Similarities And Differences Between Egypt And Sumeria Essay
Essay, Research PaperMesopotamia and Ancient Egypt are two faiths that believed in monotheism. However, they differed in the manner they perceived the hereafter and the function they played in the eyes of the Gods. Mesopotamians believed did non believe in an after life while the Egyptian did. Mesopotamians besides believed that they were created for the amusement of the Gods and to make the Gods work. While the Egyptians believed that they should hold a regard for the Gods and that they became equal to the Gods when they died. This difference in beliefs led to a distinction in the manner they lived their lives.The Pharaoh of ancient Egypt were an built-in portion of faith. They formed a span over the chasm spliting the people and the Gods.
In pre-dynastic times the Egyptians believed that their Pharaoh was the God Horus, boy of Re, the Sun God. Therefore being a Pharaoh there was nil that you could non make. He was caput of the authorities and high priest of every temple. In pattern functionaries did their work, in his name. The Pharaoh was the most of import and powerful individual in the land. Most pharaohs were work forces but some well-known Pharaoh, such as Nefertiti and Cleopatra, were adult females.
Because the Pharaoh was considered a God, one of his most of import functions was as a representative between worlds and the Gods. Religion was non separated from authorities in Egypt. The Pharaoh non merely ruled the land, but was besides believed to keep order in the existence. The regular forms of nature, the one-year implosion therapy of the Nile, the rhythm of the seasons, and the advancement of the Sun that brought twenty-four hours and dark, were considered gifts of the Gods for the people of Egypt.
Art in all its signifiers was devoted chiefly to the service of the Pharaoh. When a Pharaoh died he was believed to be united with the Sun and so a new Horus ruled on Earth. In ulterior times, around the 3rd dynasty, the male monarchs became & # 8220 ; transformed into & # 8221 ; Gods. The inheritor to the throne had to undergo a process in order to go a God. This process included a ritual that merged the male monarch with the God.
Belief was that all future male monarchs had two facets of his being, his physical being and his & # 8220 ; ka. & # 8221 ; The Ka was his religious opposite number that was portion of the male monarch at birth and remained with him throughout his life. Before presuming the throne a rite was performed that united the male monarch & # 8217 ; s ka and his individual. The male monarch and his priests would come in a temple, execute the ritual, and emerge as a God. All of the people would wait outside to witness the miracle of the transmutation when the king re-emerged from the temple. In this manner was the new male monarch accepted as a God and his word was accepted as jurisprudence.Refering spiritual affairs, straight under the male monarch were the priests.
Their responsibility was to take attention of the images of the Gods. They besides prepared the statues, or images, for the spiritual festivals. It was the priest s function to read the coils before spiritual events. In ulterior dynasties the priests were the voices of the prophets. Particular compartments, called priest holes, were strategically placed inside the temple. The priests were able to talk from these holes unseen by the individual inquiring inquiries or favours of the Gods.
Prophets were considered the pinnacle of the determination of the Gods. The priests were in charge of the temple wealths and garners. They were on a rotary motion agenda and might work officially one hebdomad out of the month. Their research labs were in the temples, where they prepared incense and healing potions. Shrouded in enigma, they were rarely seen by the common people unless they were reading charming texts or executing spiritual rites. Inside the temple sanctuaries merely the male monarch saw them.The ancient Egyptians were highly devout in their beliefs.
The ancient Egyptians believed that divinities, Gods and goddesses, influenced everything that happened in nature, including what people did. Because of that, they worshipped many divinities. The chief God was the Sun God Re. The Egyptians prayed to Re and the goddess Rennutet for good crops.
The most of import goddess was Isis. She represented the devoted female parent and married woman. Her hubby and brother, Osiris, ruled over farming area and the dead. Horus, boy of Isis and Osiris, was God of the sky. He was called the Godhead of Eden and was frequently pictured with the caput of a falcon. In each Egyptian metropolis and town, the people worshipped their ain particular God in add-on to the major divinities. One local divinity was Thoth, the God of wisdom and composing.
Many divinities were pictured with human organic structures and the caputs of animate beings. The carnal caput reminded the people of a existent or imagined quality of the animate being and made it easy to place the divinity. Most ancient Egyptians prayed at place because the temples did non offer regular services for people. Each temple was either regarded as the place of a certain divinity or dedicated to a dead male monarch.
They were dedicated to their Gods and worshipped daily in many different ways. Their manner of life revolved around these beliefs. They had a strong sense of justness and endeavored to make that which was right. The common people abhorred criminal conversation, stealing, slaying and lying. They were a extremely sophisticated society with values and ethical motives. Magic was platitude for them as is demonstrated by the erosion of talismans to guard off immorality.
Charming texts were written in grave to protect against manque robbers. Many enchantments against snakebite have been discovered. Charming enchantments, rites and mixtures were used to handle the sick or injured. If the thaumaturgy did non work it was considered a will of the God, and non a failure of the thaumaturgy. The people s unagitated credence of the strange and unusual allowed them to accommodate themselves to either natural phenomena or to those things unobserved. Every happening had religious significance and had a alone God assigned to the act.
A portion of the Ancient Egyptian beliefs was that of continued life after decease. This belief was rooted in what they observed each twenty-four hours. The Sun fell into the western skyline each eventide and was reborn the following forenoon in the E. New life sprouted from grains planted in the Earth, and the Moon waxed and waned. They regarded decease as a impermanent break, instead than the surcease of life. To guarantee the continuity of life after decease, people paid court to the Gods, both during and after their life on Earth, they mummifying the dead, and they provided equipment in grave for the hereafter.
An ancient Egyptians would supply for the life in the Following World every bit best as his economic abilities would let. For illustration, pyramids and other great graves were constructed for male monarchs and Queenss. Other Egyptians, including labourers, had smaller grave built on top of their Gravess. This means that a immense sum of information about day-to-day life in ancient Egypt can be found in the grave. Detailed and colourful scenes on the walls showed Egyptians reaping harvests, be givening cowss and fishing. There were besides scenes of craftsmans at their work, including gold workers and boat-builders and domestic scenes of feasts with instrumentalists, terpsichoreans and invitees. The scenes on the wall besides included the dead interacting with the Gods. The most frequent scenes were that of the dead speaking to the God Osiris who was the swayer of the dead.
The Egyptian myth of Osiris was that the Drug Enforcement Administrationvitamin D would be born once more in the after life merely as Osiris did. Another frequent scene was that of the individual s bosom being weight against the plume of Maat, goddess of truth. If the individual s bosom did non equilibrate so they would be devoured by the monster Ammit and decease a lasting decease. However, if the bosom did balance so they would be admitted to the presence if Isis and Osiris and orpine.
Besides the scenes drawn on the walls the grave besides included the physical ownerships of the dead. Writing stuffs were frequently supplied along with vesture, wigs, hairdressing supplies and miscellaneous tools, depending on the business of the asleep. Often exemplary tools instead than full size 1s would be placed in the grave ; theoretical accounts were cheaper and took up less infinite and in the after-life would be as if by magic transformed into the existent thing. There were besides sculptures of the asleep and nutrient offerings in the grave. The grave besides contained texts incorporating supplications, anthem, to steer psyches through the hereafter, protect them from immorality, and supply for their demands. Passages from these texts were carved or written on walls inside their graves or a transcript of a text was placed in their grave. Collections of these texts are known as the Book of the Dead. The Egyptians put these things in the grave because they felt that the spirit of the deceased would necessitate them in the after life.
The Egyptians believed that the organic structures of the dead had to be preserved for the following life, and so they mummified ( embalmed and dried ) corpses to forestall them from disintegrating. After a organic structure was mummified, it was wrapped in linen strips and placed in a casket. The ma was so put in a grave. Some Egyptians mummified pets. They believed that each individual had a life force or Ka, which continued to populate after a individual died. It was of import to continue the organic structure so that the Ka could still acknowledge it. The Ka needed to return to the organic structure because it was still dependent on nutrient to maintain life.
Food offerings were left in the grave, which the Ka would inhale and the priests would so eat. If the organic structure were destroyed so the Ka would utilize one of the many statues that were left in the grave. Therefore the more statues there were the better the confidence of continued life. The Ka was merely one portion of the three parts of the psyche. Ba was another portion of the psyche.
Ba is represented as a human-headed bird that leaves the organic structure when a individual dies. The face of Ba was the exact similitude of that of the asleep individual. The 3rd portion of the psyche was the Akh. Akh is the spirit of Re, which encapsulates the construct of visible radiation, the transfigured spirit of a individual that becomes one with visible radiation after decease. The antonym of Akh is Mut, ( dead ) , the province of a individual who has died but has non been transfigured into visible radiation.Unlike Egypt, Sumerian provinces were believed to be under the regulation of a local God or goddess, and a bureaucratic system of the priesthood arose to supervise the ritualistic and complex faith. High Priests represented the Gods on Earth.
The priests ruled from their zikkurats, high lifting temples of Sun baked brick with outside stairwaies taking to the shrine on top.The Sumerians had four taking divinities, known as making Gods. These Gods were An, the God of Eden ; Ki, the goddess of Earth ; Enlil, the God of air ; and Enki, the God of H2O. Heaven, Earth, air, and H2O were regarded as the four major constituents of the existence.
The act of creative activity, it was held, was accomplished through vocalization of the Godhead word ; the making divinity had simply to do programs and articulate the name of the thing to be created. To maintain the universe in uninterrupted and harmonious operation and to avoid confusion and struggle, the Gods devised the me, a set of cosmopolitan and unchangeable regulations and Torahs that all existences were obliged to obey.Next in importance to the making divinities were the three sky divinities, Nanna, the God of the Moon ; Utu, the Sun God ; and Inanna, the queen of Eden. Inanna was besides the goddess of love, reproduction, and war. Nanna was the male parent of Utu and Inanna.
Sumerian poets composed legion myths about the feats of Inanna. Another God of great importance was Ninurta, the divinity in charge of the violent and destructive South air current. One of the most darling divinities was the shepherd God Dumuzi, the scriptural Tammuz. Dumuzi was originally a mortal swayer whose matrimony to Inanna ensured the birthrate of the land and the fruitfulness of the uterus.
This matrimony, nevertheless, harmonizing to a myth whose denouement has merely late come to light, ended in blunt calamity when the goddess, offended by her hubby & # 8217 ; s hardhearted behaviour toward her, decreed that he be carried off to the Hell for six months of each twelvemonth therefore the waste, unfertile months of the hot summer. At the autumnal equinox, which marked the beginning of the Sumerian New Year, Dumuzi returned to the Earth. His reunion with his married woman caused all animate being and works life to be revitalized and made fertile one time once more. Each New Year the Sumerians celebrated the matrimony between Dumuzi and Inanna. The high point of the jubilation was a ritual wherein the male monarch impersonated Dumuzi ; Inanna was impersonated by one of her prima priestesses.The Sumerians worshipped 100s of Gods, with each metropolis holding its ain frequenter divinity.
The chief Gods, such as Enlil, the God of air, were excessively busy to trouble oneself with the predicament of persons. For that ground, each Sumerian worshipped a peculiar minor God or goddess who was expected to interact with the major Gods, these Gods were considered their personal Gods.The Sumerians did non believe in an after life and were realistic about the bounds of human goodness. They accepted that Gods were non ever nice, yet still above inquiry.The psyche and centre of each city state was its temple to the frequenter God. The Sumerians believed that the God owned the city state and was the godly swayer and defender of the province. Part of the land was farmed straight for the God. The staying land was farmed by the temple staff or by husbandmans who paid rent to the temple.
Rents and offerings paid for temple operation and supported the hapless. Many priests, priestesses, vocalists, instrumentalists, sacred cocottes, and eunuchs conducted Temple rites. Forfeits were offered daily to the GodsThe Sumerians believed that human existences were fashioned of clay and were created for the intent of providing the Gods with nutrient, drink, and shelter, so that the Gods might hold full leisure for their Godhead activities. Life was considered humanity & # 8217 ; s most cherished ownership, even though it is beset with uncertainness and haunted by insecurity. Egyptians praised the after life because they looked upon it as a metempsychosis. The Sumerians dreaded decease because they believed that when human existences died their liquors descend to the Hell, where life is more deplorable than on Earth.
The constructs of the hereafter in these civilizations were drastically different. These differences in the belief of the after life shaped the differences in their mundane life. The Egyptians, who believed in the after life, did non fear decease. The Sumerians on the other manus did non believe that life after their physical organic structure died would be a happy one so they did non look frontward to decease.