NEWater could be packaged in attractive bottles and sold globally.International and local famous persons could be used as “ Models ” to advance the drink so that worldwide and local clients are attracted to it.
The pricing of NEWater as a bottled drink should be lower than the bing mineral H2O drinks in the market.The pricing will definately be a pull factor for most budget minded consumers who wish to seek out a new and different gustatory sensation than compared to most mineral H2O drinks in the market.A proper marketing mix through Product, Price, Place and Promotion should be practised by PUB to market its advanced merchandise of the 21st century.Free sample sized bottles can be distributed in public route shows as a “ come-on ” for clients to buy the merchandise. PUB should besides bind up with major fast nutrient mercantile establishments and eating houses in the Food and Beverage Industries like Macdonalds, Pizza Hut and KFC to roll up up NEWater as a bundle and sell together with their signature dishes to their loyal consumers.This will enable a wider market incursion instead than common advertizements in Television or the Internet.
NEWater is a turning trade name in Singapore due its economical and simple soultion to future H2O crisis.However, attempts must be made by the Government to market it to the local Singaporeans on the merchandise and its safety as there are many Singaporeans still grippled with the pscyhological barrier of imbibing from recycled water.PUB has yet to do its merchandise a planetary trade name and is maintaining it as an internal project.PUB should interrupt free by selling its merchandise on the shops and enter as a new rival in the Mineral Water industry.This will rush up the procedure of educating the locals here who are rather new to this engineering.On the other manus, PUB should put changeless and high importance on its Research and Design Department for the NEWater undertaking to invariably update the machines and guarantee that safety isnt compromised through complacency.New and sensitive instruments are a must to guarantee proper trial is conducted at its highest quality.Only when PUB, has decided to equilibrate its NEWater trade name globally together with up-to-date precise technological instruments ; it can accomplish unprecedented quality for a local-made recycled drink!