Several The most accurate form of intelligence

Several psychologists have attempted to defineintelligence in a scientific manner.

Apparently, the prevalent theories are ofHoward’s Theory of Multiple Intelligence, Spearman’s Theory of GeneralIntelligence as well as Robert Sternberg’s T          riarchicTheory of Intelligence. These theories pertain to intelligence as a multipleability. On the other hand, Wechsler has combined the theories of intelligenceas a single ability along with intelligence as a multiple ability. Charles Spearman approached intelligence as twoabilities that vary which are the g-factor standing for general intelligenceand the s-factor standing for specific intelligence.

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For example: Ability atFrench, required the g and a French factor. However, Spearman’s approach causedcontroversy on the article that he published in the American Journal ofPsychology in 1904 examining what he termed as general intelligence. Spearman’stheory did not take group factors much into account. His theory is used by psychometricianswho have adapted an improved version which is used widely in research areastoday. Howard Gardner has opposed the general intelligencetheory and has proposed the Theory of Multiple Intelligence.

He defined theconcept of intelligence more appropriately and investigated its measures. Hebelieves that every person has varying levels of intelligences which constituteof a cognitive profile. Seven kinds of intelligences were proposed by him andlater the eighth and ninth intelligences were proposed by him. Critics pointout that without an accurate measure of the nine types of intelligences itwould be difficult for his theory to be verified. Also, that the nine differentabilities are different from the typical meaning of intelligence. A very recent competitor is the theory put forth by Sternbergwho has proposed the Triarchic Theory of Intelligence. The triarchic modelconsists of three facets of intelligence which are the componential, contextualand the experiential also known as the creative, analytical and practicalintelligences. Critics of this theory state that these are not distinct innature and share an underlying general intelligence, they also state thatSternberg’s ideas pertaining to this theory lack empirical support.

The most accurate form of intelligence is put forth byDavid Wechsler. He has combined intelligence as a single and multiple abilityand has distinguished two main fields which are verbal and non-verbal. A lot ofneuroscientific research is still being done on this, if general intelligenceis proven it would change the outlook of the way we perceive intelligence.

Taking all these theories into consideration, whichare very interesting none of these theories are proven or having an exact definition.I find that Wechsler’s theory of both combined is more contemporary andcomprehensive of our perception of intelligence, it neither denies the singleability of intelligence nor does it claim to be a multiple ability as we haveno precise number of intelligences. 


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